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  • So I'm here to talk to you about the walkable city.

    譯者: ZHENG Shu 審譯者: Ellen Tung

  • What is the walkable city?

    我今天來和你們討論 所謂適宜步行的城市

  • Well, for want of a better definition,

    什麼才是適宜步行的城市呢?

  • it's a city in which the car is an optional instrument of freedom,

    最好的解釋就是

  • rather than a prosthetic device.

    汽車是城市一種可供選擇的工具

  • And I'd like to talk about why we need the walkable city,

    而不是像一個義肢般的必不可缺

  • and I'd like to talk about how to do the walkable city.

    而我今天想談論 為什麼我們需要一個適宜步行的城市

  • Most of the talks I give these days are about why we need it,

    同時我也想談論 要怎麼做才能有一個適宜步行的城市

  • but you guys are smart.

    最近我大部分的演講 都是關於為什麼我們需要它?

  • And also I gave that talk exactly a month ago,

    但是你們很聰明

  • and you can see it at TED.com.

    而那正是我一個月前的演講

  • So today I want to talk about how to do it.

    你們可以在 TED.com 上面看到

  • In a lot of time thinking about this,

    所以今天我想討論如何做

  • I've come up with what I call the general theory of walkability.

    關於這問題,我想了很久

  • A bit of a pretentious term, it's a little tongue-in-cheek,

    最後得出一個答案 我稱之為,適宜步行的一般性理論

  • but it's something I've thought about for a long time,

    有些狂妄的說法,也有點半開玩笑式

  • and I'd like to share what I think I've figured out.

    但確實是我思考已久的事實

  • In the American city, the typical American city --

    我想和你們分享我的發現

  • the typical American city is not Washington, DC,

    在美國城市,典型的美國城市

  • or New York, or San Francisco;

    不是華盛頓特區

  • it's Grand Rapids or Cedar Rapids or Memphis --

    紐約或是舊金山

  • in the typical American city in which most people own cars

    是激流市或杉溪市或者孟菲斯──

  • and the temptation is to drive them all the time,

    在典型的美國城市裡 大部分的人們都擁有汽車

  • if you're going to get them to walk, then you have to offer a walk

    這是致使他們時常行駛的誘因

  • that's as good as a drive or better.

    如果你試圖要他們步行 那麼你必須提供一個和開車一樣

  • What does that mean?

    甚而更好的方式

  • It means you need to offer four things simultaneously:

    這是什麼意思?

  • there needs to be a proper reason to walk,

    代表你必須同時滿足四項需求

  • the walk has to be safe and feel safe,

    首先要有一個適切的理由去行走

  • the walk has to be comfortable

    步行需要安全並感受到安全

  • and the walk has to be interesting.

    同時要是舒適的

  • You need to do all four of these things simultaneously,

    也要是有趣的

  • and that's the structure of my talk today,

    這四項需求必須同時滿足

  • to take you through each of those.

    這些正是今天演講的架構

  • The reason to walk is a story I learned from my mentors,

    會分別探討每一項需求

  • Andrés Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk,

    步行的理由

  • the founders of the New Urbanism movement.

    來自我導師所講述的一個故事

  • And I should say half the slides and half of my talk today

    安德鲁斯.杜安伊 和伊麗莎白.普拉特.茲伊貝克

  • I learned from them.

    他們是新城市主義運動的先驅

  • It's the story of planning,

    而我必須坦承 今天的演講內容和投影片

  • the story of the formation of the planning profession.

    有一半來自這故事中啟發

  • When in the 19th century people were choking

    這是個關於規劃的故事

  • from the soot of the dark, satanic mills,

    關於規劃專業如何形成的故事

  • the planners said, hey, let's move the housing away from the mills.

    在 19 世紀

  • And lifespans increased immediately, dramatically,

    人們窒息於煤煙密布的恐怖作坊

  • and we like to say

    規劃者曾這麼說道 嘿,我們把住宅搬離這地方吧

  • the planners have been trying to repeat that experience ever since.

