Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • It's easy to feel like you're an even mix of your parents,

    我們很容易認為自己平均地遺傳了父母的特徵,然而實際情況

  • but that's not always the case.

    並非總是如此

  • So, who should you be blaming over those traits you don't like?

    所以,如果我們不滿意身上某些特徵,該責怪誰好呢?

  • What did you inherit from Mom and what came from Dad?

    我究竟從父親和母親那裏各遺傳了什麼特徵呢?

  • Colour-blind?

    色盲是誰遺傳的呢?

  • If you're a male, you can thank your mother.

    如果你是男生,你可以「感謝」你的母親

  • Red-green colour blindness is an X-linked disorder that

    紅綠色盲為一種 X-性聯隱性遺傳疾病,此病症影響了全世界

  • affects nearly 6% of the male population worldwide, but only 0.4% of females.

    6% 左右的男性人口,但僅影響世界女性人口的 0.4%

  • This is because males only inherit one X chromosome, which is from their mother,

    這是因為男性遺傳到的 X 染色體僅會來自於母親,如果此染色體有變異,

  • and that's where red-green colorblindness comes from.

    就會導致紅綠色盲

  • If you're a female, you have to get a the X-variant from both parents.

    如果妳是女生,妳必須獲得兩條帶有此變異的 X 染色體才會罹患紅綠色盲

  • So that 0.4% can blame dad as well!

    所以如果妳是那 0.4%的女生,妳也得責怪父親

  • Balding?

    禿頭是誰遺傳的呢?

  • A big component comes from the X-chromosome here too,

    這個特徵大部分也來自於 X 染色體,所以你的禿頭

  • so you likely inherited this from your mom.

    大概也是遺傳自母親

  • However, a study involving 52,000 people found that genes on other chromosomes can

    然而,一份樣本數為五萬兩千人的研究發現,在其他染色體上的基因也會影響禿頭

  • affect this condition, on top of environmental factors such as age, stress, and diet -

    此外環境因素也會對此有所影響,如年紀、壓力和飲食等等,所以禿頭

  • so mom isn't entirely to blame!

    不能完全責怪母親呀!

  • Research has also found that the shape of the end of your nose, the area above and below the lips,

    研究也發現,我們的鼻頭形狀、嘴唇上下方的區域、

  • cheekbones and the inner corner of the eye are highly influenced by genetics.

    臉頰以及眼頭這些部位受到基因很大的影響

  • And interestingly, the more they resemble your father as a child,

    有趣的是,這些部位在你小時候越像父親,你會

  • the healthier you're likely to be.

    越健康

  • Why?

    為什麼呢?

  • Scientists believe that a father-child resemblance causes fathers to spend more time engaging

    科學家認為,父親和孩子長相相似會使得父親更願意對孩子

  • in positive parenting, which ultimately contributes to healthier kids.

    付出正面的扶養行為,這個行為有助於養育出健康的孩子

  • Now, even though you get half of your 46 chromosomes from mom and the other from dad,

    但即使你的染色體一半源自母親,一半源自父親,一份針對老鼠的遺傳多樣性研究

  • a study involving genetically diverse mice found that

    發現有 60% 的基因組中,父系遺傳

  • for 60% of genes the paternal copy was more active than the maternal copy.

    比母系遺傳還要活躍

  • This phenomenon is known as allelic imbalance.

    這個現象被稱為「等位基因不平均」

  • The same study also noted that the brains of these particular mice more closely resembled

    這份研究也記錄了這些老鼠的大腦,發現比起母親,

  • that of their dad than their mom.

    牠們的大腦更相似於父親

  • However, in humans we actually see the opposite.

    然而,人類的情況和老鼠是相反的

  • Our brains are more similar to our mother, which is particularly true for daughters.

    我們的大腦更像母親,尤其是女兒的大腦

  • Interestingly, the similar brain regions are actually associated with depressive conditions,

    有趣的是,母女的大腦相似的區域,事實上和掌控負面情緒的區域有關

  • suggesting that mood disorders may pass from mother to daughter.

    這暗示了母親可能會遺傳「情感障礙」給女兒

  • Biologists used to believe that all DNA came from the nucleus, but we now know that the

    生物學家曾認為所有 DNA 都來自於細胞核,但我們現在知道

  • mitochondria (AKA the powerhouse of the cell) also kicks in some protein coding genes.

