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  • At 7:50 a.m.. On the morning of August the 9th 1945

    早上7點50分1945年8月9日上午

  • air-raid sirens began to ring out in the Japanese city of Nagasaki

    日本長崎市的防空警報開始響起。

  • However a short while later the sirens rang out again

    然而不一會兒,警笛聲又響了起來

  • Indicating that there was no danger and people began to climb out of their shelters to carry on about their daily business

    表明沒有危險,人們開始爬出避難所,繼續做日常的工作

  • Japanese spotters had only cited two us AAF b-29 bombers

    日本間諜只提到了兩架美國空軍的B-29轟炸機。

  • Not enough for an air raid on a major city and presumed, they were merely on a reconnaissance mission.

    不夠空襲一座大城市,估計,他們只是在執行偵察任務。

  • At 1101 hours a single bomb was dropped into the city's industrial area

    11時1分,一枚炸彈被投進該市工業區。

  • the bomb detonated with the equivalent force of 22,000 sticks of TNT

    炸彈爆炸的威力相當於22,000根TNT炸藥

  • Which resulted in a blast so bright that was seen by observers over a hundred miles away.

    爆炸的結果是如此明亮,以至於一百多英里外的觀察者都看到了。

  • the fireball generated temperatures in excess of three thousand nine hundred degrees centigrade and

    火球產生的溫度超過了三千九百攝氏度,而且還在不斷地增加。

  • Generated winds of up to six hundred miles per hour that added to the destruction

    產生了高達每小時六百英里的風,加劇了破壞。

  • exact figures are unclear, but at least

    具體數字不詳,但至少

  • 129 thousand people were either killed on the day, or would die in the weeks and even years that followed

    12.9萬人要麼在當天被殺,要麼在隨後的幾周甚至幾年內死亡。

  • six days after this attack

    六天後

  • Japan surrendered to the Allies

    日本向盟軍投降

  • Bringing to a close the most destructive conflict ever recorded

    結束了有史以來最具破壞性的衝突。

  • that ended with the first two and so far only nuclear attacks in history

    歷史上唯一的一次核攻擊,以前兩次也是迄今為止唯一的一次核攻擊而告終

  • It was the Second World War

    那是第二次世界大戰

  • It's impossible to disect the causes of the second world war

    第二次世界大戰的原因是無法剖析的

  • without discussing the rise of the Nazi Party in Germany and its leader, Adolf Hitler

    而不討論德國納粹黨的崛起及其領袖阿道夫-希特勒。

  • Hitler was himself of Austrian birth, but he fought in the German army during the first world war

    希特勒本人是奧地利出生,但他在第一次世界大戰期間參加了德國軍隊的戰鬥

  • When the war ended with Germany's humiliation Hitler felt especially bitter about it

    當戰爭以德國的屈辱而結束時,希特勒對此感到特別痛苦

  • unlike many in Europe he feared communism spreading beyond the borders of

    與許多歐洲人不同,他擔心共產主義會蔓延到歐洲以外的地方。

  • post-revolutionary Russia

    革命後的俄羅斯

  • In 1919 a year after the end of the war he joined a new and little-known political group

    戰爭結束一年後的1919年,他加入了一個新的、鮮為人知的政治團體。

  • called the German Workers Party and used his great ability as a speaker to stir up crowds and gain support a

    稱為德國工人黨,並利用他作為一個演講者的強大能力來煽動人群,並獲得支持a

  • Year later the party was renamed the National Socialist, German Workers Party

    年後該黨改名為國家社會主義德國工人黨。

  • more commonly known by its English abbreviation Nazi

    納粹分子

  • In 1921 Hitler rose to become leader of the party and again using his magnetic personality he continued to garner more and more support

    1921年,希特勒上升為黨的領袖,他再次利用自己的磁性人格,不斷獲得更多的支持。

  • Until 1923 the Nazis were confident enough to attempt a coup in Munich and seize power

    直到1923年,納粹有足夠的信心在慕尼黑髮動政變,奪取政權。

  • Known as the Beer Hall Putsch the effort failed and Hitler was arrested before being put on trial, but this only furthered the Nazi cause

    被稱為 "啤酒館政變 "的努力失敗了,希特勒在受審前被逮捕,但這只是進一步推動了納粹的事業。

  • Hitler used the trial to gain even more supporters and despite him spending a year in prison in which he wrote his autobiography Mein Kampf

