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  • So in my free time outside of Twitter

    譯者: Ron Chao 審譯者: Bert Chen

  • I experiment a little bit

    我在推特以外的閒暇時間

  • with telling stories online, experimenting

    會做一點實驗

  • with what we can do with new digital tools.

    關於線上說故事的實驗

  • And in my job at Twitter,

    看看新的數位工具能怎麼用

  • I actually spent a little bit of time

    我在推特工作的時候

  • working with authors and storytellers as well,

    其實也會花一點時間

  • helping to expand out the bounds

    與作家和說書人合作

  • of what people are experimenting with.

    幫忙拓展

  • And I want to talk through some examples today

    實驗領域的界限

  • of things that people have done

    我今天想要談談幾個例子

  • that I think are really fascinating

    別人已經做過的例子

  • using flexible identity and anonymity on the web

    我覺得真的很棒

  • and blurring the lines between fact and fiction.

    靈活利用網路身分與匿名

  • But I want to start and go back to the 1930s.

    模糊現實與虛構的界線

  • Long before a little thing called Twitter,

    回溯至1930年代開始講起

  • radio brought us broadcasts

    遠在推特誕生之前

  • and connected millions of people

    無線電為人們帶來了廣播

  • to single points of broadcast.

    連結數百萬人

  • And from those single points emanated stories.

    到單一幾個廣播站

  • Some of them were familiar stories.

    從這幾個廣播站發送許多故事給大家聽

  • Some of them were new stories.

    有些是耳熟能詳的故事

  • And for a while they were familiar formats,

    有些是從沒聽過的故事

  • but then radio began to evolve its own

    有一陣子說故事的形式都差不多

  • unique formats specific to that medium.

    但是廣播開始發展出它獨有的

  • Think about episodes that happened live on radio.

    獨特形式 特別適合傳播訊息

  • Combining the live play

    想想看現場廣播劇

  • and the serialization of written fiction,

    結合了現場演出

  • you get this new format.

    與一系列的小說

  • And the reason why I bring up radio is that I think

    新的形式油然而生

  • radio is a great example of how a new medium

    我會提到廣播 是因為我認為

  • defines new formats which then define new stories.

    廣播是一個絕佳例子 看新媒體是如何

  • And of course, today, we have an entirely new

    為新形式定義 之後新形式再界定新故事

  • medium to play with,

    當然我們今天運用的

  • which is this online world.

    是全新的媒體

  • This is the map of verified users on Twitter

    那就是線上世界

  • and the connections between them.

    這是推特認證用戶

  • There are thousands upon thousands of them.

    及用戶彼此連結關係的圖示

  • Every single one of these points

    可以看到成千上萬的連結

  • is its own broadcaster.

    這些小點中 每一個單點

  • We've gone to this world of many to many,

    都是一間專屬的廣播電台

  • where access to the tools is the only barrier to broadcasting.

    我們已進入多點對多點的世界

  • And I think that we should start to see

    工具的使用是廣播的唯一門檻

  • wildly new formats emerge

    我認為我們會開始看到

  • as people learn how to tell stories in this new medium.

    嶄新的形式就出現了

  • I actually believe that we are in a wide open frontier

    當人們學會在新媒體環境說故事

  • for creative experimentation, if you will,

    事實上 我相信我們的創作實驗

  • that we've explored and begun to settle

    還有很大的開拓空間 如果你願意的話

  • this wild land of the Internet

    我們已經完成探索 開始安頓在

  • and are now just getting ready

    無邊無際的網路世界

  • to start to build structures on it,

    現在才剛剛準備

  • and those structures are the new formats

    開始在上面開始蓋建築物

  • of storytelling that the Internet will allow us to create.

    這些建築物就是說故事的新形式

  • I believe this starts with an evolution

    就是由藉由網際網路我們才能辦到的方式

  • of existing methods.

    我認為這種形式是由

  • The short story, for example,

    現存方法的進化開始

  • people are saying that the short story

    舉短篇小說為例

  • is experiencing a renaissance of sorts

    有人說短篇小說

  • thanks to e-readers, digital marketplaces.

    正經歷像文藝復興的變革

  • One writer, Hugh Howey, experimented

    這歸功於電子書、閱讀器和數位市場

  • with short stories on Amazon

    有位作家Hugh Howey在亞馬遜網站

  • by releasing one very short story called "Wool."

    用短篇小說進行實驗

  • And he actually says that he didn't intend

    藉由發表了極短篇故事《羊毛》

  • for "Wool" to become a series,

    事實上 他表示當初確實無意

  • but that the audience loved the first story so much

    將《羊毛》寫成系列作品

  • they demanded more, and so he gave them more.

