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  • Do you ever think about how important the oceans are in our daily lives?

    譯者: Ming Lee 審譯者: 易帆 余

  • The oceans cover two-thirds of our planet.

    請問你們是否知道, 海洋對我們的生活有多重要嗎?

  • They provide half the oxygen we breathe.

    地球有 2/3 的面積是海洋。

  • They moderate our climate.

    我們呼吸的氧氣, 有一半是它們提供的。

  • And they provide jobs and medicine and food

    它們調節氣候。

  • including 20 percent of protein to feed the entire world population.

    提供人類就業機會和醫藥、食物,

  • People used to think that the oceans were so vast

    包括 20% 全人類食用的蛋白質。

  • that they wouldn't be affected by human activities.

    人們認為海洋這麼的浩瀚,

  • Well today I'm going to tell you about a serious reality

    應該不會受到人類活動的影響。

  • that is changing our oceans called ocean acidification,

    但今天我想告訴各位,

  • or the evil twin of climate change.

    關於「海洋酸化」的嚴重現實,

  • Did you know that the oceans have absorbed 25 percent of all of the carbon dioxide

    或稱之為「氣候改變的邪惡雙胞胎」。

  • that we have emitted to the atmosphere?

    你是否知道海洋可以吸收 人類釋放到大氣中二氧化碳的 25%。

  • Now this is just another great service provided by the oceans

    這是海水提供的極大貢獻,

  • since carbon dioxide is one of the greenhouse gases

    因為二氧化碳, 是一種溫室效應氣體,

  • that's causing climate change.

    會造成地球氣候的變遷。

  • But as we keep pumping more and more and more

    由於我們繼續製造 更多的二氧化碳,

  • carbon dioxide into the atmosphere

    並且釋放到空氣中,

  • more is dissolving into the oceans.

    海洋就吸收了更多的二氧化碳。

  • And this is what's changing our ocean chemistry.

    所以這是海洋化學正在改變的主因。

  • When carbon dioxide dissolves in seawater,

    當二氧化碳溶解在海裡時,

  • it undergoes a number of chemical reactions.

    它會產生一連串的化學反應。

  • Now lucky for you,

    今天你們很幸運,

  • I don't have time to get into the details of the chemistry for today.

    我不需要在此詳述化學的細節。

  • But I'll tell you as more carbon dioxide enters the ocean,

    但我可以告訴你多一點, 有關二氧化碳溶入海水的事,

  • the seawater pH goes down.

    它會造成海水酸鹼值 (pH) 的下降。

  • And this basically means that there is an increase in ocean acidity.

    基本上來說就是海水會愈來愈酸。

  • And this whole process is called ocean acidification.

    整個過程稱之為「海洋酸化」。

  • And it's happening alongside climate change.

    同時也造成氣候的改變。

  • Scientists have been monitoring ocean acidification for over two decades.

    科學家偵測海水酸化的時間, 已經長達 20年。

  • This figure is an important time series in Hawaii,

    這是對夏威夷很重要的 一張時間序列圖,

  • and the top line shows steadily increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide,

    最上面那條棕色曲線, 顯示二氧化碳濃度,

  • or CO2 gas, in the atmosphere.

    或大氣中的 CO2 氣體含量,

  • And this is directly as a result of human activities.

    呈現出穩定上升的趨勢。

  • The line underneath shows the increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide

    直接來自人類活動造成的結果。

  • that is dissolved in the surface of the ocean

    下面那藍色條線,

  • which you can see is increasing at the same rate

    顯示 CO2 溶解在海洋表面的濃度,

  • as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere since measurements began.

    可看出它也是以同樣速率在增加,

  • The line on the bottom shows then shows the change in chemistry.

    與開始測量大氣 CO2 含量時 具有相同的增加速率。

  • As more carbon dioxide has entered the ocean,

    最底下的綠色曲線, 顯示化學反應的變化。

  • the seawater pH has gone down,

    當更多二氧化碳進入海洋時,

  • which basically means there has been an increase in ocean acidity.

    海水酸鹼值也降低,

  • Now in Ireland, scientists are also monitoring ocean acidification --

    代表海水的酸度增加了。

  • scientists at the Marine Institute and NUI Galway.

    愛爾蘭的科學家 現在也在監視海洋酸化,

  • And we, too, are seeing acidification at the same rate

    他們是愛爾蘭高威大學 海洋學院的研究員,

  • as these main ocean time-series sites around the world.

    我們也看到 海洋以相同速度在酸化中,

  • So it's happening right at our doorstep.

