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  • When I was about three or four years old,

    譯者: Marssi Draw 審譯者: Yu-Sheng Lin

  • I remember my mum reading a story to me

    當我大約三到四歲大的時候,

  • and my two big brothers,

    我記得母親唸了一個故事

  • and I remember putting up my hands

    給我和兩個哥哥聽,

  • to feel the page of the book,

    我記得我把雙手放在

  • to feel the picture they were discussing.

    書本上碰觸頁面的感覺,

  • And my mum said, "Darling,

    想像他們正在討論的畫面。

  • remember that you can't see

    我的母親說:「親愛的,

  • and you can't feel the picture

    你要記得,你不能看、

  • and you can't feel the print on the page."

    不能對圖片有感觸,

  • And I thought to myself,

    也無法感覺頁面上的印刷。」

  • "But that's what I want to do.

    我暗自在心裡想:

  • I love stories. I want to read."

    「可是那是我想要的啊!

  • Little did I know

    我熱愛故事,我想要閱讀。」

  • that I would be part of a technological revolution

    我一點也不知道,

  • that would make that dream come true.

    我會成為科技革命的一分子,

  • I was born premature by about 10 weeks,

    那是會讓我夢想成真的一場革命。

  • which resulted in my blindness, some 64 years ago.

    我早產大約十週,

  • The condition is known as retrolental fibroplasia,

    那讓我在 64 年前就失明了。

  • and it's now very rare in the developed world.

    就是所謂的晶狀體後纖維增生症 (retrolental fibroplasia),

  • Little did I know, lying curled up

    這個疾病現在在 已開發國家已經很少見了。

  • in my prim baby humidicrib in 1948

    我一點也不知道,我蜷縮地躺在

  • that I'd been born at the right place

    嬰兒保溫箱中的 1948 年,

  • and the right time,

    其實我就出生在對的地方

  • that I was in a country where I could participate

    和對的時間。

  • in the technological revolution.

    我生在一個國家,那是一個能讓我參與

  • There are 37 million totally blind people on our planet,

    科技革命的地方。

  • but those of us who've shared in the technological changes

    世界上有 3,700 萬人全盲,

  • mainly come from North America, Europe,

    但是我們獲得的科技革新

  • Japan and other developed parts of the world.

    主要來自於北美、歐洲、

  • Computers have changed the lives of us all in this room

    日本,以及世界上其它已開發國家。

  • and around the world,

    電腦改變了在座所有人

  • but I think they've changed the lives

    以及全世界的生活。

  • of we blind people more than any other group.

    但是我想電腦對盲人生活的改變,

  • And so I want to tell you about the interaction

    遠大於其他人。

  • between computer-based adaptive technology

    因此我想告訴你不同的互動方式,

  • and the many volunteers who helped me over the years

    包含了運用電腦科技

  • to become the person I am today.

    以及這幾年來幫助我的志工,

  • It's an interaction between volunteers,

    他們讓我成為現在的我。

  • passionate inventors and technology,

    這是與志工、

  • and it's a story that many other blind people could tell.

    熱情的發明家和科技間的互動,

  • But let me tell you a bit about it today.

    這是每一位盲人都能說的故事,

  • When I was five, I went to school and I learned braille.

    就讓我今天和你分享一點吧!

  • It's an ingenious system of six dots

    在我五歲時,我上學去學點字,

  • that are punched into paper,

    那是一種非常巧妙的系統,

  • and I can feel them with my fingers.

    運用打印在紙上的六個小點,

  • In fact, I think they're putting up my grade six report.

    我就能用手指感覺它們。

  • I don't know where Julian Morrow got that from.

    事實上,我想他們正把 我的六年級的成績單放在大螢幕上,

  • (Laughter)

    我不知道朱麗安.莫若是打哪找到這個的。

  • I was pretty good in reading,

    (笑聲)

  • but religion and musical appreciation needed more work.

    我很擅長閱讀,

  • (Laughter)

    但是宗教和音樂賞析就需要多加強。

  • When you leave the opera house,

    (笑聲)

  • you'll find there's braille signage in the lifts.

