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  • What do you see?

    譯者: Yolanda Wei 審譯者: Regina Chu

  • Most of you see a barbershop,

    你看到什麼?

  • but I see an opportunity:

    多數人看到的是理髮店,

  • an opportunity for health,

    但是我見到一個機會:

  • an opportunity for health equity.

    一個促進健康的機會,

  • For black men, the barbershop is not just a place

    一個促進人人都可以 享受健康的機會。

  • where you get your hair cut or your beard trimmed.

    對黑人來說,理髪店不單只是

  • No, it's much more than that.

    你剪頭髮或剃鬍子的地方。

  • Historically, the barbershop has been a safe haven for black men.

    它有更重大的意義。

  • It's a place where we go for friendship,

    自古理髪店就是黑人的安樂窩。

  • solidarity and solace.

    那裡是可以結交朋友,

  • It's a place where we go to get away from the stress

    大家團結一致和互相安慰的地方。

  • of the grind of work

    在那裡我們可以遠離

  • and sometimes home life.

    工作的折磨,

  • It's a place where we don't have to worry

    避開家庭的壓力。

  • about how we're being perceived by the outside world.

    我們在那裡不用擔心

  • It's a place where we don't feel threatened,

    外界怎樣看待我們。

  • or threatening.

    不怕受到別人脅迫,

  • It's a place of loyalty and trust.

    或者覺得身處險境。

  • For that reason,

    那是一個充滿忠誠和信任的地方。

  • it's one of the few places where we can fearlessly be ourselves

    因此,

  • and just ... talk.

    那裡是我們少數可以自在做自己,

  • The talk, the shop talk, the conversation,

    無憂無慮地聊天的地方。

  • that is the essence of the black barbershop.

    聊天、傾行話、閒扯,

  • I can remember going to the barbershop with my dad as a kid.

    都是黑人理髮店的精髓。

  • We went to Mr. Mike's barbershop every other Saturday.

    我記得少時跟爸爸到理髮店。

  • And like clockwork, the same group of men would be there

    每隔一個星期六, 我們到麥克的理髪店。

  • every time we went,

    好像發條鐘錶一樣,每次到那裡

  • either waiting on their favorite barber

    都是同一批男子,

  • or just soaking up the atmosphere.

    他們要不是在等自己喜愛的理髮師,

  • I can remember the jovial greeting that warmly welcomed us

    就是純來感受這裡的氣氛。

  • every time we went.

    我記得每次我們來到小店

  • "Hey Rev," they would say to my dad.

    都會受到愉快親切的歡迎。

  • He's a local pastor, and they treated him like a celebrity.

    「嗨,老牧!」 他們會這樣和我爸說話。

  • "Hey young fella, how you doing?"

    爸爸是當地的牧師, 他們待他如名人。

  • they would say to me,

    「嗨,年輕人,你好嗎?」

  • making me feel just as special.

    他們就是這樣對我說話,

  • I remember the range of the conversations was immense.

    讓我覺得自己 就跟爸爸一樣與眾不同。

  • The men would talk about politics and sports and music

    我記得他們的話題很廣泛。

  • and world news, national news,

    他們會談論政治、體育、音樂

  • neighborhood news.

    和世界新聞、國內新聞,

  • There was some talk about women

    本地新聞。

  • and what it was like to be a black man in America.

    有時談到女人

  • But many times they also talked about health.

    和美國黑人的生存現狀。

  • The conversations about health were lengthy and deep.

    但是很多時候 他們談論關於健康的話題,

  • The men often recounted their doctor's recommendations

    而且花很長時間深入交談。

  • to cut salt in their diet

    他們常常詳細地敍述醫生的建議,

  • or to eat less fried foods

    例如減鹽飲食、

  • or to stop smoking

    少吃煎炸食物、

  • or to reduce stress.

    戒菸、

  • They talked about the different ways you could reduce stress,

    減壓。

  • like simplifying one's love life --

    他們談論減壓的不同方法,

  • (Laughter)

    例如過簡單的愛情生活——

  • all ways to treat high blood pressure.

    (笑聲)

  • There's a lot of talk about high blood pressure in the barbershop.

    各種治療高血壓的方法。

  • That's because almost 40 percent of black men have it.

    理髮店裡有很多關於高血壓的談話。

  • That means that almost every single black man

    因為四成的黑人男士患有高血壓。

  • either has high blood pressure

    這意味著幾乎每一個黑人

  • or knows a black man who has it.

    不是自己有高血壓,

  • Sometimes, those conversations in the barbershop

    就是認識另一個患有高血壓的黑人。

  • would be about what happens when high blood pressure

    有時這些人在理髮店的對話

  • is not adequately addressed.