    粒線體 (也就是細胞的發電廠) 也會提供一些蛋白質編碼基因

  • And this mitochondrial DNA is specifically inherited from your mom because

    而這個粒線體 DNA 特別的是,它是遺傳自母親的,因為父親的粒線體 DNA

  • your dad's degraded immediately after fertilization.

    在受精之後就退化了

  • Considering how important mitochondrial DNA is in the cell,

    考慮到粒線體 DNA 在細胞中的重要性,不可不提的是它有更強烈的

  • there is a stronger maternal link.

    母系遺傳現象

  • Mutations in mitochondrial DNA have been associated with Type 2 diabetes and Parkinson's disease

    粒線體 DNA 的突變和 2-型糖尿病及帕金森氏症有關—

  • - which more likely came from your mom.

    因此這些病症極可能來自於你的母親

  • Maternal inheritance gave rise to the idea of a “Mitochondrial Eve”,

    母系遺傳現象導致了「粒線體夏娃」觀點的出現,此觀點認為一位生活於距今

  • a woman who lived between 180,000 to 580,000 years ago

    18 萬至 58 萬年前的女性,其粒線體 DNA 是所有人類粒線體 DNA

  • from which all human mitochondrial DNA is rooted.

    的源頭

  • At the end of the day, it may seem like a lot of traits actually come from your mom,

    到頭來,似乎許多特徵都來自於母親

  • or at least, from the X chromosome - and that's generally true, genetically.

    或至少是來自於 X 染色體—在遺傳上普遍這麼認為

  • The Y-chromosome is very small, and doesn't contain as many genes;

    Y 染色體非常小,沒有辦法包含像 X 染色體那麼多的基因,不過男女生都擁有

  • and both females and males contain X-chromosomes, which carry more genes.

    能乘載更多基因的 X 染色體

  • But as we continue to research more about ourselves at the genetic level,

    如果我們想在基因尺度下更了解自己,那麼你從母親和父親那裏

  • the division between what you got from mom vs. dad may become even more pronounced.

    個別遺傳到的特徵分別會更加明顯

  • If you want to know more about your own genetics,

    如果你想知道更多和你的基因有關的內容,你可以前往 23andMe.com/asap ,他們贊助了

  • you can visit 23andMe.com/asap, who sponsored this episode.

    這集喔!

  • Whether you want to know about your chances of balding, back hair, your taste senses work or

    無論你想知道自己禿頭或背部長毛的機率、味覺或你的祖先

  • where your ancestors came from, 23andMe's kit will get you started.

    來自哪裡,都能使用 23andMe 提供的套件馬上開始測試

  • We both took the test, and I found out the GREAT news that

    我們都測試過了,我發現一個「好」消息就是我比較有可能

  • I have higher likelihood of having a little upper back hair,

    後腦杓頭髮很少,現在我覺得這不準,但等我變老

  • which until recently I thought was FALSE, but as I've aged Greg told me that it is happening.

    可能會是真的

  • He's almost 30 and it's sprouted, so 23andMe was on that.

    我覺得它很有趣的地方是,你能藉由檢測找出哪些確定因子會影響你的體重

  • What I thought it's interesting is that you can find out how certain factors affect your weight.

    比如說速食影響我體重最大,再來才是運動

  • Like for me fast food is likely to have the biggest impact on my weight followed by exercise.

    記得前往 23andMe.com/asap 看看最新的促銷套件!

  • Be sure to head to 23andMe.com/asap for the latest promotion on your kit.

    一如往常,感謝各位收看,記得訂閱以便每週四收看最新科學影片,

  • As always, thanks for watching, make sure you subscribe

    下次見囉!

  • for more weekly science videos every Thursday, and we will see you next time!

It's easy to feel like you're an even mix of your parents,

我們很容易認為自己平均地遺傳了父母的特徵,然而實際情況

字幕與單字
已審核 字幕已審核

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 染色體 粒線體 母親 父親 禿頭 基因

你從爸媽那裡遺傳到什麼特徵? (Mom vs. Dad: What Did You Inherit?)

  • 8500 447
    Cyndi 發佈於 2018 年 08 月 12 日
影片單字