    當你離開歌劇院,

  • Look for it. Have you noticed it?

    你會發現電梯裡有點字板。

  • I do. I look for it all the time.

    找找看,你有注意過嗎?

  • (Laughter)

    我有,我無時無刻都在找它。

  • When I was at school,

    (笑聲)

  • the books were transcribed by transcribers,

    當我還在學的時候,

  • voluntary people who punched one dot at a time

    會有人謄錄書本,

  • so I'd have volumes to read,

    志工每次打印一個點,

  • and that had been going on, mainly by women,

    而我因此能有許多書可以讀,

  • since the late 19th century in this country,

    這項工作通常由女性來做,

  • but it was the only way I could read.

    早在我國 19 世紀末時就開始了,

  • When I was in high school,

    但那是我當時唯一可以閱讀的方式。

  • I got my first Philips reel-to-reel tape recorder,

    當我讀中學時,

  • and tape recorders became my sort of pre-computer

    我得到第一台飛利普磁盤式錄音機,

  • medium of learning.

    自此之後,錄音機就成了我的

  • I could have family and friends read me material,

    電腦前學習方式。

  • and I could then read it back

    我可以請親友幫我讀點東西,

  • as many times as I needed.

    然後我可以跟著

  • And it brought me into contact

    要唸幾次就唸幾次。

  • with volunteers and helpers.

    這讓我開始接觸

  • For example, when I studied at graduate school

    志工和其他幫助我的人。

  • at Queen's University in Canada,

    比如說,當我就讀

  • the prisoners at the Collins Bay jail agreed to help me.

    加拿大皇后大學的研究所時,

  • I gave them a tape recorder, and they read into it.

    哥蓮士灣監獄 (Collins Bay Jail) 的囚犯答應要幫我。

  • As one of them said to me,

    我把錄音機交給他們, 然後他們把內容錄進去。

  • "Ron, we ain't going anywhere at the moment."

    其中有一個人告訴我:

  • (Laughter)

    「朗,我們現在哪兒也不去。」

  • But think of it. These men,

    (笑聲)

  • who hadn't had the educational opportunities I'd had,

    但你想想,這些人,

  • helped me gain post-graduate qualifications in law

    他們沒有和我擁有同樣的教育機會,

  • by their dedicated help.

    卻幫助我取得法律碩士學位,

  • Well, I went back and became an academic

    全力以赴。

  • at Melbourne's Monash University,

    嗯,我回來後任教於

  • and for those 25 years,

    墨爾本的蒙納許大學 (Monash University) 。

  • tape recorders were everything to me.

    在那 25 年裡,

  • In fact, in my office in 1990,

    錄音機是我的一切。

  • I had 18 miles of tape.

    事實上,1990 年時,我在辦公室裡

  • Students, family and friends all read me material.

    就有 18 哩長的錄音帶。

  • Mrs. Lois Doery,

    學生、家人和朋友都幫我唸各種東西。

  • whom I later came to call my surrogate mum,

    露易絲.桃蕊 (Lois Doery) 女士

  • read me many thousands of hours onto tape.

    我後來視她如母親一般,

  • One of the reasons I agreed to give this talk today

    幫我錄了上千小時的書。

  • was that I was hoping that Lois would be here

    我同意今天演講的原因之一

  • so I could introduce you to her and publicly thank her.

    是因為我希望露易絲能在這,

  • But sadly, her health hasn't permitted her to come today.

    如此一來,我就能向你們介紹她, 並公開向她致謝。

  • But I thank you here, Lois, from this platform.

    但可惜的是,她今天 身體不太舒服,無法前來。

  • (Applause)

    不過露易絲,我還是想在 這個舞台上向跟你說聲謝謝。

  • I saw my first Apple computer in 1984,

    (掌聲)

  • and I thought to myself,

    我在 1984 年時看到我的第一台蘋果電腦,

  • "This thing's got a glass screen, not much use to me."

    我心裡想:

  • How very wrong I was.