    但是讀者非常喜歡這第一篇故事

  • He gave them "Wool 2," which was a little bit longer than the first one,

    還想繼續看下去 於是作者就繼續創作回應讀者期待

  • "Wool 3," which was even longer,

    他寫了《羊毛二》 故事比第一集長一點

  • culminating in "Wool 5,"

    《羊毛三》又更長些

  • which was a 60,000-word novel.

    《羊毛五》是最後一篇故事

  • I think Howey was able to do all of this because

    這是六萬字的系列小說

  • he had the quick feedback system of e-books.

    我認為Howey能發表整個系列

  • He was able to write and publish

    是因為電子書的快速反饋系統

  • in relatively short order.

    他能夠創作與出版

  • There was no mediator between him and the audience.

    以相當快的速度

  • It was just him directly connected with his audience

    他和讀者沒有隔著中間人

  • and building on the feedback and enthusiasm

    他直接和讀者互動

  • that they were giving him.

    建立讀者給予他的

  • So this whole project was an experiment.

    反饋和熱情之上

  • It started with the one short story,

    因此整個計劃是一項實驗

  • and I think the experimentation actually became

    這篇故事是起源於一篇短篇小說

  • a part of Howey's format.

    事實上我認為這項實驗變成

  • And that's something that this medium enabled,

    Howey創作形式的一部分

  • was experimentation being a part of the format itself.

    藉由網路媒體

  • This is a short story by the author Jennifer Egan

    讓實驗成為它本身形式的一部分

  • called "Black Box."

    這篇是由珍妮佛.伊根創作的短篇小說

  • It was originally written

    叫做《黑盒子》

  • specifically with Twitter in mind.

    原本就是

  • Egan convinced The New Yorker

    專為推特而寫的

  • to start a New Yorker fiction account

    伊根說服《紐約客》

  • from which they could tweet

    建立一個《紐約客》小說專用帳戶

  • all of these lines that she created.

    以便他們可以在推特發表

  • Now Twitter, of course, has a 140-character limit.

    她創作的文句

  • Egan mocked that up just writing manually

    當然推特有140字的字數限制

  • in this storyboard sketchbook,

    Egan為了模擬這種限制

  • used the physical space constraints

    就親自在手寫本上書寫

  • of those storyboard squares

    利用實質上手寫本

  • to write each individual tweet,

    有限的空間

  • and those tweets ended up becoming

    寫出每條推文

  • over 600 of them that were serialized by The New Yorker.

    那些推文最後變成

  • Every night, at 8 p.m., you could tune in

    超過600條連載刊登在《紐約客》上

  • to a short story from The New Yorker's fiction account.

    每天晚上八點鐘 你可以線上觀看

  • I think that's pretty exciting:

    由《紐約客》小說帳戶推出的短篇小說

  • tune-in literary fiction.

    我認為非常令人興奮:

  • The experience of Egan's story, of course,

    收看文學小說

  • like anything on Twitter, there were multiple ways to experience it.

    當然 欣賞Egan的小說

  • You could scroll back through it,

    就像推特上的其他東西一樣 有許多方式能夠欣賞

  • but interestingly, if you were watching it live,

    你可以滾動捲軸慢慢看

  • there was this suspense that built

    但有趣的是 如果你線上觀看

  • because the actual tweets,

    會有緩衝的情況發生

  • you had no control over when you would read them.

    因為實際推特發文

  • They were coming at a pretty regular clip,

    你在閱讀的時候 你無法控制

  • but as the story was building,

    雖然發文的步調很有規律

  • normally, as a reader, you control how fast you move through a text,

    但是隨著情節發展

  • but in this case, The New Yorker did,

    讀者通常可以調整自己的閱讀速度

  • and they were sending you bit by bit by bit,

    但就這個例子而言 《紐約客》的作法是

  • and you had this suspense of waiting for the next line.

    一點一點的發給你

  • Another great example of fiction

    你等待下一行出現時,就會有懸念

  • and the short story on Twitter,

    推特上的小說和短篇小說

  • Elliott Holt is an author who wrote a story called "Evidence."

    還有一個很好的例子

  • It began with this tweet: "On November 28

    就是《證據》的作者艾略特‧霍特

  • at 10:13 p.m.,

    《證據》的第一個推文:「11月28日

  • a woman identified as Miranda Brown,

    晚上10點13分

  • 44, of Brooklyn, fell to her death

    經人指認 一位名叫米蘭達‧布朗的女性

  • from the roof of a Manhattan hotel."

