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  • I'd like to try something new.

    我想嘗試一個新東西,

  • Those of you who are able,

    諸位如果可以的話,

  • please stand up.

    請站起來。

  • OK, so I'm going to name some names.

    好的,現在我將提到一些名字,

  • When you hear a name that you don't recognize,

    如果你聽到一個 你完全不知道的名字,

  • you can't tell me anything about them,

    你對這個人一無所知,

  • I'd like you to take a seat

    請坐下

  • and stay seated.

    並一直坐著。

  • The last person standing, we're going to see what they know. OK?

    最後一位站著的人, 我們將看看他究竟都知道什麼,好麼?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • All right.

    好,

  • Eric Garner.

    艾瑞克.加納。

  • Mike Brown.

    麥克.布朗。

  • Tamir Rice.

    塔米爾.萊斯。

  • Freddie Gray.

    佛萊迪.革雷。

  • So those of you who are still standing,

    還站著的人們,

  • I'd like you to turn around and take a look.

    我想請你們環顧一下四周,

  • I'd say half to most of the people are still standing.

    我看還有超過半數的人還站著,

  • So let's continue.

    那讓我們繼續。

  • Michelle Cusseaux.

    米歇爾.庫瑟。

  • Tanisha Anderson.

    特妮莎.安德森。

  • Aura Rosser.

    奧拉.羅瑟。

  • Meagan Hockaday.

    梅根.哈克蒂。

  • So if we look around again,

    我們再來看看,

  • there are about four people still standing,

    還有四位站著,

  • and actually I'm not going to put you on the spot.

    但我不會給你們難堪。

  • I just say that to encourage transparency, so you can be seated.

    我只是想使這件事清晰可辨, 現在你們可以坐下了。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So those of you who recognized the first group of names know

    所以認出了第一組名字的你們 一定注意到了

  • that these were African-Americans who have been killed by the police

    這些人就是在過去的兩年內,

  • over the last two and a half years.

    被警察殺死的非裔美國人。

  • What you may not know

    然而你們可能不知道的是,

  • is that the other list is also African-Americans

    另一組名字也都是非裔美國人

  • who have been killed within the last two years.

    同樣在過去的兩年內被殺害。

  • Only one thing distinguishes the names that you know

    你知道的名字和你不知道的名字

  • from the names that you don't know:

    唯一的差別是:

  • gender.

    性別。

  • So let me first let you know that there's nothing at all distinct

    我想首先說明,在場的觀眾並沒有

  • about this audience

    任何個體特徵,

  • that explains the pattern of recognition that we've just seen.

    可用來解釋我們剛剛所看到的認知偏差,

  • I've done this exercise dozens of times around the country.

    我在全國境內做這樣的小調查已有十多次了,

  • I've done it to women's rights organizations.

    我在女權組織裡做過,

  • I've done it with civil rights groups.

    我在民權團體裡做過,

  • I've done it with professors. I've done it with students.

    我給教授們做過,學生們做過。

  • I've done it with psychologists. I've done it with sociologists.

    我給心理學家和社會學家做過。

  • I've done it even with progressive members of Congress.

    我甚至也給國會革新派做過。

  • And everywhere, the awareness of the level of police violence

    無論在哪裡,人們對於警察施加在

  • that black women experience

    黑人女性身上的暴力

  • is exceedingly low.

    都鮮有所知。

  • Now, it is surprising, isn't it, that this would be the case.

    這讓人驚奇,不是麼?這樣的情形。

  • I mean, there are two issues involved here.

    這牽扯到兩個問題。

  • There's police violence against African-Americans,

    警察對於非裔美國人的暴力,

  • and there's violence against women,

    和警察對女性的暴力,

  • two issues that have been talked about a lot lately.

    這是兩個最近非常熱門的話題。

  • But when we think about who is implicated by these problems,

    但當我們思考,誰被這些問題所牽涉,

  • when we think about who is victimized by these problems,

    誰是這些問題的受害者時,

  • the names of these black women never come to mind.

    沒有人記起這些非裔女性的名字。

  • Now, communications experts tell us

    溝通專家告訴我們,

  • that when facts do not fit with the available frames,

    當事實與既定的認知框架不符時,

  • people have a difficult time incorporating new facts

    人們很難將新的知識

  • into their way of thinking about a problem.

    融入他們對於問題的思考模式當中。

  • These women's names have slipped through our consciousness

    這些女性的名字從我們的意識中黯然溜走,

  • because there are no frames for us to see them,

    是因為我們沒有這個認知框架,

  • no frames for us to remember them,

    我們缺少一個記憶點,

  • no frames for us to hold them.