    希特勒利用這次審判獲得了更多的支持者,儘管他在監獄裡呆了一年,在這一年裡他寫了自傳《我的奮鬥》。

  • The Nazis continued to establish themselves in German politics

    納粹黨繼續在德國政治中確立自己的地位。

  • Mein Kampf not only outlined his own story, but it also set about establishing his vision for the future of the German people and

    我的奮鬥》不僅勾勒出他自己的故事,而且還確立了他對德國人民未來的願景和

  • how he believed subversive groups were holding them back from achieving their destiny through measures such as the Treaty of Versailles

    他認為顛覆集團如何通過《凡爾賽條約》等措施阻礙他們實現自己的命運。

  • Which outlined Germany's surrender terms

    其中概述了德國的投降條件

  • He specifically identified Jews and communists as being leaders of this great international

    他特別指出猶太人和共產黨人是這個偉大的國際組織的領導人。

  • Conspiracy to keep the German people down after the war

    陰謀使德國人民在戰後被打倒。

  • Highlighting the harsh conditions imposed on the country by the victorious Allies

    強調戰勝國盟軍對該國施加的苛刻條件; 4.

  • Such as the dissolution of Germany's Empire and armed forces

    如德意志帝國和武裝力量的解體。

  • The loss of territory to newly created countries in the East and France in the West and having to pray crippling war reparations

    東邊新成立的國家和西邊的法國失去了領土,不得不祈求殘缺的戰爭賠償。

  • the book effectively became the Nazi Bible

    這本書實際上成了納粹的聖經

  • by

  • 1933 the Nazi Party had secured enough political support, but Hitler legally became Chancellor of Germany

    1933年納粹黨獲得了足夠的政治支持,但希特勒在法律上成為了德國總理。

  • He quickly began passing legislation that would transform Germany into Nazi Germany and the swastika would symbolize this

    他很快就開始通過立法,將德國變成納粹德國,而 "卍 "字將象徵著這一點。

  • reinvigorated country

    重振國力

  • the prosecution of Jews Gypsies and political opponents soon became government policy as

    對猶太人、吉普賽人和政治反對派的起訴很快就成為政府的政策。

  • Hitler began preparing Nazi Germany to attain what he saw as his destiny cantered around the concept of the Aryan race

    希特勒開始準備讓納粹德國實現他認為的命運,圍繞著雅利安人種的概念展開。

  • With himself as the undisputed leader the Fuehrer

    以他自己為無可爭議的領袖,元首。

  • History records that the Second World War began in 1939

    史料記載,第二次世界大戰開始於1939年。

  • However some historians now argue that it began in 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in China

    然而現在有的歷史學家認為,它始於1931年日本對中國滿洲的侵略。

  • The Japanese deliberately detonated a bomb by Chinese railway line used by Japanese

    日本人在中國鐵路旁故意引爆日軍使用的炸彈。

  • citizens in order to blame it on Chinese dissidents

    歸罪於中國異見者。

  • This was then used as a pretext to invade the country and Japan would occupy the land there until liberated by the Allies in 1945

    然後以此為藉口入侵該國,日本將佔領那裡的土地,直到1945年盟軍解放。

  • Japanese occupation of Chinese territory was extraordinarily harsh

    日軍對中國領土的佔領異常慘烈。

  • Rape and murder were widespread and often encouraged by the Japanese leadership

    強姦和謀殺非常普遍,而且經常受到日本領導人的鼓勵。

  • While at Pingfang in northeast China a military research unit was set up with a special mission

    在中國東北平房時,成立了一個軍事研究組織、部門,擔負著特殊的使命。

  • designated unit 731

    指定組織、部門 731

  • thousands of Chinese civilians were used in nightmarish medical experiments to develop biological and chemical weapons

    數以千計的中國平民被用於噩夢般的醫學實驗,以發展生物和化學武器。

  • As well as carry out experimental surgeries often without anesthesia for fear of corrupting the data

    以及進行實驗性手術時往往不需要麻醉,因為害怕破壞數據。

  • In 1922 Benito Mussolini and his national fascist party rose to power in Italy

    1922年,貝尼託-墨索里尼和他的國家法西斯黨在意大利上臺。

  • Very soon he began reshaping the Democratic political landscape of the country, into a dictatorship counted around himself

