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  • When I was a young officer, they told me

    譯者: Adrienne Lin 審譯者: Kuan-Yi Li

  • to follow my instincts,

    當我還是個年輕軍官時, 他們告訴我

  • to go with my gut,

    要跟著直覺走、

  • and what I've learned

    照本能行事,

  • is that often our instincts are wrong.

    而我學到的是

  • In the summer of 2010,

    我們的直覺通常都是錯的。

  • there was a massive leak of classified documents

    2010 年夏天,

  • that came out of the Pentagon.

    有許多機密文件

  • It shocked the world,

    從國防部流出。

  • it shook up the American government,

    這震驚了世界

  • and it made people ask a lot of questions,

    也撼動了美國政府,

  • because the sheer amount of information

    並引起民眾的許多質疑,

  • that was let out, and the potential impacts,

    因為這些外洩的大量資訊

  • were significant.

    和潛在的影響

  • And one of the first questions we asked ourselves

    極為驚人。

  • was why would a young soldier have access

    很多人首先會問

  • to that much information?

    為什麼一位年輕的士兵有權限

  • Why would we let sensitive things

    獲得這麼多的資訊?

  • be with a relatively young person?

    為什麼我們讓敏感資訊

  • In the summer of 2003, I was assigned to command

    被一位年輕人知道?

  • a special operations task force,

    2003 年的夏天,我被派任指揮

  • and that task force was spread across the Mideast

    一個特別行動部隊,

  • to fight al Qaeda.

    這是分佈在中東的部隊,

  • Our main effort was inside Iraq,

    為打擊蓋達組織。

  • and our specified mission

    我們主要精力放在伊拉克,

  • was to defeat al Qaeda in Iraq.

    而我們的具體任務

  • For almost five years I stayed there,

    是要擊敗伊拉克的蓋達組織,

  • and we focused on fighting a war

    我在那待了將近五年時間。

  • that was unconventional and it was difficult

    我們專心打一場戰爭,

  • and it was bloody

    這是非常規且困難的戰爭,

  • and it often claimed its highest price

    非常血腥

  • among innocent people.

    且付出最慘痛代價的

  • We did everything we could

    往往都是那些無辜的人。

  • to stop al Qaeda

    我們盡全力

  • and the foreign fighters that came in as suicide bombers

    阻止蓋達組織,

  • and as accelerants to the violence.

    阻止外國自殺炸彈客,

  • We honed our combat skills,

    因為他們加劇了這場暴力。

  • we developed new equipment,

    我們精進作戰技巧、

  • we parachuted, we helicoptered,

    發展新裝備、

  • we took small boats, we drove, and we walked

    我們跳傘、搭直升機、

  • to objectives night after night to stop

    乘小船、開車、步行,

  • the killing that this network was putting forward.

    日以繼夜的活動都為了

  • We bled,

    阻止這組織所帶來的殺戮。

  • we died,

    我們流血、

  • and we killed to stop that organization

    有人死亡、

  • from the violence that they were putting

    我們殺戮,

  • largely against the Iraqi people.

    都為阻止這組織

  • Now, we did what we knew,

    加諸在伊拉克人民的暴力行為。

  • how we had grown up, and one of the things that we knew,

    我們執行所知的、

  • that was in our DNA, was secrecy.

    一直以來所學的, 這其中一件事就是

  • It was security. It was protecting information.

    在我們組織的 DNA 中存在著保密性。

  • It was the idea that information was the lifeblood

    這是保護資訊關乎安全、 資訊是命脈的想法,

  • and it was what would protect and keep people safe.

    認為這可以保護人民。

  • And we had a sense that,

    我們也感受到

  • as we operated within our organizations,

    自己組織運作時,

  • it was important to keep information

    很重要的是,將資訊

  • in the silos within the organizations,

    儲存在這組織的地窖中,

  • particularly only give information

    特別是只將資訊

  • to people had a demonstrated need to know.

    提供給需要知道的人。

  • But the question often came, who needed to know?

    但這經常引起一個問題:誰需要知道?

  • Who needed, who had to have the information

    誰需要知道這資訊

  • so that they could do the important parts of the job that you needed?

    以達成所需的重要任務?

  • And in a tightly coupled world,

    在這個緊密相連的世界中,

  • that's very hard to predict.

    這是很難預測的。

  • It's very hard to know who needs to have information

    很難知道誰需要這些資訊

  • and who doesn't.

    而誰不需要。

  • I used to deal with intelligence agencies,

    我以前跟情報機關合作過,

  • and I'd complain that they weren't sharing enough intelligence,

    也會抱怨他們不分享足夠的情報。

  • and with a straight face, they'd look at me and they'd say,

    他們通常都一臉正經的告訴我:

  • "What aren't you getting?" (Laughter)

    「有什麼你不知道的嗎?」(笑聲)

  • I said, "If I knew that, we wouldn't have a problem."

    我說,「要是我知道答案, 我們就不會有這問題了。」

  • But what we found is we had to change.

    不過我發現我們需要改變。

  • We had to change our culture about information.

    我們必須改變我們對資訊的文化。

  • We had to knock down walls. We had to share.

    必須打破壁壘、必須分享。

  • We had to change from who needs to know

    必須從「誰必須知道」的想法

  • to the fact that who doesn't know,

    轉變為「誰不知道,

  • and we need to tell, and tell them as quickly as we can.

    我們需要盡快告訴他們」。

  • It was a significant culture shift for an organization

    這是很重大的組織文化轉變,

  • that had secrecy in its DNA.