    人類平均壽命不久就明顯地延長

  • So there's the onset of what we call Euclidean zoning,

    我們樂意這樣講

  • the separation of the landscape into large areas of single use.

    規劃者從此就不斷地重複這方式

  • And typically when I arrive in a city to do a plan,

    這也是我們稱之 歐幾里德分區制的開始

  • a plan like this already awaits me on the property that I'm looking at.

    以分區方式規定土地使用

  • And all a plan like this guarantees

    一般來說,當我到一個城市去做規劃

  • is that you will not have a walkable city,

    這樣的規劃早已就位並久候

  • because nothing is located near anything else.

    而所有這一類型的規劃都代表著

  • The alternative, of course, is our most walkable city,

    你將不會擁有一個適宜步行的城市

  • and I like to say, you know, this is a Rothko,

    因為附近什麼都沒有

  • and this is a Seurat.

    另外的一種方式 當然就是我們最為重視的理念

  • It's just a different way -- he was the pointilist --

    上面所說的是羅斯科的抽象派

  • it's a different way of making places.

    而這裡說的是秀拉派

  • And even this map of Manhattan is a bit misleading

    它不同的地方,在於他是點彩派畫家

  • because the red color is uses that are mixed vertically.

    採用不一樣的方式去規劃地方

  • So this is the big story of the New Urbanists --

    即便這幅曼哈頓的地圖有些錯誤

  • to acknowledge that there are only two ways

    因為使用的紅色是垂直混合的

  • that have been tested by the thousands

    接下來是關於新城市主義的一個故事

  • to build communities, in the world and throughout history.

    必須承認只有兩種方式

  • One is the traditional neighborhood.

    去建構一個社區

  • You see here several neighborhoods of Newburyport, Massachusetts,

    它們從古自今,已被測試數千年

  • which is defined as being compact and being diverse --

    其一是典型的鄰里關係

  • places to live, work, shop, recreate, get educated --

    你可以看到在麻薩諸塞州 紐伯里波特這城市裡的一些鄰里社區

  • all within walking distance.

    它是密集並且多樣的地區

  • And it's defined as being walkable.

    可以居住、上班、逛街 休閒、受教育

  • There are lots of small streets.

    都是走路就能到的距離

  • Each one is comfortable to walk on.

    也是所謂,適宜步行的距離

  • And we contrast that to the other way,

    有很多小的街道

  • an invention that happened after the Second World War,

    每條都可以很自在舒適地行走

  • suburban sprawl,

    但我們卻選擇恰為相反的方式

  • clearly not compact, clearly not diverse, and it's not walkable,

    在二戰後的改變

  • because so few of the streets connect,

    郊區擴展

  • that those streets that do connect become overburdened,

    明顯地不密集也不多樣 不適於步行

  • and you wouldn't let your kid out on them.

    因為很少有街道相連

  • And I want to thank Alex Maclean, the aerial photographer,

    即使有街道相連也變得過度負荷

  • for many of these beautiful pictures that I'm showing you today.

    你不會讓你的孩子走出去

  • So it's fun to break sprawl down into its constituent parts.

    我想感謝麥可林,空中攝影師

  • It's so easy to understand,

    他拍攝了很多美麗的照片 讓我今天向大家展示

  • the places where you only live, the places where you only work,

    打破(建築羣)雜亂擴散的大片區域 變成為不同的組成部分是有趣的事

  • the places where you only shop,

    便於理解

  • and our super-sized public institutions.

    一個你只能生活的地方 一個你只能工作的地方

  • Schools get bigger and bigger,

    一個你只能購物的地方

  • and therefore, further and further from each other.

    以及我們的超大的公共設施

  • And the ratio of the size of the parking lot

    學校越來越大

  • to the size of the school

    因此,相互間距離更遠

  • tells you all you need to know,

    停車場的規模

  • which is that no child has ever walked to this school,

    與學校規模的比例

  • no child will ever walk to this school.