    很快,他就開始重塑國家的民主政治格局,變成了一個以他自己為中心的獨裁政權。

  • Mussolini like Hitler in Germany

    墨索里尼

  • Believed his country had a destiny and wanted to build a new Roman Empire

    相信自己的國家是有命運的,想建立一個新的羅馬帝國。

  • beginning with a massive buildup of his armed forces

    大興土木

  • he was not afraid to use them and prove this when he sent his forces into Abyssinia modern-day Ethiopia in

    他不懼怕使用它們,並證明了這一點,當他在2009年派兵進入阿比西尼亞(今衣索匹亞)的時候,他就開始使用它們。

  • 1935 to start the construction of his new empire in Africa

    1935年,開始在非洲建立他的新帝國。

  • If Manchuria can be considered the first battle friend of World War two then Abyssinia was the second

    如果說滿洲可以算是第二次世界大戰的第一個戰友,那麼阿比西尼亞就是第二個戰友。

  • As the 1930s grew on Hitler's Nazi Party became firmly embedded

    隨著20世紀30年代的發展,希特勒的納粹黨變得根深蒂固。

  • Not just in German politics but into German society on a whole

    不僅僅是在德國政治中,而是進入整個德國社會中

  • The German people had much to thank the Nazi Party for since they had pulled the country after the disparate feat and reinvigorated it

    德國人民要感謝納粹黨,因為他們在異樣的壯舉之後,拉動了國家的發展,使國家重新煥發了活力。

  • Promising that Germany would soon be attaining its destiny of becoming a great power again

    承諾德國將很快實現其再次成為大國的命運。

  • Hitler's appeal and influence was not lost on foreign observers

    希特勒的吸引力和影響力對外國觀察家來說並不陌生

  • Many of whom admired him and even began to sympathize with the Treaty of Germany after the war

    其中很多人都很佩服他,甚至在戰後開始同情德國條約

  • Proof of this was given when Hitler became Time Magazine's Man of the Year

    當希特勒成為《時代》雜誌的年度風雲人物時,就證明了這一點。

  • This played perfectly into Hitler's hands as he began making notions of regaining lost territory in the east and west of the country

    這對希特勒起到了完美的作用,他開始做出收復我國東西部失地的設想。

  • The first test of how the Allied powers of Britain and France would respond to his new Germany came in 1935

    英法聯軍如何應對新德國的第一次考驗是在1935年。

  • When Hitler introduced military conscription which saw the German armed forces swell many times beyond the number permitted by the Treaty of Versailles

    當希特勒實行徵兵制時,德國武裝部隊的人數比《凡爾賽條約》允許的人數膨脹了許多倍。

  • But the Allies did nothing

    但盟軍什麼也沒做

  • Encouraged by this he then ordered his troops into the Rhineland in 1936

    在此鼓勵下,他又於1936年命令部隊進入萊茵地區

  • the Rhineland had been demilitarized in

    萊茵蘭地區已實現非軍事化。

  • 1925

    1925

  • In order to create a safety zone for France

    為了給法國建立一個安全區

  • Who along with Belgium had occupied it for a time due to Germany's inability to pay war reparations

    由於德國無力支付戰爭賠款,他和比利時曾一度佔領了它。

  • Hitler had given secret orders to his men that should they encounter French military resistance

    希特勒給他的部下下達了密令 如果他們遇到法國的軍事抵抗

  • They were to retreat because Germany was still in no condition to fight a war

    他們要撤退,因為德國仍然不具備打仗的條件。

  • Despite protests by France had the Legion of Nations the precursor to modern-day UN again. They did nothing

    儘管法國提出抗議,但國際軍團又成了現代聯合國的前身。他們什麼也沒做

  • In 1937 British Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin stood down and was succeeded by Neville Chamberlain

    1937年,英國首相斯坦利-鮑德溫下臺,由內維爾-張伯倫接任。

  • Meanwhile Germany continued to rearm and now set their sights on reclaiming the German state land

    與此同時,德國繼續重整軍備,現在他們的目標是奪回德國國土

  • Which had been absorbed into Czechoslovakia after the war at

    戰後被捷克斯洛伐克吞併,並於2007年12月1日被納入捷克斯洛伐克。

  • The same time Hitler looked to his own birth country of Austria to become a part of his new Germany

