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  • As an archaeologist,

    譯者: Helen Chang 審譯者: Melody Tang

  • I'm most often asked what my favorite discovery is.

    身為考古學家,

  • The answer's easy:

    我經常被問到 「最喜歡哪一個發現。」

  • my husband, Greg.

    答案很簡單:

  • (Laughter)

    我的丈夫格雷格。

  • We met in Egypt on my first dig.

    (笑聲)

  • It was my first lesson in finding unexpected, wonderful things.

    我們相遇於我第一次 在埃及挖掘的時候。

  • This began an incredible archaeological partnership.

    這是我第一個意料之外的精彩發現。

  • Years later, I proposed to him in front of our favorite pair statue

    一段令人難以置信的 考古夥伴關係就此展開。

  • of the Prince and Princess Rahotep and Nofret,

    幾年後,我在我們最喜歡的 一對雕像前面向他求婚,

  • in the Cairo Museum,

    是拉和泰浦王子及 妻子諾芙列王妃的雕像,

  • dating to 4,600 years ago.

    位於開羅博物館,

  • I thought if I was going to ask Greg to spend the rest of this life with me,

    追溯到 4,600 年前。

  • then I should ask him in front of two people

    我想若要邀請格雷格與我共渡餘生,

  • who had pledged to be together for eternity.

    那麼我應該在兩位 承諾永結同心的人面前問他。

  • These symbols endure because when we look at them,

    這些象徵挺過歲月的洗禮,

  • we're looking at mirrors.

    因為當我們看著他們時,

  • They are powerful reminders

    我們如面對著鏡子。

  • that our common humanity has not changed.

    他們強烈地提醒著我們

  • The thrill of archaeological discovery is as powerful as love,

    共通的人性並未改變。

  • because ancient history is the most seductive mistress imaginable.

    考古發現的震撼力道 與愛一樣地強大,

  • Many archaeologists have devoted their lives

    因為古代歷史

  • to unraveling the mysteries of the past

    是想像得到最誘人的情婦。

  • under hot suns

    許多考古學家獻身於

  • and Arctic winds

    揭開過往的奧秘面紗,

  • and in dense rainforests.

    不論置身於炙熱的太陽下,

  • Many seek.

    頂著極地寒風,

  • Some discover.

    或是深入叢密的熱帶雨林。

  • All worship at the temple of possibility

    很多人追尋,

  • that one discovery might change history.

    有些人找到了;

  • On my first day in Egypt, I worked at a site

    大家都在聖殿禮拜,

  • in the Northeast Egyptian Delta called Mendes, dating to 4,200 years ago,

    期望一個可能改變歷史的發現。

  • in a cemetery.

    我在埃及的首日,

  • That's a picture of me --

    挖掘埃及三角洲東北的門德斯,

  • I'm just in my bliss.

    約 4,200 年歷史的墓地。

  • On the dig, surrounded by emerald green rice paddies,

    這張照片中的我

  • I discovered an intact pot.

    完全沈浸在幸福裡。

  • Flipping it over,

    我被鮮綠色的稻禾包圍,

  • I discovered a human thumbprint left by whoever made the vessel.

    挖到一只完整的鍋子。

  • For a moment, time stood still.

    翻了過來,

  • I didn't know where I was.

    我發現了一枚造鍋人留下的指紋。

  • It was because at that moment I realized,

    瞬間時間凍結了。

  • when we dig,

    我不知身在何處。

  • we're digging for people,

    因為當下我意識到,

  • not things.

    我們挖掘的是人,不是物品。

  • Never are we so present as when we are in the midst of the great past.

    我們未曾像此刻這樣 身處在偉大的過往之間。

  • I can't tell you how many times I've stood in front of the Pyramids of Giza,

    我無數次站在吉薩金字塔前面

  • and they leave me speechless.

    無以言喻,

  • I feel like the luckiest person in the world.

    覺得自己是世上最幸運的人。

  • They're a monument to our human brilliance and everything that is possible.

    它們是人類智慧所及 最輝煌的紀念碑。

  • Many cannot process their brilliance as human --

    許多人不相信人類可造出 如此輝煌的建築,

  • they think aliens built them.