    能夠告訴你所有你需要知道的

  • The seniors and juniors are driving the freshmen and the sophomores,

    那就是,沒有小孩

  • and of course we have the crash statistics to prove it.

    走到過學校

  • And then the super-sizing of our other civic institutions

    高三生開車載著高一高二生

  • like playing fields --

    當然我們有車禍統計數據證明

  • it's wonderful that Westin in the Ft. Lauderdale area

    我們其它的超級城市設施

  • has eight soccer fields and eight baseball diamonds

    例如遊樂場

  • and 20 tennis courts,

    羅德岱堡的威斯汀地區超棒

  • but look at the road that takes you to that location,

    有 8 個足球場,8 個棒球場

  • and would you let your child bike on it?

    20 個網球場

  • And this is why we have the soccer mom now.

    但是,看看那些帶你通往那裡的路

  • When I was young, I had one soccer field,

    你會讓你的孩子騎腳踏車去嗎?

  • one baseball diamond and one tennis court,

    那就是當今我們爲什麼有足球媽媽

  • but I could walk to it, because it was in my neighborhood.

    在我小時候,我有一個足球場

  • Then the final part of sprawl that everyone forgot to count:

    一個棒球場,一個網球場

  • if you're going to separate everything from everything else

    但是我可以走過去,因爲距離我很近

  • and reconnect it only with automotive infrastructure,

    城市區域擴展還有最後一個部分 大家都忘記了

  • then this is what your landscape begins to look like.

    如果你打算把每個東西都分散

  • The main message here is:

    然後只靠汽車再去連接它

  • if you want to have a walkable city, you can't start with the sprawl model.

    這就是你得到的全景圖

  • you need the bones of an urban model.

    主要訊息就是:

  • This is the outcome of that form of design,

    如果你想擁有適宜步行的城市 你就不能始以城市擴散

  • as is this.

    你需要城市模型的骨架

  • And this is something that a lot of Americans want.

    這就是那種設計的結果

  • But we have to understand it's a two-part American dream.

    像這樣

  • If you're dreaming for this,

    這是很多美國人想要的

  • you're also going to be dreaming of this, often to absurd extremes,

    但是我們需要瞭解的是 它是美國人夢想的二部分

  • when we build our landscape to accommodate cars first.

    如果你渴望它,那你同時也渴望這個

  • And the experience of being in these places --

    荒誕至極的是

  • (Laughter)

    如果我們建造景觀時 優先考慮的是汽車

  • This is not Photoshopped.

    那麼經歷這樣的地方──

  • Walter Kulash took this slide.

    (笑聲)

  • It's in Panama City.

    這圖沒有修過

  • This is a real place.

    華特照了這張相片。

  • And being a driver can be a bit of a nuisance,

    它在巴拿馬市

  • and being a pedestrian can be a bit of a nuisance

    這是真實的地方

  • in these places.

    而作爲駕駛可能會感到有點困擾

  • This is a slide that epidemiologists have been showing for some time now,

    而作爲行人可能也會感到有點困擾

  • (Laughter)

    在這些地方

  • The fact that we have a society where you drive to the parking lot

    就是這張幻燈片 流行病學家已展示了一段時間了

  • to take the escalator to the treadmill

    (笑聲)

  • shows that we're doing something wrong.

    事實上,我們生活在這樣的社會 我們開車、停車

  • But we know how to do it better.

    乘電梯去使用跑步機的現象

  • Here are the two models contrasted.

    表明我們在做錯誤的事

  • I show this slide,

    但是我們知道如何做的更好

  • which has been a formative document of the New Urbanism now

    這裡有兩個反例

  • for almost 30 years,

    我用這頁

  • to show that sprawl and the traditional neighborhood contain the same things.

    這是形成當今 新城市主義的主要文件之一

  • It's just how big are they,

    大約有 30 年了

  • how close are they to each other,

    表現城市擴展羣 與傳統的鄰里社區擁有相同之處

  • how are they interspersed together

    就是它們的大小

  • and do you have a street network, rather than a cul-de-sac

    它們之間如何的緊密相鄰

  • or a collector system of streets?

