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  • Some months back, I was visiting this East African city,

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

  • and we were stuck in traffic.

    幾個月之前,我造訪了 一個東非的城市,

  • And this vendor suddenly approaches my window

    塞車讓我們被卡在車陣中。

  • with a half-opened alphabet sheet.

    有個小販突然靠近我的車窗,

  • I took a quick look at the alphabet sheet,

    拿著一張打開一半的字母表。

  • and I thought of my daughter,

    我快速看了一眼這張字母表,

  • how it would be nice to spread it on the floor

    我想起了我的女兒,

  • and just play all over it with her

    如果能把這張表攤在地板上,

  • while getting her to learn the alphabet.

    和她在上面玩耍,

  • So the traffic moved a bit, and I quickly grabbed a copy,

    同時能讓她學會字母,該有多好?

  • and we moved on.

    車陣開始有在動了, 所以我很快就買了一份,

  • When I had time to fully open the alphabet sheet

    我們就繼續前進。

  • and take a more detailed look at it,

    當我有空把這張字母表完全打開,

  • I knew I was not going to use that to teach my daughter.

    並更仔細地去看它時,

  • I regretted my purchase.

    我就知道我不會用它 來教我女兒字母了。

  • Why so?

    我很後悔買了它。

  • Looking at the alphabet sheet reminded me of the fact

    為什麼會這樣?

  • that not much has changed

    看著這張字母表, 我想起了一件事實,

  • in the education curricula in Africa.

    非洲的教育課程

  • Some decades back, I was taught out of a similar alphabet sheet.

    並沒有多少改變。

  • And because of that, I struggled for years.

    幾十年前,我也是用 類似的字母表在學習的。

  • I struggled to reconcile my reality with the formal education I received

    正因如此,我掙扎了很多年。

  • in school, in the schools I attended.

    我很難把現實和在學校受的正規教育

  • I had identity crises.

    對應連結起來。

  • I looked down on my reality.

    我有身份危機。

  • I looked at my ancestry, I looked at my lineage with disrespect.

    我輕視我的現實。

  • I had very little patience for what my life had to offer around me.

    我看待我的血統、出身時, 是帶著輕蔑的。

  • Why?

    對於周遭人生能帶給我什麼, 我非常沒耐心去了解。

  • "A is for apple."

    為什麼?

  • "A is for apple."

    「A 代表蘋果」。 (註:蘋果 apple 是 A 開頭)

  • "A is for apple" is for that child in that part of the world

    「A 代表蘋果」。

  • where apples grow out;

    「A 代表蘋果」是說給

  • who has an apple in her lunch bag;

    世上有蘋果生長的地方的孩童聽的;

  • who goes to the grocery store with her mom and sees red,

    他們的便當袋中有蘋果,

  • green, yellow -- apples of all shapes and colors and sizes.

    他們和媽媽去雜貨店時會看到紅色、

  • And so, introducing education to this child

    綠色、黃色……各種 形狀、顏色、大小的蘋果。

  • with an alphabet sheet like this

    所以,對於像這樣的孩子,

  • fulfills one of the major functions of education,

    用這張字母單來教育他們,

  • which is to introduce the learner

    確能實現一些教育的重要功能,

  • to an appreciation of the learner's environment

    這些功能是:讓學習者學會

  • and a curiosity to explore more in order to add value.

    欣賞和感念他的周遭環境,

  • In my own case,

    並能夠有好奇心去 進一步探索,來增加價值。

  • when and where I grew up in Africa,

    在我自己的情況,

  • apple was an exotic fruit.

    我在非洲長大的地方,在那個年代,

  • Two or three times a year,

    蘋果是外來水果。

  • I could get some yellowish apples with brown dots, you know,

    一年有兩、三次,

  • signifying thousands of miles traveled -- warehouses storing --

    我可以拿到黃色的蘋果, 上面有褐色斑點,你知道的,

  • to get to me.

    象徵它經過數千英哩的 旅程、倉儲、分類,

  • I grew up in the city

    才來到我手上。

  • to very financially comfortable parents,

    我在城市長大,

  • so it was my dignified reality,

    父母經濟上算優渥,

  • exactly the same way

    那是我有尊嚴的現實,

  • cassava fufu or ugali would not regularly feature

    就像

  • in an American, Chinese or Indian diet,

    美式、中式、印度式的食物通常不會

  • apples didn't count as part of my reality.