    跟全球其他海洋時間序列一樣。

  • Now I'd like to give you an example of just how we collect our data

    所以它的問題迫在眉睫。

  • to monitor a changing ocean.

    我給你們一個 關於我們如何收集資料,

  • Firstly we collect a lot of our samples in the middle of winter.

    監測海洋變化的例子。

  • So as you can imagine, in the North Atlantic

    首先我們會在冬季中期取樣。

  • we get hit with some seriously stormy conditions --

    你們知道北大西洋,

  • so not for any of you who get a little motion sickness,

    常常被暴風雨襲擊……

  • but we are collecting some very valuable data.

    這工作不適合會暈船的人,

  • So we lower this instrument over the side of the ship,

    但我們必須收集一些有價值的數據。

  • and there are sensors that are mounted on the bottom

    所以我們把偵測儀器 放到船身一側下方,

  • that can tell us information about the surrounding water,

    另外船底也有偵測儀器,

  • such as temperature or dissolved oxygen.

    可以告訴我們周遭海裡的資訊,

  • And then we can collect our seawater samples in these large bottles.

    例如溫度和溶氧量。

  • So we start at the bottom, which can be over four kilometers deep

    這樣就可以用 巨大的瓶子收集海水樣本。

  • just off our continental shelf,

    首先由 4 公里深的海水層開始,

  • and we take samples at regular intervals right up to the surface.

    作業地點在大陸棚外面一點,

  • We take the seawater back on the deck,

    每隔一段深度收集一個樣本, 一路往上直到海水表面。

  • and then we can either analyze them on the ship

    收集到的海水被帶回甲板上,

  • or back in the laboratory for the different chemicals parameters.

    然後直接在船上分析,

  • But why should we care?

    或是帶回實驗室, 研究相關的化學參數。

  • How is ocean acidification going to affect all of us?

    但為什麼我們要關心這些?

  • Well, here are the worrying facts.

    海洋酸化如何影響我們的未來?

  • There has already been an increase in ocean acidity of 26 percent

    以下是令人擔心的事實。

  • since pre-industrial times, which is directly due to human activities.

    海洋酸化已經增加了26%,

  • Unless we can start slowing down our carbon dioxide emissions,

    相對於革命工業開始前,

  • we're expecting an increase in ocean acidity of 170 percent

    可見這是由人類活動導致的。

  • by the end of this century.

    除非我們能把二氧化碳 排放的速度減緩下來,

  • I mean this is within our children's lifetime.

    否則到本世紀末的時候,

  • This rate of acidification is 10 times faster

    我們預期海洋的酸度 會增加 170%。

  • than any acidification in our oceans for over 55 million years.

    我的意思是到了我們下一代,

  • So our marine life have never, ever experienced

    此種酸化的速度,

  • such a fast rate of change before.

    比五千五百萬年前, 海水酸化速度還快十倍。

  • So we literally could not know how they're going to cope.

    這是海洋生物從未有過的經驗,

  • Now there was a natural acidification event millions of years ago,

    那種急遽的變化。

  • which was much slower than what we're seeing today.

    快速到我們無從知道, 牠們要如何去適應。

  • And this coincided with a mass extinction of many marine species.

    數百萬年前, 曾發生過一件天然酸化事件,

  • So is that what we're headed for?

    比今日看到的速度緩慢了很多。

  • Well, maybe.

    這事件恰好是 很多海洋物種大滅絕的時間。

  • Studies are showing some species are actually doing quite well

    所以這是我們正在邁入的現象嗎?

  • but many are showing a negative response.

    或許是的。

  • One of the big concerns is as ocean acidity increases,

    研究顯示有些物種適應得很好,

  • the concentration of carbonate ions in seawater decrease.

    但有些則顯出負面的反應。

  • Now these ions are basically the building blocks

    海洋酸化的大問題之一是;

  • for many marine species to make their shells,

    海水中碳酸鹽離子的減少。

  • for example crabs or mussels, oysters.

    這些離子基本上像是一種建築材料,

  • Another example are corals.

    是很多海洋生物製造外殼的物質,

  • They also need these carbonate ions in seawater

    如螃蟹、孔雀蛤、牡蠣等。

  • to make their coral structure in order to build coral reefs.

    另一例是珊瑚。

  • As ocean acidity increases

    牠們也需要這些碳酸鹽離子,

  • and the concentration of carbonate ions decrease,

    來組成珊瑚的結構和製造珊瑚礁。

  • these species first find it more difficult to make their shells.