    會講到當人們不重視高血壓

  • "Say, did you hear about Jimmy? He had a stroke."

    會發生什麼事。

  • "Did you hear about Eddie? He died last week.

    「你有沒有聽到吉米的消息? 他中風了。」

  • Massive heart attack.

    「你聽說艾迪的事情沒? 他上星期去世了,

  • He was 50."

    因為嚴重的心臟病發。

  • More black men die from high blood pressure than from anything else,

    他才 50 歲。」

  • even though decades of medical wisdom and science have demonstrated

    黑人高血壓死亡率要高於其他疾病,

  • that death from high blood pressure can be prevented

    雖然數十年來醫學的 智慧和科學已經證明

  • with timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

    及時的診斷加上適當的治療 可以預防病人死於高血壓。

  • So why is high blood pressure so differentially deadly for black men?

    為什麼高血壓對黑人特別致命?

  • Because too often, high blood pressure is either untreated

    這是因為黑人常常不是沒有看醫生

  • or under-treated in black men,

    就是沒有接受足夠的治療,

  • in part because of our lower engagement with the primary healthcare system.

    部分的原因是我們很少參與健保。

  • Black men, in particular those with high blood pressure,

    尤其是那些患高血壓的黑人

  • are less likely to have a primary care doctor

    比起其他群體更可能沒有家庭醫生。

  • than other groups.

    但是為什麼?

  • But why?

    我們有一些早期關於 黑人健康狀況的調查,

  • Some of our earliest research on black men's health

    表明對於很多黑人來說, 診所都讓人聯想到恐懼、

  • revealed that for many, the doctor's office is associated with fear,

    缺乏信任、

  • mistrust,

    不受尊重、

  • disrespect,

    還有不愉快。

  • and unnecessary unpleasantness.

    診所只是在你感到不適時 要去的地方。

  • The doctor's office is only a place that you go when you don't feel well.

    你真的去了那裡,可能要等很久,

  • And when you do go, you might wait for hours

    只聽到一輪託詞,

  • only to get the run-around

    然後接受一個面無表情、 穿著白袍的醫生看診,

  • and to be evaluated by a stoic figure in a white coat

    他只給你 10 分鐘時間看病,

  • who only has 10 minutes to give you

    而且並不重視你們之間的對話。

  • and who doesn't value the talk.

    所以難怪有些人懶得麻煩,

  • So it's no wonder that some men don't want to be bothered

    根本不去看醫生,

  • and skip going to the doctor altogether,

    尤其是他們感覺精神不錯的時候。

  • especially if they feel fine.

    但是這裡存在一個問題。

  • But herein lies the problem.

    即使你的高血壓威脅著 你重要器官的時候,

  • You can feel just fine

    你也不會感覺不適。

  • while high blood pressure ravages your most vital organs.

    這是丹尼 · 默,

  • This is Denny Moe,

    紐約哈林區「丹尼 · 默 超級明星理髮店」的店主。

  • owner of Denny Moe's Superstar Barbershop in Harlem.

    最近八年,我都很幸運地 有丹尼做我的理髮師。

  • I've been lucky enough to have Denny as my barber for the last eight years.

    他有一次跟我說:

  • He said to me once,

    「嗨,醫生,你知道嗎,

  • "Hey Doc, you know,

    比起相信自己的醫生, 很多黑人更相信自己的理髮師。」

  • lots of black men trust their barbers more than they trust their doctors."

    這一開始真的讓我很驚訝,

  • This was stunning to me,

    但當你仔細想想的時候 好像就是這樣。

  • at first,

    平均而言,黑人和他們的 理髮師認識的時間,

  • but not so much when you think about it.

    就和我和丹尼認識的時間一樣長,

  • Black men have been with their current barbers

    就是差不多八年。

  • on average as long as I've been with Denny,

    而且黑人差不多每兩週理一次髮。

  • about eight years.

    你不僅相信髮型師能夠 照顧好你的髮型和外貌,

  • And black men see their barbers about every two weeks.

    你還願意和他分享你的秘密, 甚至有時以生命信任他。

  • Not only do you trust your barber with your look and with your style,

    和很多髮型師一樣, 丹尼不僅僅是一個藝術家,

  • but you also trust him with your secrets and sometimes your life.

    一個商人和知己。

  • Denny, like many barbers, is more than just an artist,

    他還是一個促進社區健康的 領袖和熱情的倡導者。

  • a businessman and confidant.

    我第一次走進丹尼的店時,

  • He's a leader and a passionate advocate for the well-being of his community.

