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  • [ ♪ Intro ]


  • Whether or not eyes are the windows to the soul... scientifically, pupils are the

    眼睛是否是窗戶 靈魂......從科學上講,學生是......的靈魂。

  • windows of the eyes.


  • And sometimes, those windows are more open than usual, like when you've taken a medication

    有時,這些窗戶更開放 比平時更多,就像你吃藥一樣

  • that causes pupil dilation.


  • Or when people use certain recreational drugs.


  • It all comes down to how different chemicals can cause changes throughout your whole body,

    這一切都歸結於不同的化學品 可以引起你全身的變化。

  • which can affect little muscles in your eyes.


  • The pupils are openings that let light into the rest of your eye.

    瞳孔是開放的,讓光進入 你的眼睛的其餘部分。

  • And the colored part of your eye, the iris, controls how much light makes it in.

    還有你眼睛的彩色部分,虹膜。 控制光線進入的程度。

  • The balance of two muscle groups in the iris changes how big your pupils are, like a camera aperture.

    虹膜中兩組肌肉的平衡性。 改變你的瞳孔有多大,就像相機的光圈一樣。

  • The iris dilator is arranged like bicycle spokes around the center of your eye.

    虹膜擴張器像自行車一樣排列。 輻條圍繞著你的眼睛中心。

  • And when it contracts, it pulls your pupils open wider.

    當它收縮時,它會拉動你的瞳孔。 開得更大。

  • The iris sphincter, on the other hand, is in a ring around your pupil and acts like

    虹膜括約肌則是。 在你的瞳孔周圍形成一個環形,就像在你的瞳孔周圍形成一個環形,就像在你的瞳孔周圍形成一個環形,就像在你的瞳孔周圍形成一個環形,就像在你的瞳孔周圍形成一個環形,就像在你的瞳孔周圍形成一個環形,就像在你的瞳孔周圍形成一個環形,就像在你的瞳孔周圍形成一個環形,就像在你的瞳孔周圍形成一個環形,就像在你的瞳孔周圍形成一個環形,就像在你的瞳孔周圍形成一個環形,就像在你的瞳孔周圍形成一個環形,就像在你的瞳孔周圍形成一個環形,就像在你的瞳孔周圍形成一個環形,就像在你的瞳孔周圍形成一個環形,就像在你的瞳孔周

  • most of the sphincter muscles in your body.


  • It constricts your pupils down to little dots.


  • So now you know that you've got a sphincter in your eye.

    現在你知道你有括約肌了吧? 在你的眼裡。

  • That's just a fact for you.


  • Anything that blocks or stimulates either muscle can knock that balance out of whack

    任何阻擋或刺激以下兩種情況的東西 肌肉會使平衡失調

  • and cause some really noticeable changes.


  • For example, drugs that block receptors for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine can cause

    例如,阻斷以下藥物受體的藥物。 神經遞質乙酰膽鹼可導致。

  • impressive dilation.


  • These medications are designed to inhibit the parasympathetic nervous system, which

    這些藥物是為了抑制 副交感神經系統。

  • controls the involuntary muscle contractions that keep things moving in your body, like

    控制肌肉的不自主收縮 讓你身體裡的東西移動,比如

  • your lungs, or the plumbing that gets rid of waste.

    你的肺部,或管道,以消除。 浪費的。

  • This system also controls the iris sphincter muscle.

    該系統還控制虹膜括約肌。 肌肉。

  • So when it's inhibited, the iris sphincter can't counteract the pull from the iris

    所以當它被抑制時,虹膜括約肌 敵不過虹膜的拉力

  • dilatorand you get wide open, 'blown out' pupils.

    擴張器--你會得到寬闊的空間,"吹"。 出 "學生。

  • Some drugs, like ones for overactive bladders or excessive sweating, target the entire parasympathetic

    一些藥物,如治療膀胱過度活躍的藥物。 或出汗過多,針對整個副交感系統的

  • nervous system.


  • They often have dilated pupils or blurry vision as side effects, but those aren't the goal.

    他們經常會出現瞳孔放大或視線模糊的情況。 作為副作用,但這些都不是目標。

  • Others, like the drops used to dilate pupils for eye exams, are more targeted and don't

    其他的,比如用來擴大瞳孔的藥水。 為眼部檢查,更有針對性,不。

  • throw your whole body off.


  • Now, other drugs can stimulate the sympathetic nervous system, responsible for your body's

    現在,其他藥物可以刺激交感神經 神經系統,負責你身體的

  • 'fight-or-flight' response.


  • And these too can cause dilation.


  • Take adrenaline, which floods your bloodstream when you're scared but is also a medication

    腎上腺素,充斥著你的血液。 當你害怕的時候,但也是一種藥物。

  • for extreme allergic reactionsit's what's in the EpiPen.

    極端過敏反應--它是。 什麼是在EpiPen。

  • Adrenaline can bind to nerve receptors connected to the iris dilator, making it contract and

    腎上腺素可以與神經受體結合,連接到。 虹膜擴張器,使其收縮和。

  • pull your pupils open wide.


  • If people use drugs like cocaine, amphetamines, or even weed, their brains have more dopamine

    如果人們使用可卡因、安非他命等毒品。 甚至是大麻,他們的大腦中有更多的多巴胺。

  • and norepinephrine floating around.


  • Usually, either extra neurotransmitters get released, or receptors that naturally suck

    通常情況下,要麼額外的神經遞質得到了 釋放的受體,或自然吸吮的受體。

  • them away get blocked by those drugs.


  • These chemicals are involved in thehighfeeling but also cause dilated pupils.

    這些化學品參與 "高"。 感,但也會引起瞳孔放大。

  • Scientists think that dopamine makes certain nerve cells release more norepinephrine, which

    科學家認為,多巴胺使某些 神經細胞釋放出更多的去甲腎上腺素,而這

  • works like adrenaline to make the iris dilator contract.

    就像腎上腺素一樣,使虹膜擴張器發揮作用 契約。

  • So wide pupils can be caused by a lot of things.


  • But they're a hint that certain chemicalsillicit or notare bubbling through

    但它們是一種暗示,某些化學品 - 違法或不違法----------------------冒出

  • your body.


  • Thanks to our Patreon patrons for asking us great questions like this!

    感謝我們的Patreon贊助人對我們的要求。 這樣的好問題

  • If you want to support us and send us questions, and get some other cool stuff you can go to

    如果你想支持我們,給我們發問題。 並得到一些其他很酷的東西,你可以去。


  • And if you want to learn more about human eyes, check out our video where I explain

    如果你想了解更多關於人類 眼睛,查看我們的視頻,在那裡我解釋

  • what those pesky little eye floaters actually are.

    那些討厭的小眼浮子到底是什麼 是:

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為什麼某些藥物會使瞳孔擴大 (Why Do Some Drugs Make Your Pupils Wider?)

  • 86 9
    Yao Chung Chang 發佈於 2018 年 03 月 28 日