    它們是如何的相互交織

  • So when we look at a downtown area,

    並且有街道相互交錯,而不是死巷

  • at a place that has a hope of being walkable,

    或者是連絡道路

  • and mostly that's our downtowns in America's cities

    讓我們看市中心區域

  • and towns and villages,

    一個我們希望步行的區域

  • we look at them and say we want the proper balance of uses.

    多數美國城市

  • So what is missing or underrepresented?

    鄉鎮的市中心區

  • And again, in the typical American cities in which most Americans live,

    我們看著這些說道 我們需要恰當的平衡使用

  • it is housing that is lacking.

    所以,是什麼遺忘或者疏忽掉了?

  • The jobs-to-housing balance is off.

    在典型的美國人居住的美國城市

  • And you find that when you bring housing back,

    是住宅區的缺乏

  • these other things start to come back too,

    工作與住宅區失去了平衡

  • and housing is usually first among those things.

    你會發現,當你把住宅區移回來時

  • And, of course, the thing that shows up last and eventually

    其它的東西也相繼回來

  • is the schools,

    房屋是首當其衝的

  • because the people have to move in,

    而最終的

  • the young pioneers have to move in, get older, have kids

    是學校

  • and fight, and then the schools get pretty good eventually.

    因為人們不得不搬進去

  • The other part of this part,

    年輕人首先搬入 然後變老,有了孩子

  • the useful city part,

    奮鬥,然後學校變得很好

  • is transit,

    另外的一部分

  • and you can have a perfectly walkable neighborhood without it.

    有用的部分

  • But perfectly walkable cities require transit,

    是運輸

  • because if you don't have access to the whole city as a pedestrian,

    你可以造一個沒有運輸的 完美步行鄰里社區

  • then you get a car,

    但是完美的步行城市需要運輸

  • and if you get a car,

    因為如果你不能步行到達整個城市

  • the city begins to reshape itself around your needs,

    那你就要有汽車

  • and the streets get wider and the parking lots get bigger

    如果你有了車

  • and you no longer have a walkable city.

    城市就根據你的需求再改造

  • So transit is essential.

    街道變寬,停車場變大

  • But every transit experience, every transit trip,

    你不會再有步行城市

  • begins or ends as a walk,

    所以運輸問題是關鍵

  • and so we have to remember to build walkability around our transit stations.

    但是每種運輸經歷,每個運輸

  • Next category, the biggest one, is the safe walk.

    開始和結束都是步行

  • It's what most walkability experts talk about.

    所以我們必須牢記 建造圍繞運輸站的可步行性

  • It is essential, but alone not enough to get people to walk.

    下一個範疇,最大的問題 就是安全步行

  • And there are so many moving parts that add up to a walkable city.

    它是多數專家談論的重點

  • The first is block size.

    它很關鍵,但是僅憑此項 並不能讓人們行走

  • This is Portland, Oregon,

    還有許多可動部分有助於步行城市

  • famously 200-foot blocks, famously walkable.

    第一是街廓區塊規模

  • This is Salt Lake City,

    這是波特蘭,俄勒岡州

  • famously 600-foot blocks,

    著名的 200 英呎街區 著名的適於步行

  • famously unwalkable.

    這是鹽湖城

  • If you look at the two, it's almost like two different planets,

    著名的 600 英呎街區

  • but these places were both built by humans

    著名的不適於步行

  • and in fact, the story is that when you have a 200-foot block city,

    如果你看它們兩個 就像完全不同的星球

  • you can have a two-lane city,

    但是它們都是人建造的地方

  • or a two-to-four lane city,

    事實上,當你有 200 英呎街區

  • and a 600-foot block city is a six-lane city, and that's a problem.

    你可以有雙線道城市

  • These are the crash statistics.

    或者雙線道至四線道城市

  • When you double the block size --

    對於 600 英尺的街區 6 線車道的城市,這是問題

  • this was a study of 24 California cities --

    這些是事故統計

  • when you double the block size,

    當你把街區翻倍

  • you almost quadruple the number of fatal accidents

    這是關於 24 個加州城市的研究

  • on non-highway streets.