    「這個東西有一面玻璃螢幕, 對我來說沒什麼用。」

  • In 1987, in the month our eldest son Gerard was born,

    我真是大錯特錯。

  • I got my first blind computer,

    我的長子傑拉德在 1987 年出生的那個月,

  • and it's actually here.

    我得到了第一台盲用電腦,

  • See it up there?

    其實它就在這裡。

  • And you see it has no, what do you call it, no screen.

    有看到嗎?

  • (Laughter)

    你可以看到它沒有…嗯, 你們是怎麼說的?螢幕?

  • It's a blind computer.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    畢竟這是一台盲用電腦。

  • It's a Keynote Gold 84k,

    (笑聲)

  • and the 84k stands for it had 84 kilobytes of memory.

    這是 Keynote Gold 84k,

  • (Laughter)

    84k 指的是有 84 千位元組的記憶體。

  • Don't laugh, it cost me 4,000 dollars at the time. (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I think there's more memory in my watch.

    別笑,當時我花了 4,000 美元才買到。

  • It was invented by Russell Smith, a passionate inventor

    我的錶也有很多回憶,

  • in New Zealand who was trying to help blind people.

    這支錶是由一位熱情的發明家 羅素.史密斯 (Russell Smith) 所發明的,

  • Sadly, he died in a light plane crash in 2005,

    他一直在紐西蘭試著幫助盲人。

  • but his memory lives on in my heart.

    讓人難過的是,他在 2005 年時 逝世於輕航機空難。

  • It meant, for the first time,

    但是他的回憶將永存我心。

  • I could read back what I had typed into it.

    對我來說,這是第一次

  • It had a speech synthesizer.

    我打出來的文字能夠被讀出來,

  • I'd written my first coauthored labor law book

    他有語音合成器。

  • on a typewriter in 1979 purely from memory.

    我用打字機完成了第一本 勞工法令的合著書籍,

  • This now allowed me to read back what I'd written

    那是在 1979 年時,全憑記憶。

  • and to enter the computer world,

    現在我能夠聽取我之前寫的東西,

  • even with its 84k of memory.

    然後把它輸入電腦世界,

  • In 1974, the great Ray Kurzweil, the American inventor,

    即使它只有 84k 的記憶體。

  • worked on building a machine that would scan books

    在 1974 年時,一位美國偉大的發明家 雷蒙德.庫茨魏爾 (Ray Kurzweil),

  • and read them out in synthetic speech.

    設計了一台能夠掃描書本的機器,

  • Optical character recognition units then

    並透過合成語音把書讀出來。

  • only operated usually on one font,

    光學辨識裝置

  • but by using charge-coupled device flatbed scanners

    當時只能在一種字型中運作,

  • and speech synthesizers,

    但是透過電聯裝置的平台式掃描器

  • he developed a machine that could read any font.

    和語音合成器,

  • And his machine, which was as big as a washing machine,

    他設計了能夠讀取任何字體的機器。

  • was launched on the 13th of January, 1976.

    他的機器就跟洗衣機一樣大,

  • I saw my first commercially available Kurzweil

    在 1976 年 1 月 13 日發行。

  • in March 1989, and it blew me away,

    我第一次接觸到在市面上販賣的庫茨魏爾的機器,

  • and in September 1989,

    是在 1989 年 3月時,當時我震撼不已。

  • the month that my associate professorship

    在 1989 年 9 月時,

  • at Monash University was announced,

    我的副教授同事

  • the law school got one, and I could use it.

    在蒙納許大學宣佈

  • For the first time, I could read what I wanted to read

    法學院有一台,我可以使用。

  • by putting a book on the scanner.

    那是第一次,我可以想讀什麼就讀什麼,

  • I didn't have to be nice to people!

    我只需要將書放上掃描機就可以了。

  • (Laughter)

    我不需要再討好人了!

  • I no longer would be censored.

    (笑聲)

  • For example, I was too shy then,

    我不再會被檢視。

  • and I'm actually too shy now, to ask anybody

    舉例來說,我很害羞,

  • to read me out loud sexually explicit material.

