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  • If you've been thinking about US politics

    譯者: Claire Wei 審譯者: ZHOU AILUN

  • and trying to make sense of it for the last year or so,

    如果過去一年你曾思索過美國政治,

  • you might have hit on something like the following three propositions:

    並嘗試理解它、將它合理化,

  • one, US partisanship has never been so bad before;

    你腦袋可能會出現以下三個論點:

  • two,

    第一,美國黨派之爭 從來沒這麼亂過;

  • for the first time, it's geographically spatialized --

    第二,

  • we're divided between the coasts, which want to look outwards,

    美國首次出現了地域差異──

  • and the center of the country, which wants to look inwards;

    我們彼此分化著── 住在沿岸地區的人們向外看,

  • and third,

    而居住在內陸地區的人們視野向內;

  • there's nothing we can do about it.

    第三,

  • I'm here to today to say that all three of these propositions,

    我們對此無能為力。

  • all of which sound reasonable,

    今天在這

  • are not true.

    我想告訴各位,

  • In fact,

    也許這三個論點聽起來合理, 但並不是真的。

  • our US partisanship goes all the way back

    事實上,

  • to the very beginning of the republic.

    美國黨派之爭可追溯至

  • It was geographically spatialized in almost eerily the same way

    最早的共和民主制政體。

  • that it is today,

    當時的地域差異,

  • and it often has been throughout US history.

    與今天幾乎相同。

  • And last,

    這現象貫穿著美國歷史。

  • and by far most importantly,

    最後一點,

  • we actually have an extraordinary mechanism

    也是到目前最重要的一點,

  • that's designed to help us manage factional disagreement and partisanship.

    我們其實擁有一個非凡的機制,

  • That technology is the Constitution.

    用於協助我們管理 分歧的意見與黨系之爭。

  • And this is an evolving, subtly, supplely designed entity

    這個機制被稱之為「憲法」。

  • that has the specific purpose

    這是一項不斷革新、微妙、 精良的設計實體,

  • of teaching us how to manage factional disagreement

    它獨特的用意在於

  • where it's possible to do that,

    指導我們處理意見分歧,

  • and giving us techniques for overcoming that disagreement

    的確可能可以處理,

  • when that's possible.

    同時給了我們解決分歧的工具,

  • Now, in order to tell you the story,

    在可能的情況下。

  • I want to go back to a pivotal moment in US history,

    現在,為了給你們講這個故事,

  • and that is the moment

    我想回顧一下 一個美國史上的關鍵時刻,

  • when factional disagreement and partisanship was born.

    而正是那時刻,

  • There actually was a birth moment --

    出現了分歧的意見以及黨派的誕生。

  • a moment in US history when partisanship snapped into place.

    在美國史中這時刻

  • The person who's at the core of that story is James Madison.

    正是黨派誕生到位的時刻。

  • And at the moment that this began,

    詹姆斯·麥迪遜是故事的核心人物。

  • James Madison was riding high.

    在故事開始,

  • He himself was the Einstein of not only the US Constitution,

    詹姆斯·麥迪遜處在巔峰時段。

  • but of constitutional thought more globally,

    麥迪遜不只是美國憲法的創始者,

  • and, to give him his due,

    也將憲政思想傳播到世界,

  • he knew it.

    說句公道話,

  • In a period of time of just three years,

    他知道。

  • from 1785 to 1788,

    在短短的三年之中,

  • he had conceived, theorized, designed, passed and gotten ratified

    1785-1788 年間,

  • the US Constitution.

    他從構想、理論化、設計、通過,

  • And just to give you some sense of the enormity

    並得到批准,完成了美國憲法。

  • of what that accomplishment actually was,

    我想讓各位理解他所完成的巨作

  • although Madison couldn't have known it at the time,

    有多麼的深遠與偉大,

  • today that same constitutional technology that he invented is still in use

    雖然麥迪遜當時不可能未卜先知,

  • not only in the US,

    直到今日,他所投入的憲法實體,

  • but, 230 years later,

    不只美國仍然實行著,

  • in places like Canada,

    在 230 年後,

  • India,

    許多地方如加拿大、

  • South Africa,

    印度、

  • Brazil.

    南非、

  • So in an extraordinary range of contexts all over the world,

    巴西都在用。

  • this technology is still the dominant,

    對全世界影響如此深遠,

  • most used, most effective technology to manage governance.