    以木薯芙芙月或烏咖哩為號召一樣,

  • So what this did to me,

    蘋果並不算是我的現實的一部份。

  • introducing education to me with "A is for apple,"

    所以,這對我的影響,

  • made education an abstraction.

    用「A 代表蘋果」的方式 來讓我接觸教育,

  • It made it something out of my reach --

    讓教育變得很抽象。

  • a foreign concept,

    教育已非我觸手可及,

  • a phenomenon for which I would have to constantly and perpetually seek

    而是一個外來的概念,

  • the validation of those it belonged to

    是一種現象,且我得要 經常地且無止境地

  • for me to make progress within it and with it.

    去向這概念所屬的人尋求驗證,

  • That was tough for a child; it would be tough for anyone.

    我才能在這種教育學習中有所進步。

  • As I grew up and I advanced academically,

    那對孩子來說是很艱難的; 對任何人來說都是。

  • my reality was further separated from my education.

    隨著我成長以及在學術上進步,

  • In history, I was taught

    我的現實與教育之間的落差又更大了。

  • that the Scottish explorer Mungo Park discovered the Niger River.

    歷史方面,我被教導的是

  • And so it bothered me.

    蘇格蘭探險家蒙戈帕克 發現了尼日河。

  • My great-great-grandparents grew up

    那讓我感到困擾。

  • quite close to the edge of the Niger River.

    我的曾曾祖父長大的地方

  • (Laughter)

    很靠近尼日河畔。

  • And it took someone to travel thousands of miles from Europe

    (笑聲)

  • to discover a river right under their nose?

    竟然需要一個人 從歐洲跋涉數千英哩,

  • (Laughter)

    去發現一條就在眼前的河流?

  • No!

    (笑聲)

  • (Applause and cheers)

    不會吧!

  • What did they do with their time?

    (掌聲及歡呼聲)

  • (Laughter)

    他們把時間拿來做什麼了?

  • Playing board games, roasting fresh yams,

    (笑聲)

  • fighting tribal wars?

    玩桌上遊戲、烤新鮮山芋、

  • I mean, I just knew my education was preparing me to go somewhere else

    打部落戰爭?

  • and practice and give to another environment that it belonged to.

    我的意思是,我知道我受的教育 是準備將來為我所用,去別處,

  • It was not for my environment, where and when I grew up.

    用在這教育原本歸屬的另一個地方,

  • And this continued.

    而不是為用在我成長的環境準備的。

  • This philosophy undergirded my studies

    這現象持續下去,

  • all through the time I studied in Africa.

    這教育原理貫穿、固定了

  • It took a lot of experiences and some studies

    整個我在非洲所受教育的底部。

  • for me to begin to have a change of mindset.

    我經過了很多的經歷並做了些研究,

  • I will share a couple of the remarkable ones with us.

    才得以開始改變我的心態。

  • I was in the United States in Washington, DC

    我會和各位分享其中很棒的幾個。

  • studying towards my doctorate,

    當我在美國的華盛頓特區

  • and I got this consultancy position with the World Bank Africa Region.

    攻讀我的博士學位,

  • And so I remember one day,

    我得到了世界銀行 非洲地區的顧問職位。

  • my boss -- we were having a conversation on some project,

    記得有一天,

  • and he mentioned a particular World Bank project,

    我和老闆討論某個專案計畫,

  • a large-scale irrigation project that cost millions of dollars

    他提到了一個特別的 世界銀行專案計畫,

  • in Niger Republic

    一個要花費數百萬元,

  • that was faltering sustainably.

    位於尼日的大規模灌溉專案計畫,

  • He said this project wasn't so sustainable,

    這個專案漸漸失去動力。

  • and it bothered those that instituted the whole package.

    他說,這個計畫並不永續,

  • But then he mentioned a particular project,

    使得那些創制此一計畫的人很傷腦筋。

  • a particular traditional irrigation method that was hugely successful

    他接著提到另一個特別的專案計畫,

  • in the same Niger Republic where the World Bank project was failing.

    同樣在尼日,世界銀行 專案計畫失敗的地方,

  • And that got me thinking.

