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  • There are 39 million people in the world

    譯者: 文进 肖 審譯者: Matt Chen

  • who are blind.

    在這個世界上,有三千九百萬人

  • Eighty percent of them

    是盲人。

  • are living in low-income countries such as Kenya,

    其中有 80% 的人,

  • and the absolute majority

    生活在低收入國家,比如肯亞,

  • do not need to be blind.

    其中的絕大多數

  • They are blind from diseases

    本不該失明。

  • that are either completely curable or preventable.

    他們是因為疾病而成為的盲人

  • Knowing this, with my young family,

    而且那些疾病是可以被預防或治癒的。

  • we moved to Kenya.

    知道了這些,我和我的家人

  • We secured equipment,

    搬到了肯亞。

  • funds, vehicles, we trained a team,

    我們找來了設備、

  • we set up a hundred clinics throughout

    資金、載具、也訓練了一個團隊,

  • the Great Rift Valley

    我們一共建立了 100 多個診所,

  • to try and understand a single question:

    分佈在整個東非大裂谷。

  • why are people going blind,

    我們嘗試去理解一個問題:

  • and what can we do?

    爲什麽人們會變成盲人,

  • The challenges were great.

    以及我們能夠做些什麽?

  • When we got to where we were going,

    這是一個巨大的挑戰。

  • we set up our high-tech equipment.

    當我們到達了目的地,

  • Power was rarely available.

    我們搭建了高科技設備。

  • We'd have to run our equipment

    但是幾乎沒有電力。

  • from petrol power generators.

    我們只能用

  • And then something occurred to me:

    柴油發電機來提供電力。

  • There has to be an easier way,

    然後我想到了一些事情:

  • because it's the patients who are the most in need

    應該會有更加簡單的方法,

  • of access to eye care

    因為這裡最需要

  • who are the least likely to get it.

    眼科治療的病人

  • More people in Kenya,

    看起來是最沒有條件接受治療的人。

  • and in sub-Saharan Africa,

    越來越多生活在肯亞

  • have access to a mobile phone

    以及撒哈拉以南非洲的人,

  • than they do clean running water.

    擁有手機

  • So we said, could we harness

    還比擁有清潔水源容易。

  • the power of mobile technology

    所以我們想,是否能夠

  • to deliver eye care in a new way?

    利用行動科技

  • And so we developed Peek,

    提供新的方法進行眼部治療?

  • a smartphone [system] that enables

    所以我們開發了 Peek,

  • community healthcare workers

    它是一種智慧型手機系統,

  • and empowers them to deliver eye care everywhere.

    能讓社區醫療工作者

  • We set about replacing traditional hospital equipment,

    在任何地方提供眼部醫療服務。

  • which is bulky, expensive and fragile,

    我們打算替換掉占地方

  • with smartphone apps and hardware

    昂貴且脆弱的傳統醫療設備。

  • that make it possible to test anyone

    有了智慧型手機軟體以及硬體,

  • in any language and of any age.

    就可以為說任何語言、

  • Here we have a demonstration

    任何年齡的任何人檢查。

  • of a three-month-old having their vision

    這裡有一段示範影片,

  • accurately tested using an app and an eye tracker.

    展示如何使用軟體以及眼部追蹤器

  • We've got many trials going on

    替三個月大的孩子準確測量視力。

  • in the community and in schools,

    我們正在社區以及學校裡

  • and through the lessons that we've learned in the field,

    進行多項的測試。

  • we've realized it's extremely important

    從之前的經驗

  • to share the data in non-medical jargon

    我們了解到極端重要的是,

  • so that people understand

    把資料轉換成非醫學術語,

  • what we're examining and what that means to them.

    好讓大家能夠理解

  • So here, for example,

    我們在做的檢驗及對他們的意義。

  • we use our sight sim application,

    舉例來說,

  • once your vision has been measured,

    我們運用了視覺模擬軟體。

  • to show carers and teachers

    一旦一個人的視覺被檢測出來,

  • what the visual world is like for that person,

    就可以讓照顧者還有老師們

  • so they can empathize with them and help them.

    知道這個人眼中的世界是怎麼樣的,

  • Once we've discovered somebody has low vision,

    讓他們能夠以同理心來幫助這些人。

  • the next big challenge is to work out why,

    一旦我們發現某個人視力很差,

  • and to be able to do that,

    下一個大挑戰就是找出原因。

  • we need to have access to the inside of the eye.

    要做到這點

  • Traditionally, this requires expensive equipment

    我們要能夠進到眼睛裡。

  • to examine an area called the retina.

    傳統上,我們需要昂貴的儀器來檢測

  • The retina is the single part of the eye that has

    一塊叫做視網膜的區域。

  • huge amounts of information about the body

    視網膜是一塊蘊含了龐大訊息的區域。

  • and its health.

    這些訊息和身體還有健康息息相關。

  • We've developed 3D-printed,

    我們研發了 3D 列印出的

  • low-cost hardware

    低花費的硬體,

  • that comes in at less than five dollars to produce,

    製造成本只要不到五美元。

  • which can then be clipped onto a smartphone

    這個裝置可以安裝到智慧型手機上,

  • and makes it possible to get views

    在手機上就可以看到眼睛後面的狀況,

  • of the back of the eye

    並且成像效果很好。

  • of a very high quality.

    美妙之處在於每個人都可以使用它。

  • And the beauty is, anybody can do it.

    在我們超過兩千五百人的測試當中,

  • In our trials on over two and half thousand people,

    安裝了這個裝置的智能手機

  • the smartphone with the add-on clip

    可以媲美

  • is comparable to a camera

    貴上許多

  • that is hugely more expensive

    且難以搬運的攝影機。

  • and hugely more difficult to transport.