    認為是外星人建造的。

  • But this is ridiculous.

    多麼的可笑。

  • All you need to do is get up close and personal,

    只要靠得夠近,

  • and see the hidden hand of man

    就會看到人手的鑿痕。

  • in the chisel marks left by the tools that built them.

    偉大的吉薩金字塔 是一塊塊石頭堆砌起來的,

  • The Great Pyramid of Giza was built one stone at a time

    用了二百三十萬石塊,

  • with 2.3 million blocks,

    和無與倫比的組織效率。

  • with incredible bureaucratic efficiency.

    經時間考驗屹立不搖的不是金字塔,

  • It is not the pyramids that stand the test of time;

    而是人類的聰明才智,

  • it is human ingenuity.

    乃是我們共有的人類輝煌。

  • That is our shared human brilliance.

    儘管歷史循環,

  • History may be cyclical,

    但我們是獨特的。

  • but we are singular.

    我熱愛我的工作,

  • I love what I do,

    因我知道我們和以前沒什麼不同。

  • because I learn that we haven't changed.

    我讀到 3,500 年前 美索不達米亞的婆婆笑話。

  • I get to read about mother-in-law jokes from Mesopotamia

    (笑聲)

  • from 3,500 years ago.

    我聽到 4,600 年前 埃及鄰居彼此的詛咒。

  • (Laughter)

    我最喜愛的是一則 3,300 年前在盧克索的銘文:

  • I get to hear about neighbors cursing each other

    描述學生逃課去飲酒。

  • from 4,600 years ago in Egypt.

    (笑聲)

  • And my absolute favorite, from 3,300 years ago in Luxor:

    當今的孩子們啊。

  • an inscription that describes schoolboys who cut class to go drinking.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    我看到最難以置信的建築物,

  • Kids these days.

    看到驚人的雕塑──

  • (Laughter)

    基本上這是自拍的石像──

  • I get to see the most incredible architecture,

    也看到我們一直對寶石著迷。

  • see stunning sculptures --

    我們也在牆上公告,

  • I mean, this is basically a selfie in stone --

    對貓癡迷──

  • and see that we've always rocked serious bling.

    (笑聲)

  • And also, we've been posting on walls

    數千年了。

  • and obsessing about cats --

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    (掌聲)

  • for thousands of years.

    考古學家保存文化,

  • (Laughter)

    為數十億的古人 和成千上萬的古文化發言。

  • (Applause)

    我們用科學、想像力和信任

  • Archaeologists are the cultural memory preservers

    作為金三角來起死回生。

  • and the spokespeople

    去年,

  • for the billions of people and the thousands of cultures

    考古學家的驚人發現,包括:

  • that came before us.

    在南非發現了新的人類祖先、

  • Good science, imagination and a leap of faith

    在肯亞發現的 三百三十萬年前用的工具──

  • are the trifecta we use to raise the dead.

    乃是被發現的最古老工具 ──

  • In the last year,

    以及 1718 年黑鬍子海盜船上 發現的一系列醫療用具,

  • archaeologists have made incredible discoveries, including:

    這個用來治療梅毒。

  • new human ancestors from South Africa;

    哎喲,痛啊!

  • tools from 3.3 million years ago --

    (笑聲)

  • these are the oldest tools ever discovered --

    這裡的每一件

  • in Kenya.

    都伴隨著數以千計被我的同事發現,

  • And this, from a series of medical implements found

    但未曾成為新聞標題的重要古物。

  • from Blackbeard's ship from 1718.

    儘管如此,我認為 考古學家最重要的任務,

  • What you're looking at is a medical tool used to treat syphilis.

    是承認過去有人類存在,

  • Ouch!

    並且他們的生活值得我們學習。

  • (Laughter)

    各位能否想像

  • For each of these,

    若我們這樣看待每個人, 今天的世界會是什麼樣貌呢?

  • there are thousands of other incredibly important discoveries

    因此,我們挖掘時面對的挑戰,

  • made by my colleagues,

    通常像這樣。

  • that do not make headlines.