    這個使用傳統灌溉方法的 計畫卻大為成功。

  • So I did further research,

    那就讓我開始思考。

  • and I found out about Tassa.

    所以我進一步研究,

  • Tassa is a traditional irrigation method

    我發現了「Tassa」,

  • where 20- to 30-centimeter-wide and 20- to 30-centimeter-deep holes

    Tassa 是一種傳統的灌溉方法,

  • are dug across a field to be cultivated.

    要挖 20~30 公分寬、 20~30 公分深的洞,

  • Then, a small dam is constructed around the field,

    且在整個要耕作的田地都要挖滿洞。

  • and then crops are planted across the surface area.

    接著要在田地周圍建造一個小水壩,

  • What happens is that when rain falls,

    再把作物種在整個表面區域。

  • the holes are able to store the water

    原理是,當降雨的時候,

  • and appropriate it to the extent that the plant needs the water.

    這些洞可以儲存雨水,

  • The plant can only assimilate as much water as needed

    並依據植物對水的需要來分配水。

  • until harvest time.

    植物只會吸收它們需要的水量,

  • Niger is 75 percent scorched desert,

    就這樣直到收穫時節。

  • so this is something that is a life-or-death situation,

    尼日有 75% 都是炎熱的沙漠,

  • and it has been used for centuries.

    所以這是個攸關生死的情況,

  • In an experiment that was conducted,

    這個方法已經用了數個世紀。

  • two similar plots of land were used in the experiment,

    在一項實驗中,

  • and one plot of land

    使用了兩塊類似的土地,

  • did not have the Tassa technique on it.

    在其中一塊土地上

  • Similar plots.

    沒有使用 Tassa 技術,

  • The other one had Tassa technique constructed on it.

    另一塊類似的土地

  • Then similar grains of millet also were planted on both plots.

    用了 Tassa 技術,

  • During harvest time,

    在兩塊土地上種植小米。

  • the plot of land without Tassa technique

    在收穫時節,

  • yielded 11 kilograms of millet per hectare.

    沒有用 Tassa 技術的那塊土地

  • The plot of land with Tassa technique

    每公頃收成了 11 公斤的小米;

  • yielded 553 kilograms of millet per hectare.

    有用 Tassa 技術的那塊土地

  • (Applause)

    每公頃收成了 553 公斤的小米。

  • I looked at the research, and I looked at myself.

    (掌聲)

  • I said, "I studied agriculture for 12 years,

    我看著研究,看著我自己。

  • from primary to Senior Six, as we say in East Africa,

    我研究農業長達 12 年之久,

  • SS3 in West Africa or 12th grade.

    在我們東非的說法 是從小學到中學六年,

  • No one ever taught me

    而在西非則是 SS3 或十二年級。

  • of any form of traditional African knowledge of cultivation --

    學校從來沒教過我

  • of harvesting, of anything --

    任何一種能被成功地用在現代非洲的

  • that will work in modern times and actually succeed,

    傳統非洲耕作知識,

  • where something imported from the West would struggle to succeed.

    不管是收穫知識或其他的耕作知識;

  • That was when I knew the challenge,

    而來自的西方的耕作方式 卻苦苦掙扎,難以在非洲成功。

  • the challenge of Africa's curricula,

    那時,我知道了挑戰是什麼,

  • And I thus began my quest to dedicate my life, concern my life work,

    非洲課程的挑戰是什麼。

  • to studying, conducting research on Africa's own knowledge system

    因此,我開始了我的追尋, 將我的一生致力於

  • and being able to advocate for its mainstreaming

    研究非洲自己本身的知識系統,

  • in education, in research, policy

    並且提倡它,讓它能在 主流教育、學術、

  • across sectors and industries.

    政策等領域被大多數人所接受,

  • Another conversation and experience I had at the bank

    能跨部門也能跨產業被接受。

  • I guess made me take that final decision of where I was going to go,

    我在銀行的另一段對話和經歷,

  • even though it wasn't the most lucrative research to go into,

    讓我對於人生的方向 算是做出了終於決定,

  • but it was just about what I believed in.

