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  • Good evening, everyone.

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Regina Chu

  • I am from Japan,

    各位,晚安。

  • so I'd like to start with a story about Japanese fishing villages.

    我來自日本,

  • In the past, every fisherman was tempted to catch as many as fish as possible,

    我想用一個關於日本漁村的 故事來當開頭。

  • but if everybody did that,

    在過去,每位漁民都想要 盡可能抓到越多魚越好,

  • the fish, common shared resource in the community, would disappear.

    但,如果每個人都如此,

  • The result would be hardship and poverty for everyone.

    魚,社區所共享的資源,就會消失。

  • This happened in some cases,

    結果就是每個人都艱困又貧窮。

  • but it did not happen in other cases.

    在一些案例中有發生這樣的現象,

  • In these communities,

    但在其他案例中卻沒有。

  • the fishermen developed a kind of social contract

    在這些社區中,

  • that told each one of them to hold back a bit to prevent overfishing.

    漁民發展出了一種社會契約,

  • The fisherman would keep an eye on each other.

    叫每一個人都稍稍退一步, 來預防過度捕撈。

  • There would be a penalty if you were caught cheating.

    漁民們會監視彼此。

  • But once the benefit of a social contract became clear to everyone,

    如果你作弊被逮到,會受到處罰。

  • the incentive to cheat dramatically dropped.

    但,一旦每個人都清楚了 社會契約的益處,

  • We find the same story around the world.

    作弊的動機就大幅下降了。

  • This is how villagers in medieval Europe

    我們在全世界都能找到同樣的故事。

  • managed pasture and forests.

    中世紀歐洲的村民就是這樣

  • This is how communities in Asia managed water,

    管理牧草和森林的。

  • and this is how indigenous peoples in the Amazon managed wildlife.

    亞洲的社區就是這樣管理水的,

  • These communities realized they relied on a finite, shared resource.

    亞馬遜原住民就是 這樣管理野生動物的。

  • They developed rules and practices on how to manage those resources,

    這些社區了解他們要 仰賴有限的共享資源。

  • and they changed their behavior

    對於如何管理那些資源, 他們發展出了規則和慣例,

  • so that they could continue to rely on those shared resources tomorrow

    且他們改變了他們的行為,

  • by not overfishing,

    這樣他們明天才能 繼續仰賴那些共享資源,

  • not overgrazing,

    他們的做法就是不要過度捕撈、

  • not polluting or depleting water streams today.

    不要過度放牧、

  • This is a story of the commons,

    不要污染或在今天就用盡水流。

  • and also how to avoid the so-called tragedy of the commons.

    這是個公有物的故事,

  • But this is also a story of an economy

    也是個關於如何避免所謂的 公有物悲劇的故事。

  • that was mainly local,

    但這個故事也談到一個主要為

  • where everybody had a very strong sense of belonging.

    地方性的經濟體,

  • Our economies are no longer local.

    在這個經濟體中, 人人都有很強的歸屬感。

  • When we moved away from being local,

    我們的經濟體已經 不再是地方性的了。

  • we started to lose our connection to the commons.

    當我們遠離了地方性,

  • We carried economic objectives, goals and systems beyond the local,

    我們就開始失去和公有物的連結。

  • but we did not carry the notion of taking care of the commons.

    我們把經濟方針、目標, 以及體制帶到地方性之外,

  • So our oceans, forests,

    但我們並沒有把如何照顧 公有物的想法一起帶著。

  • once very close to us as our local commons,

    所以,我們的海洋、森林,

  • moved very far away from us.

    這些曾經和我們非常靠近的公有物

  • So today, we pump millions of tons of greenhouse gases into the air,

    遠離了我們。

  • we dump plastics, fertilizers and industrial waste

    所以,現今,我們把數百萬噸的 溫室氣體排入空氣中,

  • into the rivers and oceans,

    我們丟棄塑膠、肥料, 以及工業廢料,

  • and we cut down forests that absorb CO2.

    丟入河流和海洋中,

  • We make the wild biodiversity much more fragile.