    你看不到任何東西。

  • However, I believe that the most important thing we do as archaeologists

    要在哪裡開始挖呢?

  • is acknowledge that past people existed

    這是開羅南部的一個遺址。

  • and lived lives worth learning about.

    若從太空往下看,

  • Can you even imagine what the world would be like today

    仍然沒看出什麼。

  • if we acknowledged all human beings in this way?

    這是遙測衛星 「世界觀 3 號」照的圖像,

  • So, on a dig, we have a challenge:

    解析度為 0.3 公尺,

  • it often looks like this.

    約當 10 英吋。

  • You can't see anything.

    這意味著可從四百英里的高空,

  • Where are we going to start digging?

    拉近看到你的平板電腦。

  • This is from a site south of Cairo.

    我怎麼知道的呢?

  • Let's have a look from space.

    因我是個太空考古學家。

  • Again, you can't really see much.

    讓我複述:

  • What you're looking at is a WorldView-3 satellite image,

    我是個太空考古學家。

  • which has a .3 meter resolution.

    意即──

  • That's 10 inches.

    謝謝。

  • This means that you can zoom in from 400 miles in space

    (掌聲)

  • and see your tablets.

    意思是我用演算法處理衛星圖像,

  • How do I know about this?

    查看光譜中的微妙差異,

  • It's because I'm a space archaeologist.

    那意味著地底下埋藏著東西,

  • Let me repeat that.

    值得我們去挖掘和調查。

  • I am a space archaeologist.

    順便一提──

  • This means --

    美國太空總署有個太空考古計劃,

  • (Applause)

    所以這是一門真正的職業。

  • Thank you.

    (笑聲)

  • This means I use satellite images and process them using algorithms,

    讓我們再看看。

  • and look at subtle differences in the light spectrum

    我們回到開羅南部的考古遺址。

  • that indicate buried things under the ground

    看不到任何東西。

  • that I get to go excavate and survey.

    專注目光於紅色矩形裡。

  • By the way --

    用演算法處理衛星圖像後──

  • NASA has a Space Archaeology program,

    想像它是太空的斷層掃瞄機──

  • so it's a real job.

    會看到這樣。

  • (Laughter)

    這長方形狀是個古墓,

  • So, let's have a look again.

    以前未知、未被開挖過,

  • We're back at the site just south of Cairo.

    而你們是幾千年後首次看到的人。

  • You can't see anything.

    (掌聲)

  • Keep your eye on the red rectangle.

    我相信有待我們去發現的遺址很多, 我們只觸碰到一點點皮毛而已。

  • When we process the image using algorithms --

    僅僅埃及三角洲一地,

  • think like a space-based CAT scan --

    我們已經開掘的

  • this is what you see.

    不到埃及遺址總量的 百分之 0.001。

  • This rectilinear form is an ancient tomb

    如果加上數以千計 我和同事發現的遺址,

  • that is previously unknown and unexcavated,

    我們以為已經知道的

  • and you all are the first people to see it in thousands of years.

    遠遠比不上仍待我們去發現的。

  • (Applause)

    看看我的同事在世界各地的 驚人工作和發現,

  • I believe we have barely scratched the surface

    我相信,

  • in terms of what's left to discover.

    還有數百萬尚未被發現的考古遺址。

  • In the Egyptian Delta alone,

    發現那些遺址,

  • we've excavated less than one-1000th of one percent

    將會開啟人類存在的全部潛能。

  • of the total volume of Egyptian sites.

    但我們面臨一個挑戰。

  • When you add to that the thousands of other sites

    過去一年裡,

  • my team and I have discovered,

    我們看到了可怖的新聞標題,

  • what we thought we knew pales in comparison

    報導考古遺址遭到驚人的破壞,

  • to what we have left to discover.

    遭受伊斯蘭國恐怖組織 之類的大規模掠奪。

  • When you look at the incredible work

    「伊斯蘭國」摧毀位於 帕邁拉的寺廟。

  • that my colleagues are doing all around the world

    什麼人會炸毀寺廟啊?