    同時希特勒也希望自己的出生國奧地利能成為他新德國的一部分。

  • Although this was again forbidden by the Versailles Treaty

    雖然《凡爾賽條約》再次禁止這樣做。

  • Austria and Germany had long had an almost symbiotic relationship and both countries people view the other as cousins

    長期以來,奧地利和德國幾乎是共生關係,兩國人民都把對方視為表親

  • Austria even had its own Nazi Party and in January 1938

    奧地利甚至有自己的納粹黨,1938年1月。

  • they attempted their own purge much like Hitler had tried in 1923 the

    他們試圖進行自己的清洗,就像希特勒在1923年嘗試的那樣。

  • purge failed and many leading Austrian Nazis were imprisoned

    肅反失敗,許多奧地利納粹頭目被關進了監獄

  • Hitler's propaganda machine went to work creating a false impression that Austrians were rising up in support of their imprisoned Nazis and

    希特勒的宣傳機器開始工作了 製造了一個錯誤的印象,即奧地利人正在起義支持他們被監禁的納粹分子和

  • so on March the 12th

    所以在三月十二日

  • 1938

    1938

  • German troops entered Austrian territory on the pretense of restoring order

    德軍以恢復秩序為名進入奧地利境內。

  • Within weeks the Austrian government was gone, and the country was absorbed into Germany as the province of Ostmark

    幾周之內,奧地利政府就消失了,這個國家被吸收到德國,成為奧斯特馬克省。

  • a vote on joining Germany claims that 99% of the population

    在加入德國的投票中,聲稱99%的人口都在投票

  • Supported the move which was known as Anschluss

    支持被稱為Anschluss的行動。

  • Having secured his home nation under greater Germany

    他的祖國在大德國的統治下得到了保障

  • Hitler declared himself as the advocate of all ethnic Germans in Europe and

    希特勒宣稱自己是歐洲所有德意志族人的代言人,並。

  • primarily of those in sedate inland

    主要是內陸沉澱地區的人

  • making clear his intention to absorb the region into Germany a

    清楚地表明他打算將該地區併入德國。

  • Diplomatic crisis was sparked when just like in Austria a sedate inland Nazi Party rose armed and began demanding autonomy from

    就像在奧地利一樣,一個沉穩的內陸納粹黨武裝起來,開始要求自治,引發了外交危機。

  • Czechoslovakia

    捷克斯洛伐克

  • the Czech government tried to negotiate with the sedating Germans while a series of meetings were held between Germany Britain and France to

    捷克政府試圖與鎮靜的德國人進行談判,同時德國、英國和法國之間舉行了一系列會議,以確保捷克政府的安全。

  • reach an agreement on the crisis

    達成危機協議

  • Culminating in the Munich Agreement, which effectively gave a free hand to Germany's ambitions

    最終在慕尼黑協議中,該協議有效地給德國的野心提供了自由之手。

  • No Czech, representative was present

    捷克代表未出席

  • First Hitler took the Sudetenland and then in January 1939

    希特勒先是佔領了蘇臺德地區,然後在1939年1月又佔領了蘇臺德地區

  • He invaded and captured the rest of Czechoslovakia in his first act of truly open aggression towards a neighbor

    他入侵併佔領了捷克斯洛伐克的其餘部分,這是他第一次真正公開侵略一個鄰國的行為。

  • The conquest of Czechoslovakia raised concerns with the mighty Soviet Union which was in the grip of the paranoid Joseph Stalin

    對捷克斯洛伐克的征服引起了強大的蘇聯的關注,它被偏執的約瑟夫-斯大林所控制。

  • Hitler had written in Mein Kampf that having to fight a war on two fronts was one of the reasons the Kaiser's Germany was defeated

    希特勒在《我的奮鬥》中寫道,不得不在兩條戰線上打仗是德皇的德國被打敗的原因之一。

  • And so having already antagonized London and Paris

    所以在已經與倫敦和巴黎對立之後

  • He was far more careful with Moscow and began a diplomatic effort with the Soviet Union to keep them out of events in the West

    他對莫斯科更加小心翼翼,並開始與蘇聯進行外交努力,不讓他們參與西方的事件。

  • in

  • August 1939

    1939年8月

  • German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop met with his German counterpart