    我們砍伐吸收二氧化碳的森林。

  • We seem to have totally forgotten

    我們讓野生生物多樣性變得更脆弱。

  • that there is such a thing as global commons:

    我們似乎完全忘記了

  • air, water, forests and biodiversity.

    所一種叫做全球公有物的東西:

  • Now, it is modern science

    空氣、水、森林、生物多樣性。

  • that reminds us how vital the global commons are.

    現在,是現代科學

  • In 2009, a group of scientists proposed

    在提醒我們全球公有物有多麼重要。

  • how to assess the health of the global commons.

    2009 年,一群科學家提出

  • They defined nine planetary boundaries vital to our survival,

    評估全球公有物之健康的方法。

  • then they measured how far we could go

    他們定義了對於我們生存 很關鍵的九項地球限度,

  • before we cross over the tipping points or thresholds

    他們測量我們走了多遠

  • that would lead us to the irreversible or even catastrophic change.

    就會跨越引爆點或門檻值,

  • This is where we were in the 1950s.

    引領我們到無法逆轉或 甚至災難性的改變。

  • We broadly remained within safe operating space,

    這是我們 1950 年代時的狀況。

  • marked by the green line.

    我們大體上都維持在 安全的運作空間中,

  • But look at where we are now.

    這空間用綠線標記。

  • We have crossed four of those boundaries,

    但看看我們現在的狀況。

  • and we will be crossing others in the future.

    我們已經跨越了其中四項限度,

  • How did we end up in this situation?

    且未來我們還會跨越其他的。

  • Well, my personal story may tell us something.

    我們是怎麼落到這種下場的?

  • Five years ago, I was appointed

    我的個人故事可能 可以給我們一點資訊。

  • as CEO of the GEF, Global Environment Facility,

    五年前,我被指派為

  • but I am not a conservationist

    全球環境基金(GEF)的執行長,

  • or an environmental activist.

    但我不是天然資源保護論者,

  • I am an economist,

    也不是環境保護激進份子。

  • and for the last 30 years,

    我是經濟學家,

  • I had worked for public finance in my home country and around the world.

    過去三十年來,

  • I can tell you one thing for sure:

    我在我的祖國以及全世界 做公共財政相關的工作。

  • during these 30 years,

    我可以肯定地告訴各位一件事:

  • the notion of the global commons never crossed my mind.

    在這三十年間,

  • I didn't have a single conversation about the global commons

    我從來沒有想過 全球公有物這個概念。

  • with my colleagues.

    我完全沒有和同事談過 任何關於全球公有物的事,

  • This tells me that the notion of the global commons

    這告訴我,全球公有物的概念

  • was not really entering into the big money decisions

    並沒有真的在牽扯大錢的決策中,

  • like state budgets or investment plans.

    比如州預算或 投資計畫中,被考量到。

  • And I'm wondering, why do we have this sheer ignorance

    我很納悶,為什麼我們會完全忽視

  • about the global commons,

    全球公有物?

  • including me, myself?

    連我自己都不例外。

  • One possible explanation might be

    一種可能的解釋是,

  • that until recently, it didn't really matter too much.

    在最近之前,這都不是太要緊的事。

  • Even if we mess up some part of the environment,

    即使我們亂搞某部分的環境,

  • we were not fundamentally changing the functions of the earth system.

    基本上我們並未改變 地球系統的功能。

  • The global commons had still enough capacity

    全球公有物過去仍然 有能力承受我們的行為。

  • to take the punches we gave them.

    事實上,魚類還很充足,

  • In fact, the fish were still plentiful,

    放牧的原野還很廣大。

  • the fields for grazing were still vast.

    我們的錯誤是去假設

  • Our mistake was to assume

    地球的自我修復能力沒有極限。

  • that the capacity of the earth for self-repair

    極限是存在的。

  • had no limits.

    來自科學的訊息非常清楚:

  • It does have limits.

    我們人類已經變成了 一股壓倒性的力量,

  • The message from the science is very clear:

    會決定未來地球上的居住條件,

  • we humans have become an overwhelming force

    此外,我們快要沒有時間了。

  • to determine the future living conditions on earth,

    如果我們不為此採取行動,

  • and what's more, we are running out of time.