  • and what they're finding,

    他們摧毀了約拿的墳墓。

  • I believe that there are millions of undiscovered archaeological sites

    我們看到了如此猖獗的掠奪,

  • left to find.

    看起來像是月亮的隕石坑。

  • Discovering them will do nothing less

    伊斯蘭國擺明要摧毀現代人的生活,

  • than unlock the full potential of our existence.

    當然也延伸摧毀文化的認同。

  • But we have a challenge.

    歷史上無數的入侵軍隊 做過同樣的事。

  • Over the last year,

    我們知道伊斯蘭國出售掠奪物牟利,

  • we've seen horrible headlines

    但不知道規模有多大。

  • of incredible destruction going on to archaeological sites,

    意味著從中東市場上買的任何東西,

  • and massive looting by people like ISIL.

    都可能資助恐怖主義。

  • ISIL has destroyed temples at Palmyra.

    被掠劫過的遺址,

  • Who blows up a temple?

    如同是一個已經失踪了 90% 碎片的拼圖,

  • They've destroyed the Tomb of Jonah.

    餘下的碎片又被弄得面目全非。

  • And we've seen looting at sites so rampant,

    這是大咧咧明顯的盜竊。

  • it looks like craters of the moon.

    我們知道兩種掠奪:

  • Knowing ISIL's desire to destroy modern human lives,

    伊斯蘭國之類的犯罪掠奪,

  • it's a natural extension for them to destroy cultural identity as well.

    和當地絕望缺錢的人盜墓。

  • Countless invading armies have done the same throughout history.

    為了養家活口我們可能也會那樣做;

  • We know that ISIL is profiting from the looting of sites,

    我不責怪當地的盜墓者。

  • but we don't know the scale.

    我責怪無恥的中間人、 沒道德的販運者,

  • This means that any object purchased on the market today

    和國際藝術市場。

  • from the Middle East

    他們利用模糊的法律,

  • could potentially be funding terrorism.

    或甚至於因無法可管來牟利。

  • When a site is looted,

    我們知道當下在全球各地 正進行著越來越多的掠奪,

  • it's as if a puzzle already missing 90 percent of it pieces

    而目前我們沒任何工具去阻止它。

  • has had the rest obscured beyond recognition.

    但這開始改變了。

  • This is ancient identity theft writ large.

    我和團隊剛剛完成了一項 關於在埃及發生的掠奪的研究。

  • We know that there are two kinds of looting going on:

    我們研究開放的數據,

  • looting by criminal elements like ISIL,

    測繪 2002 到 2013 年間 發生於全埃及的掠奪。

  • and then more local looting by those that are desperate for money.

    我們發現了 267 個 掠奪和摧毀遺址的證據,

  • We would all do the same to feed our families;

    對應繪製超過二十萬個掠奪坑。

  • I don't blame the local looters.

    非常的驚人。

  • I blame the middlemen, the unethical traffickers

    整合這些數據──

  • and an international art market

    能看到這些標記的掠奪坑。

  • that exploits often ambiguous or even completely nonexistent laws.

    在這個地區特別糟糕, 從 2009、2011、2012 年起

  • We know looting is going on on a global scale and it's increasing,

    數百坑遭劫。

  • but presently we don't have any tools to stop it.

    在整合所有的數據後,

  • This is beginning to change.

    我們發現與一般的認知相反,

  • My team and I have just completed a study looking at looting in Egypt.

    埃及的掠奪變糟並非始於 2011 年的阿拉伯之春,

  • We looked at open-source data

    而是 2009 年的全球經濟衰退。

  • and mapped the entirety of looting across Egypt

    因此,大數據明白顯示了

  • from 2002 to 2013.

    掠奪根本上是個經濟的問題。

  • We found evidence of looting and site destruction at 267 sites,

    如果我們什麼都不做, 不阻止這問題,

  • and mapped over 200,000 looting pits.

    所有埃及的遺址都會在 2040 年以前被掠奪殆盡。

  • It's astonishing.

    因此,我們正處於轉折點。

  • And putting that data together --

    我們這一代

  • you can see the looting pits marked here.