    44歲 來自布魯克林區

  • It begins in Elliott's voice,

    從曼哈頓飯店頂樓 墜樓身亡

  • but then Elliott's voice recedes,

    一開始是艾略特的聲音

  • and we hear the voices of Elsa, Margot and Simon,

    但隨後艾略特的聲音逐漸淡出

  • characters that Elliott created on Twitter

    我們聽到艾爾莎、瑪格、西蒙的聲音

  • specifically to tell this story,

    都是艾略特在推特上虛構的角色

  • a story from multiple perspectives

    專門為說這個故事而設定的

  • leading up to this moment at 10:13 p.m.

    這個故事有多重觀點

  • when this woman falls to her death.

    一直在為晚上10:13分鋪陳

  • These three characters brought an authentic vision

    這個時間點就是 這個女人墜樓身亡的時候

  • from multiple perspectives.

    這三個角色帶來真實的視角

  • One reviewer called Elliott's story

    從多重觀點

  • "Twitter fiction done right," because she did.

    一位評論家艾略特t的故事稱做是

  • She captured that voice

    「最佳推特小說」 的確如此

  • and she had multiple characters and it happened in real time.

    她那種聲音

  • Interestingly, though, it wasn't just

    故事中有多重角色 時間也是同部在進行

  • Twitter as a distribution mechanism.

    然而有趣的是

  • It was also Twitter as a production mechanism.

    推特不僅是發行的管道

  • Elliott told me later

    也是一種創作的機制

  • she wrote the whole thing with her thumbs.

    艾略特後來告訴我

  • She laid on the couch and just went back and forth

    故事完全是用拇指寫出來的

  • between different characters

    她躺在沙發上 不斷轉換心態

  • tweeting out each line, line by line.

    在不同角色之間

  • I think that this kind of spontaneous creation

    一行接一行地發推文

  • of what was coming out of the characters' voices

    我認為以各個角色聲音

  • really lent an authenticity to the characters themselves,

    所說出的話的這種即興創作

  • but also to this format that she had created

    不但讓角色有真實感

  • of multiple perspectives in a single story on Twitter.

    這種創作形式也同樣具有真實感

  • As you begin to play with flexible identity online,

    這種行式就是她在推特上單一故事裡 所創作的多重觀點

  • it gets even more interesting

    你開始靈活運用網路身份時

  • as you start to interact with the real world.

    會變得更有趣

  • Things like Invisible Obama

    同時你開始與真實世界有所互動

  • or the famous "binders full of women"

    例如「隱形歐巴馬」

  • that came up during the 2012 election cycle,

    或是著名的「裝滿女性人才的檔案夾」

  • or even the fan fiction universe of "West Wing" Twitter

    這些都是在2012年選舉期間出現的

  • in which you have all of these accounts

    或甚至同人小說《白宮風雲》的人物

  • for every single one of the characters in "The West Wing,"

    在推特上你都可以找到

  • including the bird that taps at Josh Lyman's window

    《白宮風雲》每個人物角色的帳戶

  • in one single episode. (Laughter)

    包括那隻啄喬許·賴曼窗戶的鳥也有

  • All of these are rapid iterations on a theme.

    牠只在一集出現過(笑聲)

  • They are creative people experimenting

    所有這些元素在同一主題上不斷重複

  • with the bounds of what is possible in this medium.

    他們都很有創造力

  • You look at something like "West Wing" Twitter,

    實驗網路媒體的潛力有多大

  • in which you have these fictional characters

    看看《白宮風雲》之類的推特

  • that engage with the real world.

    在這些推特帳號上 你可以看到虛構的人物

  • They comment on politics,

    正與現實社會互動

  • they cry out against the evils of Congress.

    他們評論時政

  • Keep in mind, they're all Democrats.

    他們大聲批判國會的不當作為

  • And they engage with the real world.

    別忘了他們都是民主黨

  • They respond to it.

    他們會與真實世界互動

  • So once you take flexible identity,

    他們也會回應

  • anonymity, engagement with the real world,

    所以你一旦靈活運用網路身分

  • and you move beyond simple homage or parody

    匿名以及參與真實世界

  • and you put these tools to work in telling a story,

    就超越了只是致敬或諷刺模仿

  • that's when things get really interesting.

    運用這些工具說故事

  • So during the Chicago mayoral election

    事情就會變得非常有趣

  • there was a parody account.

    在芝加哥市長選舉期間

  • It was Mayor Emanuel.

    有一組假名人的帳號

  • It gave you everything you wanted from Rahm Emanuel,

    掛著市長以馬內利的名字

  • particularly in the expletive department.

    你想知道市長的大小事都在這裡

  • This foul-mouthed account

    尤其是言辭粗魯的一面

  • followed the daily activities of the race,

    這個發文用詞都很粗俗的帳號

  • providing commentary as it went.

    都會追踪每天的競選活動

  • It followed all of the natural tropes

    提出評論

  • of a good, solid Twitter parody account,

    運用了自然的比喻

  • but then started to get weird.