    我們將會失去全球公有物。

  • If we don't act on them,

    只有我們這個世代能夠保存它們──

  • we will be losing the global commons.

    保存我們所認識的公有物。

  • It's only our generation who are able to preserve it --

    該是我們開始管理 全球公有物的時候了,

  • preserve the commons as we know them.

    就像我們的父母和祖父母管理 他們的地方性公有物一樣。

  • Now is the time we start managing the global commons

    我們需要做的第一件事,

  • as our parents or our grandparents managed their local commons.

    就是承認我們確實有全球公有物,

  • The first thing we need to do

    且它們非常非常重要。

  • is to simply recognize that we do have the global commons

    接著我們得要建立對 全球公有物的管理職責,

  • and they are very, very important.

    建在所有人的思想中、

  • Then we need to build the stewardship of the global commons

    事業中、經濟中、

  • into all of our thinking,

    政策制訂中──

  • our business, our economy,

    我們所有的行為中。

  • our policy-making --

    我們得要重新創造出 漁村型社會契約,

  • in all of our actions.

    擴張到全球規模版本。

  • We need to recreate the social contract of the fishing villages

    但,在實際面上,這是什麼意思?

  • on the global scale.

    要從何處下手?

  • But what does it mean in practice?

    我認為,有四項關鍵的經濟系統

  • Where to start with?

    在根本上需要被改變。

  • I see there are four key economic systems

    第一,我們得要改變我們的城市。

  • that fundamentally need to change.

    到 2050 年時,我們的人口 會有三分之二住在城市中。

  • First, we need to change our cities.

    我們得要綠化城市。

  • By 2050, two thirds of our population will live in cities.

    第二,我們得要改變 我們的能源系統。

  • We need green cities.

    世界經濟必須要明確地去碳,

  • Second, we need to change our energy system.

    基本上,在一個世代就要完成。

  • The world economy must sharply decarbonize,

    第三,我們得要改變 我們的生產—消費系統。

  • essentially in one generation.

    我們得要脫離目前的 「取用—生產—丟棄」消費模式。

  • Third, we need to change our production-consumption system.

    最後,我們得要改變 我們的食物系統,

  • We need to break away from current take-make-waste consumption patterns.

    吃什麼,以及如何生產它。

  • And finally, we need to change our food system,

    所有這四個系統

  • what to eat and how to produce it.

    對全球公有物產生了很大的壓力,

  • And all of those four systems

    且要翻轉它們是非常困難的。

  • are putting enormous pressure on the global commons,

    它們極度複雜,

  • and it's also very difficult to flip them.

    涉及到許多決策者和行為者。

  • They are extremely complex,

    我們用食物系統來當例子。

  • with many decision-makers, actors involved.

    目前,食物生產造成了

  • Let's take the example of the food system.

    四分之一的溫室氣體排放。

  • Food production is currently responsible

    它也是世界水資源的主要使用者。

  • for one quarter of greenhouse gas emissions.

    事實上,現今有 70% 的水 都被用來種植作物。

  • It is also a main user of the world's water resources.

    很大區域的熱帶森林被用在農業上。

  • In fact, 70 percent of today's water is used to grow crops.

    森林砍伐造成了絕種。

  • Vast areas of tropical forest are used for agriculture.

    事實上,我們失去物種的速度,

  • This deforestation drives extinction.

    比自然的速度要快上一千倍。

  • In fact, we are losing species 1,000 times faster

    除了那些壞消息之外,

  • than the natural rate.

    現今全球所生產的食物,

  • And on top of all of that bad news,

    有三分之一都沒被食用。

  • one third of food produced today globally

    它們被浪費掉了。

  • is not eaten.

    但,也有好消息,

  • It's wasted.

    好徵兆。

  • But there is the good news,

    利害關係人的聯盟

  • good signs.