    有阻止掠奪的工具和技術,

  • At one site, the looting got bad from 2009, 2011, 2012 --

    但我們的動作不夠快。

  • hundreds and hundreds of pits.

    有時一個考古遺址 有著你意想不到的韌性。

  • Putting all the data together,

    我剛剛從名叫樂詩特的 考古遺址回來,

  • what we found is that, contrary to popular opinion,

    我和埃及古物部在那裡 共同領導一個聯合任務。

  • looting did not start to get worse in Egypt in 2011 after the Arab Spring,

    此遺址遠溯至公元前 2000 至 1750 年的埃及中王國。

  • but in 2009, after the global recession.

    中王國是古埃及的文藝復興時期。

  • Thus, we've shown with big data

    經歷了一段時間的 激烈的內部衝突和環境的挑戰後,

  • that looting is fundamentally an economic issue.

    埃及向上反彈,

  • If we do nothing to stop the problem,

    產生了令人難以置信的藝術、 建築和文學的復甦。

  • all of Egypt's sites will be affected by looting by 2040.

    這是我最喜歡研究的埃及時段,

  • Thus, we are at a tipping point.

    因為它大量教我們 如何在大災難後生存和繁榮。

  • We are the generation with all the tools and all the technologies

    如今,我們已繪下 無數被掠奪後的坑坑洞洞。

  • to stop looting,

    樂施特曾是皇家所在地;

  • but we're not working fast enough.

    本來有成千上萬的人埋葬在那裡。

  • Sometimes an archaeological site can surprise you with its resilience.

    他們是曾在法老底下工作 和生活的那些人。

  • I am just back from the field,

    比較掠奪之前和之後, 看到幾十個掠奪坑。

  • where I co-led a joint mission with Egypt's Ministry of Antiquities

    這是北樂施特。

  • at a site called Lisht.

    這是南樂施特,之前和之後。

  • This site dates to the Middle Kingdom of Egypt between 2,000 and 1,750 BC.

    我們第一次查看樂施特遺址時,

  • The Middle Kingdom was Ancient Egypt's Renaissance period.

    看到許多已被盜挖的高官墳墓。

  • After a time of intense internal strife and environmental challenges,

    讓我帶你們透析被掠奪的規模。

  • Egypt rebounded

    想像塞滿棺木、首飾和驚人雕像的 兩公尺長、兩公尺寬區域,

  • with an incredible resurgence of art, architecture and literature.

    乘以一千多倍,

  • It's a favorite period of time to study in Egypt,

    就是被掠奪的量。

  • because it teaches us so much about how we can survive and thrive

    所以,當我們開始工作時,

  • after great disasters.

    埃及方面的主任 穆汗默德約瑟夫對我說,

  • Now at this site, we had already mapped countless looting pits.

    「我們必須挖掘這個墳墓。

  • Lisht is a royal site;

    它被盜墓者掠奪過。

  • there would have been thousands of people buried there

    如果我們不做任何事情, 盜墓者會再回來的。」

  • who lived and worked at the court of Pharaoh.

    我當然同意挖掘,

  • You can see this before and after; you see dozens of looting pits.

    但不以為會找到任何東西。

  • North Lisht.

    我認為盜墓者會已偷走了一切。

  • This is in South Lisht, before and after.

    接下來的發現使我們 大大地鬆了一口氣。

  • When we first visited the site,

    看看這幅畫──多麼令人驚嘆。

  • we could see the tombs of many high-ranking officials

    我們找到刻畫的銘文;

  • that had been looted.

    甚至還有墓主的頭銜──

  • Let me put into perspective for you what was taken.

    他的頭銜像是:「軍隊監督」、

  • Imagine a two meter by two meter area full of coffins, jewelry

    「財政監督」。

  • and incredible statuary.

    我升起希望,

  • Multiply that times over a thousand.

    也許,也許能找到他的名字。

  • That's what was taken.

    對於古埃及人而言, 讓名字永誌不朽是他們的目標。

  • So, when we started work,

    然後有一天,

  • my Egyptian co-director, Mohamed Youssef, approached me and said,

    這出現了。