    雖然我選擇的研究領域 並不能幫我賺大錢,

  • And so one day, my boss said that he likes to go to Africa

    但那是我相信的領域。

  • to negotiate World Bank loans and to work on World Bank projects.

    所以有一天,我的老闆說, 他喜歡去非洲

  • And I was intrigued. I asked him why.

    商談世界銀行貸款的事, 及處理世界銀行的專案計畫。

  • He said, "Oh, when I go to Africa,

    我很好奇,我問他為什麼?

  • it's so easy.

    他說:「喔,當我去非洲,

  • I just write up my loan documents and my project proposal in Washington, DC,

    是很輕鬆的。

  • I go to Africa, and they all just get signed.

    我只要在華盛頓特區寫好 貸款文件及專案計畫提案書,

  • I get the best deal, and I'm back to base.

    去非洲,讓所有文件被簽名即可。

  • My bosses are happy with me."

    我拿到最好的合同, 然後我就可以回基地了。

  • But then he said, "I hate going to Asia or ..."

    我的老闆都對我很滿意。」

  • and he mentioned a particular country, Asia and some of these countries.

    但接著他說:「我討厭去亞洲。」

  • "They keep me for this, trying to get the best deal for their countries.

    他提到了某個特定國家, 亞洲,及其中一些國家。

  • They get the best deal.

    「他們會拖著我,試圖為 他們國家拿到最好的合同。

  • They tell me, 'Oh, that clause will not work for us

    他們得到最好的合同。

  • in our environment.

    他們告訴我:『喔,那條條文不行,

  • It's not our reality. It's just so Western.'

    在我們的環境行不通。

  • And they tell me, 'Oh, we have enough experts

    不符合現實。太西式了。』

  • to take care of this.

    他們還告訴我:『 喔,我們有足夠的專家

  • You don't have enough experts.

    來處理這事。

  • We know our aim.'

    你沒有足夠的專家。

  • And they just keep going through all these things.

    我們知道我們自己的目標。』

  • By the time they finish, yes, they get the best deal,

    他們不斷仔細研究這些東西。

  • but I'm so exhausted and I don't get the best deal for the bank,

    等他們結束了,是的, 他們拿到了最好的合同,

  • and we're in business."

    但我累死了,而且我沒有 為銀行拿到最好的合同,

  • "Really?" I thought in my head, "OK."

    而我們是在做生意。」

  • I was privileged to sit in on a loan negotiating session

    「真的?」我腦中在想:「好吧。」

  • in an African country.

    我很幸運可以參與一場貸款協商會,

  • So I would do these consultancy positions during summer,

    它在一個非洲國家舉行。

  • you know, since I was a doctoral student.

    在夏天時,我會做這些顧問的職務,

  • And then I traveled with the team, with the World Bank team,

    你知道的,因為我是博士生。

  • as more like someone to help out with organizational matters.

    接著我和團隊一起旅行, 和世界銀行團隊一起旅行,

  • But I sat in during the negotiating session.

    我比較像是協助處理組織事務的人。

  • I had mostly Euro-Americans, you know, with me from Washington, DC.

    但在協商會的時候我可以列席。

  • And I looked across the table at my African brothers and sisters.

    和我同行的多半是來自 華盛頓特區的歐美裔人士。

  • I could see intimidation on their faces.

    我看向桌子的對面, 那邊坐的是我的非洲兄弟姐妹。

  • They didn't believe they had anything to offer

    我看得見他們臉上被嚇住的表情。

  • the great-great-grandchildren of Mungo Park --

    他們不認為他們有什麼可提供給

  • the owners of "apple" in "A is for apple."

    坐在面前的那些蒙戈帕克後裔。

  • They just sat and watched: "Oh, just give us, let us sign.

    「A 代表蘋果」中 「蘋果」的擁有者。

  • You own the knowledge. You know it all.

    他們只是坐著看:「喔, 給我們就好,讓我們簽。

  • Just, where do we sign? Show us, let us sign."

    你們擁有知識。你們全知。

  • They had no voice. They didn't believe in themselves.

    只要告訴我們在哪簽字。 指出來,我們簽字。」

  • Excuse me.

    他們沒有聲音。他們不相信自己。

  • And so,

    對不起。

  • I have been doing this for a decade.