    當我們抵達肯亞的時候,

  • When we first moved to Kenya,

    我們身上有價值 10 萬美元的儀器

  • we went with 150,000 dollars of equipment,

    以及一支 15 人的團隊。

  • a team of 15 people,

    我們要提供醫療服務 就是需要這麼多資源。

  • and that was what was needed to deliver health care.

    現在只需要

  • Now, all that's needed

    一隻智慧型手機

  • is a single person

    和一輛腳踏車就足夠了。

  • on a bike with a smartphone.

    只花費 500 美元。

  • And it costs just 500 dollars.

    電力供應的問題

  • The issue of power supply

    已經用連接太陽能解決了。

  • is overcome by harnessing the power of solar.

    我們的醫療人員

  • Our healthcare workers travel

    背著太陽能背包

  • with a solar-powered rucksack

    為智能手機充電及提供備用電源。

  • which keeps the phone charged and backed up.

    現在,我們主動去找病人,

  • Now we go to the patient

    而不是坐等永遠 不會出現的病人來找我們。

  • rather than waiting for the patient never to come.

    我們到他們的家裡,

  • We go to them in their homes

    提供他們最全面、

  • and we give them the most comprehensive,

    高科技、準確的檢查。

  • high-tech, accurate examination,

    任何人受過簡單的訓練都可以做到

  • which can be delivered by anyone with minimal training.

    我們能夠讓全世界的專家

  • We can link global experts

    跟位於窮鄉僻壤、

  • with people in the most rural,

    難以抵達地區的人們搭上線,

  • difficult-to-reach places

    有效率地把這些專家送到他們家中。

  • that are beyond the end of the road,

    讓我們進行診斷

  • effectively putting those experts in their homes,

    以及治療計劃。

  • allowing us to make diagnoses

    專案經理、醫院管理人員

  • and make plans for treatment.

    可以根據他們感興趣的部分,

  • Project managers, hospital directors,

    在我們的介面上搜尋。

  • are able to search on our interface

    在納庫魯(Nakuru) 這個我們現在住的地方,

  • by any parameter they may be interested in.

    我們可以根據任何的健康狀況搜尋病人,

  • Here in Nakuru, where I've been living,

    這些病人,

  • we can search for people

    是可以被治癒的白內障患者。

  • by whatever condition.

    每一個紅色大頭針,

  • Here are people who are blind

    代表一個能夠被治療的盲人,

  • from a curable condition cataract.

    而我們知道他們的所在地。

  • Each red pin depicts somebody

    我們可以使用大量簡訊服務

  • who is blind from a disease that is curable

    來說明我們將會前去提供治療。

  • and treatable, and they're locatable.

    更甚者,我們了解到

  • We can use bulk text messaging services

    這不只是我們替社區建立的,

  • to explain that we're coming to arrange a treatment.

    而是和社區合作而建立的。

  • What's more, we've learned that this is something

    藍色大頭針代表

  • that we haven't built just for the community

    長者或是地區領袖。

  • but with the community.

    我們和這些人有聯繫,

  • Those blue pins that drop represent

    來確保我們能找到病人

  • elders, or local leaders,

    並提供治療。

  • that are connected to those people

    像是 Mama Wangari ,

  • who can ensure that we can find them

    這樣看不見超過十年

  • and arrange treatment.

    且從未見過她孫兒女的盲人,

  • So for patients like Mama Wangari,

    只要不到 40 美元, 我們就能重建她的視力。

  • who have been blind for over 10 years

    這樣的事情是必須要實現的。

  • and never seen her grandchildren,

    數百萬人可能眼盲

  • for less than 40 dollars, we can restore her eyesight.

    只是統計數字。

  • This is something that has to happen.

    實際上每個盲人都在單打獨鬥。

  • It's only in statistics

    但現在,他們離幫助

  • that people go blind by the millions.

    只有一封簡訊的距離。

  • The reality is everyone goes blind on their own.

    (掌聲)

  • But now, they might just be

    現場示範從來都不是個好主意,

  • a text message away from help.

    所以我們要來做現場示範。

  • (Applause)

    (笑聲)

  • And now because live demos are always a bad idea,

    這就是 Peek Vision 應用程式。

  • we're going to try a live demo.

    好,看這裡,

  • (Laughter)

    這是 Sam 的視神經,

  • So here we have the Peek Vision app.

    它從她的大腦直接延伸出來。

  • Okay, and what we're looking at here,

    我是實際上正看到她的大腦內部。

  • this is Sam's optic nerve,

    我們可以看到她整個視網膜,

  • which is a direct extension of her brain,

    這樣一來就可以找出

  • so I'm actually looking at her brain as we look there.

    眼睛以及身體的疾病。

  • We can see all parts of the retina.

    看不到眼睛內部的話是做不到的。

  • It makes it possible to pick up diseases

    這個活動裝置只需要數美元

  • of the eye and of the body

    就可以製造出來,

  • that would not be possible without access to the eye,

    也使患者免於失明。

  • and that clip-on device can be manufactured

    這對人類來說意義重大,

  • for just a few dollars,

    不能光是研究出治療方法 卻無法實際提供給患者,

  • and people can be cured of blindness,

    但現在我們可以做到。

  • and I think it says a lot about us as a human race

    謝謝。

  • if we've developed cures and we don't deliver them.

    (掌聲)

  • But now we can.

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

There are 39 million people in the world

譯者: 文进 肖 審譯者: Matt Chen

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 盲人 治療 手機 肯亞 智慧型

TED】Andrew Bastawrous:用智能手機進行下一次眼科檢查(Andrew Bastawrous: Get your next eye exam on a smartphone)。 (【TED】Andrew Bastawrous: Get your next eye exam on a smartphone (Andrew Bastawrous: Get your next eye exam on a smartphone))

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    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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