    尤其對一個 DNA 中 存在著保密性的組織來說更是如此。

  • We started by doing things, by building,

    我們開始建立

  • not working in offices,

    --不是在辦公室中--

  • knocking down walls, working in things we called

    而是打破壁壘,

  • situation awareness rooms,

    在我們所謂的狀況警覺室中工作。

  • and in the summer of 2007,

    在 2007 年夏天,

  • something happened which demonstrated this.

    有件事成為知識分享的佳例。

  • We captured the personnel records

    我們找到一些人員資料,

  • for the people who were bringing foreign fighters

    是那些將外國武裝份子

  • into Iraq.

    帶進伊拉克的人員資料。

  • And when we got the personnel records, typically,

    通常我們拿到這些人員資料時

  • we would have hidden these,

    會把它們藏起來,

  • shared them with a few intelligence agencies,

    只分享給極少數情報組織,

  • and then try to operate with them.

    再與其合作。

  • But as I was talking to my intelligence officer,

    但當我與情報官討論時,

  • I said, "What do we do?"

    我問:「我們要怎麼做?」

  • And he said, "Well, you found them." Our command.

    他說:「你找到這些資料的。」 我們有權處理。

  • "You can just declassify them."

    「你可以撤銷機密等級。」

  • And I said, "Well, can we declassify them?

    我說:「我們能撤銷機密等級嗎?

  • What if the enemy finds out?"

    如果被敵軍發現呢?」

  • And he says, "They're their personnel records."

    他說:「這本就是他們的人員名單啊。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So we did,

    所以我們就這麼做了,

  • and a lot of people got upset about that,

    引起許多人不滿,

  • but as we passed that information around,

    但當我們將資訊分享出去時,

  • suddenly you find that information is only of value

    你會突然發現,

  • if you give it to people who have the ability

    資訊唯有在交給 能做出行動的人時才有價值

  • to do something with it.

    我空握有知識是沒有價值的

  • The fact that I know something has zero value

    除非我是那個

  • if I'm not the person who can actually

    可以將之加以運用的人。

  • make something better because of it.

    因此我們將

  • So as a consequence, what we did was

    資訊的想法改變了。

  • we changed the idea of information,

    與其將知識視為力量,

  • instead of knowledge is power,

    不如想成分享是力量。

  • to one where sharing is power.

    這是很徹底的想法轉變,

  • It was the fundamental shift,

    不是新的作戰策略、新武器,

  • not new tactics, not new weapons,

    這想法一點也不新穎。

  • not new anything else.

    只是將我們視為一個團隊

  • It was the idea that we were now part of a team

    而知識是我們之間的必要連結

  • in which information became the essential link

    而不是彼此間的阻礙。

  • between us, not a block between us.

    現在請大家深吸一口氣,

  • And I want everybody to take a deep breath

    吐出來。

  • and let it out,

    因為你的一生中,一定會有些資訊

  • because in your life, there's going to be information

    被洩漏出來,而你不喜歡的。

  • that leaks out you're not going to like.

    有人會把我大學成績抖出來,

  • Somebody's going to get my college grades out,

    一定會很慘。(笑聲)

  • a that's going to be a disaster. (Laughter)

    但這一點也沒關係,告訴你們

  • But it's going to be okay, and I will tell you that

    比起這個,我更怕官僚制度

  • I am more scared of the bureaucrat

    將資訊鎖在抽屜中

  • that holds information in a desk drawer

    或是保險箱裡,而不是怕有人洩密。

  • or in a safe than I am of someone who leaks,

    因為追根究柢, 相互分享會達到更好的結果。

  • because ultimately, we'll be better off if we share.

    謝謝。

  • Thank you.

    (掌聲)

  • (Applause)

    海倫.華特:我們不知道 你今早在不在現場。

  • Helen Walters: So I don't know if you were here this morning,

    不過如果你遇到瑞克.雷傑特

  • if you were able to catch Rick Ledgett,

    ——美國國家安全局副局長——

  • the deputy director of the NSA

    他回應了幾天前 愛德華.史諾頓的演講。

  • who was responding to Edward Snowden's talk earlier this week.

    我想問,你認為美國政府

  • I just wonder, do you think the American government

    應該給愛德華豁免權嗎?

  • should give Edward Snowden amnesty?

    史丹利.麥克力斯托: 我想瑞克提到一點很重要。

  • Stanley McChrystal: I think that Rick said something very important.

    大多數的人都不知道全情。

  • We, most people, don't know all the facts.

    我想這件事有一體兩面。

  • I think there are two parts of this.

    愛德華.史諾頓揭露了

  • Edward Snowden shined a light on an important need

    世人須了解的重要之事。

  • that people had to understand.

    但他也拿了許多

  • He also took a lot of documents that he didn't have

    他並不知道其重要性的文件。

  • the knowledge to know the importance of,

    所以我想我們需要了解更多實情

  • so I think we need to learn the facts about this case

    才能對愛德華.史諾頓一案做出評判。

  • before we make snap judgments

    海倫.華特:非常謝謝你。

  • about Edward Snowden.

    (掌聲)

  • HW: Thank you so much. Thank you.

  • (Applause)

When I was a young officer, they told me

譯者: Adrienne Lin 審譯者: Kuan-Yi Li

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A2 初級 中文 美國腔 TED 資訊 組織 愛德華 伊拉克 機密

【TED】斯坦利-麥克里斯特爾:分享知識的軍事案例(斯坦利-麥克里斯特爾:分享知識的軍事案例)。 (【TED】Stanley McChrystal: The military case for sharing knowledge (Stanley McChrystal: The military case for sharing knowledge))

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    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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