    他不僅在理髮,

  • The very first time I walked into Denny Moe's shop,

    他還在為他的顧客和社區發聲 而安排選民登記運動。

  • he wasn't just cutting hair.

    因為黑人理髮店的典型特徵 是這種積極精神和社區投資,

  • He was also orchestrating a voter registration drive

    難怪理髮店會成為談論高血壓

  • to give a voice to his customers and his community.

    及社區其他健康問題的首選場所。

  • With this kind of activism,

    首先,理髮店不是醫療環境,

  • and community investment that typifies the black barbershop,

    所以不會給人帶來負面的心理負擔。

  • of course the barbershop is a perfect place

    當你在理髮店的時候,

  • to talk about high blood pressure and other health concerns in the community.

    你在自己的地盤,

  • First, the barbershop is not a medical setting,

    有知道你的過去和艱辛, 及健康風險的朋友陪伴。

  • and so it doesn't have all the negative psychological baggage

    第二,因為理髮店是個充滿 聯繫、忠誠和信任的地方,

  • that comes along with that.

    在這裡你能更輕鬆地談論健康話題,

  • When you're in a barbershop,

    尤其是高血壓。

  • you're in your territory, and you're among friends

    畢竟,有關高血壓的談話 有所有店裡閒聊的要素:

  • who share your history,

    壓力和高血壓,

  • your struggle and your health risks.

    食物和高血壓,

  • Second, because the barbershop is a place of connection,

    人際交往和高血壓,

  • loyalty and trust,

    噢還有,在美國 當黑人的感受和高血壓。

  • it's a place where you're more open to have a conversation about health

    但是在理髮店裡你不僅能 談論高血壓,你還能做更多。

  • and especially about high blood pressure.

    你能採取具體的行動。

  • After all,

    現在我們有一個和世界上 其他丹尼 · 默合夥的機會,

  • conversations about high blood pressure have all the elements of great shop talk:

    去啟發社區重視 其獨特的健康不平等問題。

  • stress and high blood pressure,

    在 1960 及 1970 年代,

  • food and high blood pressure,

    當高血壓篩檢從診所和醫院 擴大到社區時,

  • relationships and high blood pressure,

    像巴爾的摩的伊利 · 桑德斯 和新奧爾良的肯斯 · 芬迪南德

  • and yes, what it's like to be a black man in America

    這樣的黑人醫生,

  • and high blood pressure.

    把提倡健康活動帶到城市中 黑人街區的社區中心前線。

  • But you can do more than just talk about high blood pressure

    這些先驅為我專注於 理髮店和健康關係的專業道路奠基,

  • in the barbershop.

    這事業開始於芝加哥的醫學院。

  • You can concretely take action.

    作為醫學生, 我進行的第一個研究計劃

  • Here we have an opportunity to partner with the Denny Moe's of the world

    就是去協助設計能吸引到 黑人的醫保創新。

  • and empower communities to address the health inequities

    我們對 12 組焦點團體做實驗, 其中有各個階層的黑人,

  • that uniquely affect it.

    我們從中學到了很多,

  • When high blood pressure screening expanded from clinics and hospitals

    身體健康既是各項指標正常,

  • to communities in the 1960s and '70s,

    也是心裡感覺到健康,

  • black physicians like Dr. Eli Saunders in Baltimore

    而且感覺愉快和外表好看 是緊密聯繫的。

  • and Dr. Keith Ferdinand in New Orleans

    這個研究促進了 「黑人兄弟診所」組織的發展,

  • were at the forefront of bringing health promotion to community hubs

    由艾力克 · 維塔克醫生開辦,

  • in urban black neighborhoods.

    為專為黑人打造的社區醫療診所。

  • These pioneers paved the way for my professional journey

    這個醫療的一部分包括

  • with barbershops and health,

    有駐診理髮師給來看病的人

  • which began in Chicago in medical school.

    一次免費的理髮服務,

  • The very first research project that I worked on as a medical student

    這讓他們知道 我們既重視他們的外貌,

  • was to help design healthcare interventions

    也重視他們的感覺,

  • that would appeal to black men.

    對他們而言很重要的東西, 我們同樣看重。

  • We conducted about a dozen focus groups

    儘管只有一個 「黑人兄弟診所」組織,

  • with a broad cross-section of black men,

    卻有上千個將促進健康和理髮 結合的黑人理髮店,

  • and we learned that for them,

    然後我的促進健康專業旅程 到了德州的達拉斯,

  • being healthy was as much about being perceived as healthy

    我們在那裡了解到理髮師不僅願意,

  • as it was about feeling healthy,

    還有足夠的能力捲起袖子親身參與,

  • and that feeling good went hand in hand with looking good.