    當海洋酸性升高時,

  • And at even even lower levels, they can actually begin to dissolve.

    碳酸鹽離子的濃度降低了,

  • This here is a pteropod, it's called a sea butterfly.

    這些生物會更難製造外殼。

  • And it's an important food source in the ocean for many species,

    當酸性降低至更低的時後, 它們甚至會溶解掉。

  • from krill to salmon right up to whales.

    這是被喻為「海蝶」的 翼足類軟體動物。

  • The shell of the pteropod was placed into seawater

    牠是很多海洋生物的重要食物來源,

  • at a pH that we're expecting by the end of this century.

    從磷蝦、鮭魚到鯨魚都靠它生存。

  • After only 45 days at this very realistic pH,

    將翼足軟體動物的外殼,

  • you can see the shell has almost completely dissolved.

    放進我們預估本世紀末的 酸性海水樣本中,

  • So ocean acidification could affect right up through the food chain --

    在此種 pH 值非常酸的 海水裡只需 45 天,

  • and right onto our dinner plates.

    就可以看到貝殼幾乎完全被溶解。

  • I mean who here likes shellfish? Or salmon?

    所以海洋酸化可以影響食物鏈,

  • Or many other fish species

    一路影響到你和我的餐盤。

  • whose food source in the ocean could be affected?

    我是說誰願意像貝類?鮭魚?

  • These are cold-water corals.

    或很多其他魚種,

  • And did you know we actually have cold-water corals in Irish waters,

    牠們海洋中的食物來源受到影響?

  • just off our continental shelf?

    這些是冷水珊瑚礁。

  • And they support rich biodiversity, including some very important fisheries.

    你知道愛爾蘭的外海, 也有冷水珊瑚礁嗎?

  • It's projected that by the end of this century,

    就在大陸棚外面一點的地方。

  • 70 percent of all known cold-water corals in the entire ocean

    它們支撐豐富多樣生態的存活, 包括非常重要的漁業。

  • will be surrounded by seawater that is dissolving their coral structure.

    預估到了本世紀末,

  • The last example I have are these healthy tropical corals.

    全球 70% 已知的所有冷水珊瑚礁,

  • They were placed in seawater at a pH we're expecting by the year 2100.

    在整個海洋裡, 將會通通被海水溶解掉。

  • After six months, the coral has almost completely dissolved.

    我最近發現的例子 是這些熱帶海洋珊瑚,

  • Now coral reefs support

    把牠放入預估的 2100 年 酸性海水樣本中時,

  • 25 percent of all marine life in the entire ocean.

    經過六個月後,牠們幾乎完全溶解。

  • All marine life.

    現在全球珊瑚礁支撐了

  • So you can see: ocean acidification is a global threat.

    整個海洋 25% 的生態。

  • I have an eight-month-old baby boy.

    所有的海洋生物。

  • Unless we start now to slow this down,

    所以可想而知, 海洋酸化是全球性的威脅。

  • I dread to think what our oceans will look like when he's a grown man.

    我有個八個月大的嬰兒。

  • We will see acidification.

    除非我們現在開始減緩酸化速度,

  • We have already put too much carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

    我不敢想像未來他長大後, 海洋會變成怎樣。

  • But we can slow this down.

    我們將會繼續看到海水的酸化。

  • We can prevent the worst-case scenario.

    因為釋放到空氣中的 二氧化碳已經太多了。

  • The only way of doing that

    但我們可以放慢酸化速度。

  • is by reducing our carbon dioxide emissions.

    可以預防此種最壞的結局。

  • This is important for both you and I, for industry, for governments.

    要作到此點,唯一之道,

  • We need to work together, slow down global warming

    就是減少二氧化碳的排放量。

  • slow down ocean acidification

    這對你我、工業界, 和政府都是非常重要的。

  • and help to maintain a healthy ocean and a healthy planet

    我們必須同心協力減緩全球暖化,

  • for our generation and for generations to come.

    減緩海洋酸化,

  • (Applause)

    一起努力維持海洋和地球的健康,

Do you ever think about how important the oceans are in our daily lives?

譯者: Ming Lee 審譯者: 易帆 余

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED 海洋 海水 二氧化碳 珊瑚礁 酸性

【TED】Triona McGrath:汙染如何改變海洋的化學(How pollution is changing the ocean's chemistry | Triona McGrath)。 (【TED】Triona McGrath: How pollution is changing the ocean's chemistry (How pollution is changing the ocean's chemistry | Triona McGrath))

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    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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