    其實我現在還是 很不好意思去請任何人

  • (Laughter)

    詳細地為我唸出關於性方面的資料。

  • But, you know, I could pop a book on in the middle of the night, and --

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter) (Applause)

    但是,你知道,我可以在 深夜裡把書放上,然後…

  • Now, the Kurzweil reader is simply

    (笑聲)(掌聲)

  • a program on my laptop.

    現在庫茨魏爾閱讀機只是

  • That's what it's shrunk to.

    我筆電上的一個程式而已。

  • And now I can scan the latest novel

    它已經縮小成這樣了。

  • and not wait to get it into talking book libraries.

    現在,我可以掃描最新的小說,

  • I can keep up with my friends.

    不需要再等待它出現在有聲書圖書館裡,

  • There are many people who have helped me in my life,

    我可以跟上朋友的流行腳步。

  • and many that I haven't met.

    在我的生命裡,有許多人曾幫助我,

  • One is another American inventor Ted Henter.

    很多與我是從未見過面的。

  • Ted was a motorcycle racer,

    其中一位是美國的發明家 泰德.亨特 (Ted Hunter),

  • but in 1978 he had a car accident and lost his sight,

    泰德是摩托車賽車手,

  • which is devastating if you're trying to ride motorbikes.

    但是 1978 年時,他出了車禍而失明了。

  • He then turned to being a waterskier

    這還蠻嚇人的,如果你正打算騎機車。

  • and was a champion disabled waterskier.

    然後他轉身成為滑水運動員,

  • But in 1989, he teamed up with Bill Joyce

    並且成為滑水運動身障者的冠軍。

  • to develop a program that would read out

    但是在 1989 年,他和 比爾喬依絲 (Bill Joyce) 合作,

  • what was on the computer screen

    開發了一個電腦程式,能夠唸出

  • from the Net or from what was on the computer.

    電腦螢幕上的東西,

  • It's called JAWS, Job Access With Speech,

    透過從網路或是電腦螢幕上的東西。

  • and it sounds like this.

    它稱為 JAWS,意即透過語音工作,

  • (JAWS speaking)

    聽起來就像這樣。

  • Ron McCallum: Isn't that slow?

    (JAWS 語音)

  • (Laughter)

    朗:會不會太慢?

  • You see, if I read like that, I'd fall asleep.

    (笑聲)

  • I slowed it down for you.

    你看,如果我用這種速度唸,自己都會睡著。

  • I'm going to ask that we play it at the speed I read it.

    我為了你們慢慢說話。

  • Can we play that one?

    我現在想用我唸的速度來播放,

  • (JAWS speaking)

    請播放。

  • (Laughter)

    (JAWS 語音)

  • RM: You know, when you're marking student essays,

    (笑聲)

  • you want to get through them fairly quickly.

    朗:你知道,當你為 學生的論文打成績時,

  • (Laughter) (Applause)

    你會想飛快地解決它們。

  • This technology that fascinated me in 1987

    (笑聲)(掌聲)

  • is now on my iPhone and on yours as well.

    這項科技在 1987 年時讓我著迷,

  • But, you know, I find reading with machines

    現在它也出現在你、我的 iPhone 裡了。

  • a very lonely process.

    但是,你知道,我發現和機器一起閱讀

  • I grew up with family, friends, reading to me,

    是一個非常寂寞的過程。

  • and I loved the warmth and the breath

    我的生長過程中有家人、朋友陪我閱讀,

  • and the closeness of people reading.

    我喜愛那種人們閱讀時的

  • Do you love being read to?

    溫暖、呼吸和親近感。

  • And one of my most enduring memories

    你喜歡聽他人為你朗讀嗎?

  • is in 1999, Mary reading to me and the children

    我印象中最久遠的回憶之一

  • down near Manly Beach

    是在 1999 年時,瑪麗為我和孩子

  • "Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone."

    在曼利海灘 (Manly Beach) 附近

  • Isn't that a great book?

    朗讀了《哈利波特:神秘的魔法石》。

  • I still love being close to someone reading to me.