    為他們的顧客和社區提供必要的 醫療服務,以促進他們的健康。

  • This work led to the development of Project Brotherhood,

    我們和一群優秀的黑人理髮師合作,

  • a community clinic founded by Dr. Eric Whitaker

    教會他們怎樣測量血壓,

  • that provided tailored healthcare to black men.

    怎樣與顧客商談, 並把他們轉到診所,

  • Part of this tailored care

    以控制和治療高血壓。

  • involved having a barber on the premises

    這些理髮師不僅願意這樣做,

  • to reward the men who came for needed healthcare

    他們還做得超好。

  • with a free haircut,

    三年以來,

  • to let the men know that we, too, valued how they looked

    這群理髮師測量了上千人的血壓,

  • as well as how they felt,

    讓數百位黑人轉到診所

  • and that what was important to them was also important to us.

    接受高血壓的治療。

  • But while there's only one Project Brotherhood,

    這種理髮師和醫生的結合方式

  • there are thousands of black barbershops

    讓血壓控制在標準值內的 人數增長了 20%,

  • where the intersection of health and haircuts can be cultivated.

    平均每個參與者的血壓 也都下降了很多。

  • The next stop on my journey was Dallas, Texas,

    假如我們能讓美國每個患有 高血壓的黑人的血壓都下降很多,

  • where we learned that barbers were not only willing

    就能防止 800 人次的心臟病, 500 人次的中風

  • but fully able to roll up their sleeves and participate

    和 900 人次因為 高血壓造成的死亡,

  • in delivering needed health services to improve the health of their customers

    在短短一年內達到。

  • and their community.

    我的旅程最近到了紐約州, 我們與理髮店的合作同樣成功。

  • We teamed up with an amazing cadre of black barbers

    我們優秀的隊伍有不同的研究助理,

  • and taught them how to measure blood pressure

    社區醫療工作者和志工,

  • and how to counsel their customers

    我們已經和超過 200 家理髮店 及其他值得信任的社區場所合作,

  • and refer them to doctors

    惠及超過 7000 個年老的黑人。

  • to help manage high blood pressure.

    我們還為每一個人提供 高血壓檢測和建議。

  • The barbers were not only willing to do it

    感謝丹尼 · 默

  • but they were damn good at it.

    和無數的理髮師及社區領袖,

  • Over a three-year period,

    他們共同懷有幫助社區發展的 機會和賦權的願景,

  • the barbers measured thousands of blood pressures

    我們不僅能幫助參與者降低血壓,

  • resulting in hundreds of black men being referred to doctors

    我們也能夠引入其他的健康指數。

  • for medical care of their high blood pressure.

    那麼你們現在看到什麼?

  • These barber-doctor partnerships

    你的理髮店在哪裡?

  • resulted in a 20 percent increase in the number of men

    在人們受到獨特問題的困擾時, 能提供獨特解決方案的地方在哪裡?

  • who were able to achieve target blood pressure levels

    當你能找到那個地方時, 便能看到機會。

  • and a three-point drop, on average,

    謝謝。

  • in the blood pressure of each participant.

    (掌聲)

  • If we were to extrapolate that three point drop

  • to every single black man with high blood pressure in America,

  • we would prevent 800 heart attacks, 500 strokes and 900 deaths

  • from high blood pressure

  • in just one year.

  • And our experience with barbershops has been no different in New York City,

  • where my journey has currently led me.

  • With an incredible team of diverse research assistants,

  • community health workers and volunteers,

  • we've been able to partner with over 200 barbershops

  • and other trusted community venues

  • to reach over 7,000 older black men.

  • And we've offered high blood pressure screening and counseling

  • to each and every one of them.

  • Thanks to Denny Moe

  • and the myriad other barbers and community leaders

  • who shared the vision of opportunity and empowerment

  • to make a difference in their communities,

  • we've been able to not only lower blood pressure

  • in our participants,

  • but we've also been able to impact other health indicators.

  • So what do you see?

  • What is your barbershop?

  • Where is that place for you

  • where people who are affected by a unique problem

  • can meet a unique solution?

  • When you find that place, see the opportunity.

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

What do you see?

譯者: Yolanda Wei 審譯者: Regina Chu

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 黑人 理髮師 丹尼 健康 社區

【TED】約瑟夫-拉文內爾:理髮店如何讓男人健康(理髮店如何讓男人健康|約瑟夫-拉文內爾)。 (【TED】Joseph Ravenell: How barbershops can keep men healthy (How barbershops can keep men healthy | Joseph Ravenell))

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    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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