    這是一個優質的推特假名人帳號

  • And as it progressed, it moved from this commentary

    但是事情之後開始變得詭異

  • to a multi-week, real-time science fiction epic

    這個帳戶漸漸從政治評論

  • in which your protagonist, Rahm Emanuel,

    變成長達數週的即時科幻史詩故事

  • engages in multi-dimensional travel on election day,

    故事主角拉姆·伊曼紐爾

  • which is -- it didn't actually happen.

    在選舉當日踏上多空間之旅

  • I double checked the newspapers.

    事實上並沒有這回事

  • And then, very interestingly, it came to an end.

    我仔細看過好幾份報紙

  • This is something that doesn't usually happen

    然後很有趣的是,整件事就戛然而止

  • with a Twitter parody account.

    這種事情通常不會發生

  • It ended, a true narrative conclusion.

    在推特的假名人帳戶上

  • And so the author, Dan Sinker, who was a journalist,

    說完了 故事結束

  • who was completely anonymous this whole time,

    這名作者丹·辛克是一位記者

  • I think Dan -- it made a lot of sense for him

    他在這段期間完全匿名

  • to turn this into a book,

    我認為丹得到很多靈感

  • because it was a narrative format in the end,

    將其轉化出來出了一本書

  • and I think that turning it into a book

    因為故事結尾是以敘述的形式結束

  • is representative of this idea that he had created something new

    而我認為將其出書

  • that needed to be translated into previous formats.

    做為代表他創造出新形式的概念

  • One of my favorite examples

    而這種新形式需要被轉換成舊有的形式

  • of something that's happening on Twitter right now,

    我最喜歡的例子之一

  • actually, is the very absurdist Crimer Show.

    正在推特上演

  • Crimer Show tells the story

    就是場荒謬的「歹徒秀」

  • of a supercriminal and a hapless detective

    「歹徒秀」講述的是

  • that face off in this exceptionally strange lingo,

    一位超級惡棍和一位倒霉偵探的故事

  • with all of the tropes of a television show.

    以非常奇怪難懂的語言開場

  • Crimer Show's creator has said that

    還用所有電視劇會出現的譬喻方式

  • it is a parody of a popular type of show in the U.K.,

    「歹徒秀」的創作者曾說過

  • but, man, is it weird.

    那是一種在英國相當受歡迎諷刺時政的戲劇

  • And there are all these times where Crimer,

    但是也夠奇怪了

  • the supercriminal, does all of these TV things.

    歹徒(超級惡棍)經常

  • He's always taking off his sunglasses

    做出那些你常常在電視都看得到的橋段

  • or turning to the camera,

    他常拿下太陽眼鏡

  • but these things just happen in text.

    或是轉向鏡頭

  • I think borrowing all of these tropes from television

    但這些都是以文字描述

  • and additionally presenting each Crimer Show

    我認為引用這麼多電視元素

  • as an episode, spelled E-P-P-A-S-O-D, "eppasod,"

    再加演每次「歹徒秀」

  • presenting them as episodes

    做成一集(episode拼成eppasod)

  • really, it creates something new.

    將這些影片以影集的形式呈現

  • There is a new "eppasod" of Crimer Show

    就創造出一種新的形態

  • on Twitter pretty much every day,

    新的「歹徒秀」

  • and they're archived that way.

    在推特幾乎每天推出

  • And I think this is an interesting experiment in format.

    全劇也是以影集的方式存檔

  • Something totally new has been created here

    我認為這種有趣的形式實驗

  • out of parodying something on television.

    從諷刺模仿電視劇

  • I think in nonfiction real-time storytelling,

    衍生了一種全新的形式

  • there are a lot of really excellent examples as well.

    我認為在非小說類即時說故事方面

  • RealTimeWWII is an account

    也有很多極佳的例子

  • that documents what was happening on this day 60 years ago

    「即時二戰」帳戶

  • in exceptional detail, as if

    記述60年前的今天發生的事件

  • you were reading the news reports from that day.

    描述極為詳細

  • And the author Teju Cole has done

    宛如閱讀當天的新聞

  • a lot of experimentation with putting a literary twist

    作者泰居.柯爾

  • on events of the news.

    做了很多嘗試 將文學的手法

  • In this particular case, he's talking about drone strikes.

    放入新聞事件

  • I think that in both of these examples,

    這裡他談到無人航空器攻擊行動

  • you're beginning to see ways in which

    我認為從這些例子

  • people are telling stories with nonfiction content

    可以開始看到

  • that can be built into new types

    人們利用真實題材說故事

  • of fictional storytelling.

    可以建立

  • So with real-time storytelling,

    說小說的新形式

  • blurring the lines between fact and fiction,

    以說即時故事