    現在集結在一起, 試圖改善食物系統,

  • Coalitions of stakeholders

    他們有一個共同目標:

  • are now coming together to try to transform the food system

    如何生產出足夠 每個人吃的健康食物,

  • with one shared goal:

    同時,還要試圖縮減、大大降低

  • how to produce enough healthy food for everyone,

    食物系統在全球公有物上的足跡。

  • at the same time,

    我有個機會,

  • to try to cut, to sharply reduce,

    飛過蘇門達臘島的印尼島嶼,

  • the footprint from the food system on the global commons.

    我親眼看見嚴重的森林砍伐,

  • I had an opportunity

    為了棕櫚油騰出種植空間。

  • to fly over the Indonesian island of Sumatra,

    順道一提,數以千計的 食物產品都含有棕櫚油,

  • and I saw with my own eyes

    我們每天都在吃。

  • the massive deforestation

    全球對於棕櫚油的需求在增加,

  • to make room for palm oil plantations.

    在蘇門達臘島,我會見了小佃農,

  • By the way, palm oil is included in thousands of food products

    他們需要種植棕櫚樹來維生。

  • we eat every day.

    我會見了全球食物公司、

  • The global demand for palm oil is just increasing.

    金融機構,

  • In Sumatra, I met smallholder farmers

    以及地方政府官員。

  • who need to make a day-to-day living from growing oil palm.

    所有人都告訴我, 他們無法靠自己造成改變,

  • I met global food companies,

    只有透過在某種新契約或新做法之下

  • financial institutions

    進行合作,

  • and local government officials.

    他們才有機會保護熱帶森林。

  • All of them told me that they can't make the change by themselves,

    很讓人振奮的是, 至少在過去幾年間,

  • and only by working together under a kind of new contract,

    在供應鏈上這些盡心盡力的 行為者當中,這個新聯盟

  • or a new practice,

    能集結在一起,試圖改善食物系統。

  • do they have a chance to protect tropical forests.

    事實上,他們試著在做的事,

  • So it's so encouraging to see, at least for the last few years,

    是創造出一種新的社會契約, 來管理全球公有物。

  • this new coalition among these committed actors along the supply chain

    所有的改變都始於家中,

  • come together to try to transform the food system.

    始於你的地方和我的地方。

  • In fact, what they are trying to do

    在全球環境基金(GEF),

  • is to create a new kind of social contract to manage the global commons.

    我們現在有一項新策略,

  • All changes start at home,

    我們把全球公有物 放在策略的中心位置。

  • at your place and at my place.

    我希望不會只有我們在做。

  • At GEF, Global Environment Facility,

    如果每個人都待在界線邊, 等其他人踏入界線內,

  • we have now a new strategy,

    那麼全球公有物將會持續惡化,

  • and we put the global commons at its center.

    每個人都會過得更糟許多。

  • I hope we won't be the only ones.

    我們得要拯救我們自己, 不要讓公有物悲劇發生。

  • If everybody stays on the sidelines, waiting for others to step in,

    所以,我邀請在座所有人, 擁抱全球公有物。

  • the global commons will continue to deteriorate,

    請切記,全球公有物確實存在,

  • and everybody will be much worse off.

    它們正在等著你們來管理。

  • We need to save ourselves from the tragedy of the commons.

    地球是我們所共有的。

  • So, I invite all of you to embrace the global commons.

    我們呼吸相同的空氣,

  • Please do remember that global commons do exist

    我們喝相同的水,

  • and are waiting for your stewardship.

    我們依賴同樣的海洋、 森林,以及生物多樣性。

  • We all share one planet in common.

    地球上已經沒有容納 自我主義的空間了。

  • We breathe the same air,

    全球公有物必須要被保留在 它們的安全運作空間中,

  • we drink the same water,

    我們只有同心協力才能辦得到。

  • we depend on the same oceans, forests, and biodiversity.

    非常謝謝。

  • There is no space left on earth for egoism.

    (掌聲)

  • The global commons must be kept within their safe operating space,

  • and we can only do it together.

  • Thank you so much.

  • (Applause)

Good evening, everyone.

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Regina Chu

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 全球 森林 管理 契約 食物

TED】石井直子:保護地球的經濟案例(保護地球的經濟案例|石井直子) (【TED】Naoko Ishii: An economic case for protecting the planet (An economic case for protecting the planet | Naoko Ishii))

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