    那是本很棒的書吧?

  • But I wouldn't give up the technology,

    我到現在還是很喜歡 有個人在我身邊為我朗讀。

  • because it's allowed me to lead a great life.

    但是我不會放棄科技,

  • Of course, talking books for the blind

    因為科技讓我擁有更好的生活。

  • predated all this technology.

    當然,談到為盲人做書的日子

  • After all, the long-playing record was developed

    遠早於這項科技。

  • in the early 1930s,

    畢竟,長時間唱片 (LP) 的發明

  • and now we put talking books on CDs

    是在 1930 年代早期,

  • using the digital access system known as DAISY.

    現在我們把有聲書放在 CD 中,

  • But when I'm reading with synthetic voices,

    運用數位資訊無障礙系統,稱為 DAISY。

  • I love to come home and read a racy novel

    當我用合成語音閱讀時,

  • with a real voice.

    我喜歡在家裡讀言情小說,

  • Now there are still barriers

    用真人的聲音讀。

  • in front of we people with disabilities.

    但是現在還是有障礙

  • Many websites we can't read using JAWS

    在我們這樣的身障者眼前。

  • and the other technologies.

    許多網站不能使用 JAWS

  • Websites are often very visual,

    或是其它的科技來讀。

  • and there are all these sorts of graphs

    網站通常著重視覺效果,

  • that aren't labeled and buttons that aren't labeled,

    但是所有這類的圖片

  • and that's why the World Wide Web Consortium 3,

    都不是標籤和按鈕,

  • known as W3C, has developed worldwide standards

    那也是為什麼全球資訊網協會 (World Wide Web Consortium 3),

  • for the Internet.

    就是我們熟知的 W3C, 已經開發了世界標準

  • And we want all Internet users or Internet site owners

    的網際網路。

  • to make their sites compatible so that

    我們希望所有的 網路使用者或是網站擁有者

  • we persons without vision can have a level playing field.

    都讓他們的網站與此相容,這樣一來

  • There are other barriers brought about by our laws.

    沒有視覺的人也被公平對待。

  • For example, Australia,

    我們的法令也帶來了許多障礙。

  • like about one third of the world's countries,

    例如在澳洲,

  • has copyright exceptions which allow books to be brailled

    就像世界上其它 1/3 的國家一樣,

  • or read for we blind persons.

    在著作權保護法方面,提供例外給點字法

  • But those books can't travel across borders.

    或是唸書給盲人聽。

  • For example, in Spain, there are a 100,000

    但是這些有聲書不能傳到國外去,

  • accessible books in Spanish.

    例如在西班牙,有十萬本

  • In Argentina, there are 50,000.

    西班牙文的有聲書,

  • In no other Latin American country

    在阿根廷有五萬本,

  • are there more than a couple of thousand.

    在非拉丁美洲的國家中

  • But it's not legal to transport the books

    不過幾千本。

  • from Spain to Latin America.

    但是從西班牙傳送有聲書到阿根廷

  • There are hundreds of thousands of accessible books

    是不合法的。

  • in the United States, Britain, Canada, Australia, etc.,

    有成千上萬的有聲書

  • but they can't be transported to the 60 countries

    在美國、英國、加拿大和澳洲等國家,

  • in our world where English is the first and the second language.

    但是它們都不能被運送到 世界上的其它 60 個

  • And remember I was telling you about Harry Potter.

    以英語做為第一和第二個語言的國家。

  • Well, because we can't transport books across borders,

    記得我和你提到關於哈利波特的故事,

  • there had to be separate versions read

    因為我們不能傳送有聲書到國外去,

  • in all the different English-speaking countries:

    就必須重複的閱讀製作

  • Britain, United States, Canada, Australia,

    在每個同為英語系的國家:

  • and New Zealand all had to have

    英國、美國、加拿大、澳洲

  • separate readings of Harry Potter.

    和紐西蘭都必須

  • And that's why, next month in Morocco,

    重新讀出不同版本的哈利波特有聲書。