    一個將她們融入我們認識框架的切入點。

  • As a consequence,

    結果就是,

  • reporters don't lead with them,

    記者不會重點強調她們,

  • policymakers don't think about them,

    政策制定者不會去考慮她們,

  • and politicians aren't encouraged or demanded that they speak to them.

    沒有政客被強制要求或被鼓勵去和她們溝通。

  • Now, you might ask,

    現在,你可能會問,

  • why does a frame matter?

    為什麼一個認知框架如此重要?

  • I mean, after all,

    我想說,歸根結底,

  • an issue that affects black people and an issue that affects women,

    一個同時涉及黑人及女性的話題,

  • wouldn't that necessarily include black people who are women

    難道不是必然會牽扯到黑人中的女性

  • and women who are black people?

    和女性中的黑人麼?

  • Well, the simple answer is that this is a trickle-down approach to social justice,

    簡單的答案是,可以靠涓滴效應來達到社會公正,

  • and many times it just doesn't work.

    但大多數時候這都行不通。

  • Without frames that allow us to see

    當缺乏一個認知框架使我們看到

  • how social problems impact all the members of a targeted group,

    社會問題如何影響某特定群體時,

  • many will fall through the cracks of our movements,

    在人們嘗試得到權益平等的運動中,

  • left to suffer in virtual isolation.

    許多人會失敗,孤立無援。

  • But it doesn't have to be this way.

    但事情本不至於此。

  • Many years ago, I began to use the term "intersectionality"

    許多年前,我開始用 「交叉性」這個名詞

  • to deal with the fact that many of our social justice problems

    來指代這樣的問題:有關社會正義的問題

  • like racism and sexism

    如種族和性別歧視的問題

  • are often overlapping,

    其內在往往是交叉重疊的。

  • creating multiple levels of social injustice.

    並且產生了多重的不公現象。

  • Now, the experience that gave rise to intersectionality

    提出交叉性的緣由,

  • was my chance encounter with a woman named Emma DeGraffenreid.

    是我遇到了一位叫艾瑪.蒂格拉福瑞的女人。

  • Emma DeGraffenreid was an African-American woman,

    艾瑪.蒂格拉福瑞是一位非裔美國女性,

  • a working wife and a mother.

    她是一位有工作的妻子兼母親。

  • I actually read about Emma's story from the pages of a legal opinion

    事實上,我是在法律意見書上讀到她的名字的,

  • written by a judge who had dismissed Emma's claim

    由一位駁回了艾瑪

  • of race and gender discrimination

    對於種族和性別歧視訴訟的法官所寫的。

  • against a local car manufacturing plant.

    這樁訴訟的被告是一個汽車製造廠。

  • Emma, like so many African-American women,

    艾瑪就如同許多非裔美國婦女一樣,

  • sought better employment for her family and for others.

    嘗試為她的家人和其他人尋求更好的就業機會。

  • She wanted to create a better life for her children and for her family.

    她希望為她的孩子和家庭創造一個更好的生活。

  • But she applied for a job,

    但是她應徵了一個工作,

  • and she was not hired,

    卻沒有被雇用。

  • and she believed that she was not hired because she was a black woman.

    她相信她沒有被雇用的原因是因為她是一位黑人婦女。

  • Now, the judge in question dismissed Emma's suit,

    這位法官駁回了艾瑪的訴訟,

  • and the argument for dismissing the suit was

    而他駁回這個訴訟的理由是

  • that the employer did hire African-Americans

    那個雇主有雇用非裔美國人,

  • and the employer hired women.

    也有雇用婦女。

  • The real problem, though, that the judge was not willing to acknowledge

    雖然這位法官不願意承認,但問題的實質

  • was what Emma was actually trying to say,

    正是艾瑪實際上所要說的事:

  • that the African-Americans that were hired,

    那些僱用非裔美國人的職位,

  • usually for industrial jobs, maintenance jobs, were all men.

    通常是工業性、維修的工作,所僱用的都是男性。

  • And the women that were hired,

    而雇用了女性的職位,

  • usually for secretarial or front-office work,

    通常是秘書性或服務台的工作,

  • were all white.

    所僱用的都是白人女性。

  • Only if the court was able to see how these policies came together

    只有當那位法官將這兩個問題放在一起看時,

  • would he be able to see the double discrimination

    他才能夠看到艾瑪所面對的

  • that Emma DeGraffenreid was facing.

    雙重歧視。

  • But the court refused to allow Emma to put two causes of action together

    但是那位法官拒絕讓艾瑪將這兩件事的前因後果放在一起

  • to tell her story

    來敘述她的故事。

  • because he believed that, by allowing her to do that,

    因為他相信,如果他讓她如此做,

  • she would be able to have preferential treatment.