    今天這項巨作仍占主導地位,

  • In that moment,

    對於管理統治上,仍是最頻繁使用 也是最有效的一項技術。

  • Madison believed that, having solved this problem,

    當時,

  • the country would run smoothly,

    麥迪遜相信如果解決了這個問題,

  • and that he had designed a technology

    這個國家會運轉的更順利,

  • that would minimize the results of factions

    因此他設計了這項技術,

  • so there would be no political parties.

    使派系紛爭傷害降到最小,

  • Remarkably, he thought he had designed a constitution

    也就不會有政黨的出現了。

  • that was against political parties

    很顯然的,他認為他所設計的憲法

  • and would make them unnecessary.

    是不利於政黨的,

  • He had gotten an enormous degree of help

    也會使政黨成為不必要。

  • in the final marketing phase of his constitutional project

    他在最後推廣憲法階段

  • from a man you may have heard of, called Alexander Hamilton.

    得到了某人莫大的幫助,

  • Now, Hamilton was everything Madison was not.

    而這人你可能聽過, 亞歷山大·漢密爾頓。

  • He was passionate, where Madison was restrained.

    漢密爾頓、麥迪遜兩人 天性可說是南轅北轍。

  • He was pansexual,

    漢密爾頓充滿熱情激昂, 而麥迪遜則是嚴謹拘束,

  • where Madison didn't speak to a woman expect for once

    漢密爾頓男女老幼通吃,

  • until he was 42 years old,

    麥迪遜則從沒跟女人說過話,

  • and then married Dolley and lived happily ever after for 40 years.

    直到他 42 歲那年,

  • (Laughter)

    因此娶了朵莉為妻, 並幸福過了 40 年。

  • To put it bluntly,

    (笑聲)

  • Hamilton's the kind of person

    簡而言之,

  • about whom you would write a hip-hop musical --

    漢密爾頓是

  • (Laughter)

    那種會使你譜出嘻哈音樂劇的人──

  • and Madison is the kind of person

    (笑聲)

  • about whom you would not write a hip-hop musical.

    而麥迪遜是那種

  • (Laughter)

    無法將他譜進嘻哈音樂劇的人。

  • Or indeed, a musical of any kind at all.

    (笑聲)

  • But together,

    或是,任何種類的音樂劇都不行。

  • they had become a rather unlikely pairing,

    但是他們兩人搭檔一起時,

  • and they had produced the Federalist Papers,

    他們配合的天衣無縫,

  • which offered a justification

    他們共同創造出《聯邦論》,

  • and, as I mentioned,

    也因此給了──

  • a marketing plan for the Constitution,

    就如我先前所提到的,

  • which had been wildly effective and wildly successful.

    憲法行銷計畫的理由。

  • Once the new government was in place,

    結果十分有效、十分成功。

  • Hamilton became Secretary of the Treasury,

    當新的政府就任時,

  • and he had a very specific idea in mind.

    漢密爾頓當上了財政部部長,

  • And that was

    當時他心頭湧上一個特別的想法。

  • to do for financial institutions and infrastructure

    那就是

  • exactly what Madison had done for constitutions.

    實行金融機構以及基礎建設,

  • Again, his contemporaries all knew it.

    就像麥迪遜為憲法所做的一樣。

  • One of them told Madison,

    而同僚得知後,

  • who can't have liked it very much,

    其中一個人告訴麥迪遜,

  • that Hamilton was the Newton of infrastructure.

    他不可能願意看到

  • The idea was pretty straightforward.

    漢密爾頓成為基礎建設的初始者。

  • Hamilton would give the United States a national bank,

    他的想法相當簡單明確。

  • a permanent national debt --

    漢密爾頓將給美國一間中央銀行,

  • he said it would be "immortal," his phrase --

    一筆永久的國債──

  • and a manufacturing policy that would enable trade and manufacturing

    他說這將會「成為永恆」,

  • rather than agriculture,

    而他所制定的產業政策, 將使貿易和製造業

  • which was where the country's primary wealth had historically been.

    超越農業

  • Madison went utterly ballistic.