    當你把街區翻倍

  • So how many lanes do we have?

    死亡事故機率幾乎變為 4 倍

  • This is where I'm going to tell you what I tell every audience I meet,

    在非高速公路的一般街道上

  • which is to remind you about induced demand.

    我們有多少線道?

  • Induced demand applies both to highways and to city streets.

    這就是我遇到每一個觀衆時所講的

  • And induced demand tells us that when we widen the streets

    這是提醒你關於誘導需求

  • to accept the congestion that we're anticipating,

    誘導需求適用於高速公路 也適用市區街道

  • or the additional trips that we're anticipating

    誘導需求告訴我們當我們拓寬街道

  • in congested systems, it is principally that congestion

    接受我們對於擁堵的預期

  • that is constraining demand,

    或者我們預期的額外行程

  • and so that the widening comes,

    在擁堵體系中,主要的擁堵

  • and there are all of these latent trips that are ready to happen.

    是約束需求

  • People move further from work

    所以要拓寬街道

  • and make other choices about when they commute,

    所有這些潛在的行程即將發生

  • and those lanes fill up very quickly with traffic,

    人們到更遠的地方工作

  • so we widen the street again, and they fill up again.

    選擇其它時間上下班

  • And we've learned that in congested systems,

    那些車道不久就變的擁堵

  • we cannot satisfy the automobile.

    所以我們又拓寬街道,它們又被填滿

  • This is from Newsweek Magazine -- hardly an esoteric publication:

    我們發現,在擁堵體系中

  • "Today's engineers acknowledge

    我們不能滿足汽車

  • that building new roads usually makes traffic worse."

    這是來自《新聞周刊》── 並不深奧的出版物:

  • My response to reading this was, may I please meet some of these engineers,

    「如今,工程師意識到

  • because these are not the ones that I --

    建造新路通常會讓交通更加惡化。」

  • there are great exceptions that I'm working with now --

    讀完之後,我想說 我能見那些工程師嗎?

  • but these are not the engineers one typically meets working in a city,

    因為那些工程師並不是我──

  • where they say, "Oh, that road is too crowded, we need to add a lane."

    我現在共事的人也有很多例外──

  • So you add a lane, and the traffic comes,

    但是他們不是我們通常遇到的 那種市政府工程師,

  • and they say, "See, I told you we needed that lane."

    他們常說:「喔,路太擠? 我們需要拓寬。」

  • This applies both to highways and to city streets if they're congested.

    所以你拓寬了,而後擁堵也來了,

  • But the amazing thing about most American cities that I work in,

    他們會說: 「看吧,我早說過我們需要拓寬。」

  • the more typical cities,

    這適於高速公路和城市街道 如果它們擁塞。

  • is that they have a lot of streets that are actually oversized

    奇妙的是多數我待過的美國城市,

  • for the congestion they're currently experiencing.

    更典型的城市,

  • This was the case in Oklahoma City,

    是很多街道因為現有的塞車

  • when the mayor came running to me, very upset,

    而建造的過大

  • because they were named in Prevention Magazine

    就奧克拉荷馬市而言

  • the worst city for pedestrians in the entire country.

    當市長沮喪的來到我面前

  • Now that can't possibly be true,

    因為它們被《美國預防雜誌》稱為

  • but it certainly is enough to make a mayor do something about it.

    全美最糟步行城市

  • We did a walkability study,

    現在雖然可能不完全對

  • and what we found, looking at the car counts on the street --

    但是它已經足夠促使市長做些工作

  • these are 3,000-, 4,000-, 7,000-car counts

    我們做了步行研究

  • and we know that two lanes can handle 10,000 cars per day.

    發現,當計算街道上有多少車輛,

  • Look at these numbers -- they're all near or under 10,000 cars,

    三千、四千、七千輛車計入,

  • and these were the streets that were designated