    她會得到優惠待遇。

  • She would have an advantage by having two swings at the bat,

    她會有雙重的優勢,

  • when African-American men and white women only had one swing at the bat.

    而非裔男性和白人婦女只有一層優勢。

  • But of course, neither African-American men or white women

    但是,當然,無論是非裔男性及白人婦女

  • needed to combine a race and gender discrimination claim

    都無需將種族和性別歧視結合在一起

  • to tell the story of the discrimination they were experiencing.

    來向大家講述他們所經歷的歧視。

  • Why wasn't the real unfairness

    為什麼這不被當成是歧視?

  • law's refusal to protect African-American women

    當法律拒絕保護非裔女性這一群體,

  • simply because their experiences weren't exactly the same

    只是因為她們受歧視的經歷與非裔男性或白人女性並非一模一樣,

  • as white women and African-American men?

    難道這不是真正的不公?

  • Rather than broadening the frame to include African-American women,

    他們採取的不是拓寬認知框架,把非裔美國婦女囊括進去,

  • the court simply tossed their case completely out of court.

    而是將她們的案子 完全拒於法庭門外。

  • Now, as a student of antidiscrimination law,

    現在,作為一名學習反歧視法律的學生,

  • as a feminist,

    作為一位女性主義者,

  • as an antiracist,

    作為一位反種族歧視者,

  • I was struck by this case.

    我被這個案子大大撼動。

  • It felt to me like injustice squared.

    我感覺這就像是成倍的不公正。

  • So first of all,

    首先,

  • black women weren't allowed to work at the plant.

    黑人婦女不被允許在工廠工作。

  • Second of all, the court doubled down on this exclusion

    第二,法院通過大大降低其在法律中的重要性

  • by making it legally inconsequential.

    加強了這種排擠。

  • And to boot, there was no name for this problem.

    除此之外,這個問題並沒有一個屬於自己的名字。

  • And we all know that, where there's no name for a problem,

    我們都知道,當一個問題沒有名字時,

  • you can't see a problem,

    你就看不到問題,

  • and when you can't see a problem, you pretty much can't solve it.

    然後當你看不到有問題時,你當然就無法解決那個問題。

  • Many years later, I had come to recognize

    許多年後,我漸漸認識到

  • that the problem that Emma was facing was a framing problem.

    艾瑪所面對的問題是一個認知框架的問題。

  • The frame that the court was using

    法院採用看待性別歧視

  • to see gender discrimination or to see race discrimination

    或者種族歧視的框架來看待這個問題,

  • was partial, and it was distorting.

    而這是片面的,是扭曲的。

  • For me, the challenge that I faced was

    對我而言,我所面對的挑戰是

  • trying to figure out whether there was an alternative narrative,

    我能否試著找出一個能指代這一問題的敘述,

  • a prism that would allow us to see Emma's dilemma,

    一個可以讓我們看到艾瑪的困境的視角,

  • a prism that would allow us to rescue her from the cracks in the law,

    一個可以讓我們得以將她從法律漏洞裡拯救出來的視角,

  • that would allow judges to see her story.

    以期許法官們看到她的故事。

  • So it occurred to me,

    我突然想到,

  • maybe a simple analogy to an intersection

    或許一個簡單的交叉點的類比

  • might allow judges to better see Emma's dilemma.

    或許可以讓法官們更能意識到艾瑪的困境。

  • So if we think about this intersection, the roads to the intersection would be

    所以如果我們仔細想想這個交叉點,那麼匯集於這個交叉點的路就是

  • the way that the workforce was structured by race and by gender.

    由各個種族和性別所組成的勞動力構成的。

  • And then the traffic in those roads would be the hiring policies

    路上的交通工具就是僱傭政策

  • and the other practices that ran through those roads.

    以及穿行在這些道路上的其他方式。

  • Now, because Emma was both black and female,

    現在,因為艾瑪既是黑人又是女性,

  • she was positioned precisely where those roads overlapped,

    她的位置正好位於兩條路的交叉點,

  • experiencing the simultaneous impact

    因此同時遭受到

  • of the company's gender and race traffic.

    公司的性別和種族的碰撞。

  • The law -- the law is like that ambulance that shows up

    法律──法律就像是來到現場的救護車,

  • and is ready to treat Emma only if it can be shown

    它準備要治療艾瑪,但必須確認

  • that she was harmed on the race road or on the gender road

    她是在種族歧視或性別歧視的路上受傷,