    德國外長約阿希姆-馮-裡賓特洛甫會見了德國同行。

  • Vyacheslav Molotov in Moscow

    維亞切斯拉夫-莫洛托夫在莫斯科

  • Where the two of them effectively divided up Eastern Europe into two on

    在那裡,他們兩人有效地將東歐一分為二,在上

  • The promise that neither would interfere with the other in those areas

    承諾雙方都不干涉對方在這些領域的工作;

  • The Soviet Union had its own interests in Poland and Finland and so was happy to abide by this agreement

    蘇聯在波蘭和芬蘭有自己的利益,所以很樂意遵守這個協議。

  • even though Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union were ideological enemies

    儘管納粹德國和蘇聯在意識形態上是敵對的,但是

  • Despite this period of cooperation many fouled that it wouldn't last

    儘管這段時間的合作,許多人都擔心它不會持續下去。

  • But with Russia at bay Hitler ordered his troops into Poland on September the 1st

    但由於俄國被牽制住了,希特勒在9月1日命令他的部隊進入波蘭。

  • 1939

    1939

  • The invasion of Poland was the final straw for Britain and France

    入侵波蘭是英法兩國的最後一根稻草

  • there was no justification for the invasion other than to simply capture territory from a foreign land and

    除了簡單地從異國他鄉奪取領土之外,沒有任何入侵的理由。

  • so Britain and France delivered an ultimatum to Hitler

    於是英法兩國向希特勒下達了最後通牒

  • Withdraw his troops, or there would be war

    撤軍,否則就會發生戰爭

  • The demand was refused and on September the 3rd Neville Chamberlain told the British people they were at war with Germany

    這個要求被拒絕了 9月3日,內維爾-張伯倫告訴英國人民,他們正在與德國開戰。

  • unless we heard from them by

    除非我們從他們那裡聽到

  • 11 o'clock

    十一點鐘

  • That they were prepared at once to withdraw their troops from Poland a state of war

    他們準備立即從波蘭撤出他們的軍隊,這是戰爭狀態。

  • Would exist between us I?

    我們之間會存在I?

  • Have to tell you now that no such undertaking has been received and that

    現在不得不告訴你,沒有收到這樣的承諾,而且...。

  • Consequently this country is at war with Germany

    是以,這個國家與德國開戰了

  • Some of Germany's more cautious generals had warned Hitler that the country was not yet ready for a second massive European confrontation

    德國的一些比較謹慎的將軍曾警告希特勒,德國還沒有準備好進行第二次大規模的歐洲對峙

  • Germany's rearmament plans predicted war with Britain and France breaking out in 1945

    德國的重整軍備計劃預示著1945年與英國和法國的戰爭將爆發。

  • By which time they would have their own aircraft carrier large u-boat fleets and powerful tank forces

    屆時他們將擁有自己的航空母艦 大型U型潛艇艦隊和強大的坦克部隊。

  • the generals therefore concocted their blitzkrieg style of war

    諸將是以炮製出閃電戰的戰法

  • Blitzkrieg meant lightning war and called for the widespread use of tanks and aircraft to break through enemy

    閃電戰意味著閃電戰,並要求廣泛使用坦克和飛機來突破敵人的防線

  • Formations to capture a key strategic areas and divide enemy forces up to make them easy to destroy

    形成攻佔關鍵戰略區域的陣型,將敵軍分割開來,使其易於被消滅

  • Above all it was intended to achieve a quick victory rather than a drawn-out war of attrition which Germany could not afford it

    最重要的是,它的目的是為了迅速取得勝利,而不是德國無法承受的一場曠日持久的消耗戰。

  • Was first used in Poland and the Polish army proved totally inadequate for this new form of warfare in

    首次在波蘭使用,而事實證明,波蘭軍隊完全不適合這種新形式的戰爭,在波蘭的戰爭中,波蘭軍隊的戰鬥力是很強的。

  • Less than a month the Polish army was annihilated and the German army the viewmarq

    不到一個月,波蘭軍隊就被消滅了,德國軍隊也被消滅了。

  • Began consolidating their positions in western Poland as the Soviet Union invaded the east of the country on

    在蘇聯入侵波蘭東部時,開始鞏固其在波蘭西部的陣地。