    這項歷史上國家首要財務來源。

  • And in this pivotal, critical decision,

    麥迪遜極力反駁。

  • instead of just telling the world that his old friend Hamilton was wrong

    在這至關重要決定中,

  • and was adopting the wrong policies,

    除了告訴眾人他的老友 漢密爾頓是錯誤的,

  • he actually began to argue

    並實施著錯誤的決策,

  • that Hamilton's ideas were unconstitutional --

    他還開始爭論

  • that they violated the very nature of the Constitution

    漢密爾頓的想法有違憲法的概念──

  • that the two of them had drafted together.

    違反了他們當初一起起草的

  • Hamilton responded the way you would expect.

    憲法其本質。

  • He declared Madison to be his "personal and political enemy" --

    漢密爾頓的回應就如我們預期,

  • these are his words.

    他宣稱麥迪遜是 「我個人也是政治上的敵人」──

  • So these two founders who had been such close friends and such close allies

    這是他親口說的。

  • and such partners,

    這兩位開國元勳人曾是 如此友好、如此親密的盟友、

  • then began to produce enmity.

    如此有默契的夥伴,

  • And they did it in the good, old-fashioned way.

    最後彼此產生了敵意。

  • First, they founded political parties.

    他們的做法很老派,

  • Madison created a party originally called the Democratic Republican Party --

    首先他們各別成立了黨派。

  • "Republican" for short --

    麥迪遜成立的黨派 原本稱為「民主共和黨」,

  • and Hamilton created a party called the Federalist Party.

    後來簡稱為「共和黨」,

  • Those two parties adopted positions on national politics

    而漢密爾頓建立了「聯邦黨。」

  • that were extreme and exaggerated.

    這兩個黨派所擁護的國家政治立場

  • To give you a clear example:

    十分誇張的極端。

  • Madison, who had always believed

    以下一個例子:

  • that the country would have some manufacturing and some trade

    麥迪遜的想法是

  • and some agriculture,

    一個國家不單單 只發展貿易與製造業,

  • began attacking Hamilton

    農業也必須概括在內,

  • as a kind of tool of the financial markets

    所以他開始攻擊漢密爾頓,

  • whom Hamilton himself intended to put in charge of the country.

    說他是金融市場的工具,

  • That was an overstatement,

    而漢密爾頓打算控制國家。

  • but it was something Madison came to believe.

    雖然聽起來誇張,

  • He also attacked city life,

    但這的確是麥迪遜所相信的。

  • and he said that the coasts were corrupt,

    麥迪遜同時也攻擊城市的生活型態,

  • and what people needed to do was to look inwards

    他認為沿岸正在腐敗,

  • to the center of the country,

    人民應該向內陸看,

  • to farmers, who were the essence of Republican virtue,

    應該更關心國家的中心,

  • and they should go back to the values that had made American great,

    應該注重農民, 即共和黨美德的精髓。

  • specifically the values of the Revolution,

    同時也應該注重 使美國人偉大的核心價值,

  • and those were the values of low taxes,

    尤其是革命的價值觀,

  • agriculture

    即低稅收,

  • and less trade.

    看重農業,

  • Hamilton responded to this by saying that Madison was naïve,

    同時減少貿易。

  • that he was childish,

    漢密爾頓回應說麥迪遜是如此天真,

  • and that his goal was to turn the United States

    同時也很幼稚,

  • into a primitive autarchy,

    他的目標是將美國轉變成為

  • self-reliant and completely ineffectual on the global scale.

    一個守舊獨裁專制,

  • (Laughter)

    一個自給自足, 對全球毫無影響力的國家。

  • They both meant it,

    (笑聲)

  • and there was some truth to each of their claims,

    他們都是認真的,

  • because each side was grossly exaggerating the views of the other

    他們各自的主張中也許有些事實,

  • in order to fight their war.

    這樣說是因為兩邊為了打贏,

  • They founded newspapers,

    都把對方的言詞誇大。

  • and so for the first time in US history,

    隨後他們各自成立報社,

  • the news that people received came entirely through the lens

    也是美國歷史上頭遭

  • of either the Republican or the Federalist party.

    人們所接收到的新聞來源

  • How does this end?

    不是出自共和黨,就是聯邦黨。

  • Well, as it turned out, the Constitution did its work.

    這最後是如何收場的?

  • But it did its work in surprising ways

    結果是,憲法呈現出它的功效,

  • that Madison himself had not fully anticipated.

    而且是以出乎意料的方式呈現,