    所以,

  • I have been conducting research on Africa's knowledge system,

    十年來我都在做這件事。

  • original, authentic, traditional knowledge.

    我都在研究非洲的知識系統,

  • In the few cases where this has been implemented in Africa,

    原始的、真實的、傳統的知識。

  • there has been remarkable successes recorded.

    在已經被導入這個系統的 少數非洲案例中,

  • I think of Gacaca.

    結果非凡地成功。

  • Gacaca is Rwanda's traditional judicial system

    我會想到加卡卡。

  • that was used after the genocide.

    加卡卡是盧安達的 傳統司法審判體制,

  • In 1994, when the genocide ended,

    從大屠殺之後就在使用。

  • Rwanda's national court system was in shambles:

    在 1994 年,大屠殺結束之後,

  • no judges, no lawyers to try hundreds of thousands of genocide cases.

    盧安達的國家法庭體制搖晃不穩:

  • So the government of Rwanda came up with this idea

    沒有法官、沒有律師來審理 成千上百的大屠殺案件。

  • to resuscitate a traditional judicial system known as Gacaca.

    所以盧安達的政府想出了一個點子,

  • Gacaca is a community-based judicial system,

    重新恢復使用一個傳統的 司法審判體制,加卡卡。

  • where community members come together

    加卡卡是個以社區為基礎 的司法審判體制,

  • to elect men and women of proven integrity

    社區的成員聚集在一起,

  • to try cases of crimes committed within these communities.

    選出被證實很廉正的男人及女人,

  • So by the time Gacaca concluded its trial of genocide cases in 2012,

    來審理在這些社區內 犯下的犯罪案件。

  • 12,000 community-based courts had tried approximately 1.2 million cases.

    到 2012 年加卡卡完成了 大屠殺案件的審理,

  • That's a record.

    12,000 個以社區為基礎的法庭, 審理完了近 120 萬件案件。

  • (Applause)

    那是一項記錄。

  • Most importantly is that Gacaca emphasized Rwanda's traditional philosophy

    (掌聲)

  • of reconciliation and reintegration,

    最重要的是,加卡卡 強調盧安達的傳統哲學,

  • as against the whole punitive and banishment idea

    調解與再融合,

  • that undergirds present-day Western style.

    而不是用現今西方模式立基的

  • And not to compare, but just to say that it really emphasized

    懲罰性與禁止的想法。

  • Rwanda's traditional method of philosophy.

    我不是要做比較, 只是說加卡卡真的很強調

  • And so it was Mwalimu Julius Nyerere,

    盧安達的傳統哲學方法。

  • former president of Tanzania --

    是朱利葉斯尼雷爾,

  • (Applause)

    坦尚尼亞的前任總統,

  • who said that you cannot develop people.

    (掌聲)

  • People will have to develop themselves.

    他說,你無法發展人民。

  • I agree with Mwalimu.

    人們得要發展他們自己。

  • I am convinced

    我同意前總統說的。

  • that Africa's further transformation, Africa's advancement,

    我相信,

  • rests simply in the acknowledgment, validation and mainstreaming

    非洲的進一步轉變、非洲的進步,

  • of Africa's own traditional, authentic, original, indigenous knowledge

    要仰賴的是去承認、驗證、 讓大多數人接受

  • in education, in research, in policy making and across sectors.

    非洲自己的傳統、真實、 原始、本土的知識,

  • This is not going to be easy for Africa.

    在教育、研究、政策制訂、 及跨各部門都要這麼做。

  • It is not going to be easy for a people used to being told how to think,

    對非洲而言,這不容易做到。

  • what to do, how to go about it,

    對於人民而言這也不容易做到, 因為他們習慣了被告知

  • a people long subjected to the intellectual guidance

    要怎麼做、要做什麼、 如何養成習慣,

  • and direction of others,

    這些人民長期受到

  • be they the colonial masters,

    其他知識份子的指引和指導,

  • aid industry or international news media.

    他們順從殖民主人,

  • But it is a task that we have to do to make progress.

    那些援助產業或國際新聞媒體的人。

  • I am strengthened by the words of Joseph Shabalala,

    但這是我們必須要努力進展的任務,

  • founder of the South African choral group Ladysmith Black Mambazo.

    約瑟夫查巴拉拉的話讓我找到力量,