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  • Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

    譯者: Yuen-Lam Tsang 審譯者: Ho-chung Chou

  • Living in Africa is to be on the edge,

    住在非洲就像是住在邊陲地帶

  • metaphorically, and quite literally

    這不單是比喻,也是事實

  • when you think about connectivity before 2008.

    如果你想想 2008 年前的通訊品質

  • Though many human intellectual and technological leaps

    雖然人類的智慧和科技

  • had happened in Europe and the rest of the world,

    在歐洲和世界其他地區大為躍進

  • but Africa was sort of cut off.

    但是非洲就像被屏除在外

  • And that changed, first with ships

    而情況改變了,一開始是因為海運

  • when we had the Renaissance, the Scientific Revolution

    那時候是文藝復興、科學革命

  • and also the Industrial Revolution.

    和工業革命

  • And now we've got the digital revolution.

    而現在我們有數位革命

  • These revolutions have not been evenly distributed

    這些革命的影響力並沒有均衡地

  • across continents and nations.

    遍佈各大洲的各個國家

  • Never have been.

    從來都沒有

  • Now, this is a map of the undersea fiber optic cables

    這張是海底光纖電纜分佈圖

  • that connect Africa to the rest of the world.

    讓非洲連結世界其他地區

  • What I find amazing is that Africa

    令我感到驚訝的是

  • is transcending its geography problem.

    非洲正在突破本身的地理侷限

  • Africa is connecting to the rest of the world

    非洲正和世界其他地方建立聯繫

  • and within itself.

    還有自己內部

  • The connectivity situation has improved greatly,

    通訊情況已經大幅改善

  • but some barriers remain.

    但是仍然存在某些阻隔

  • It is with this context that Ushahidi came to be.

    此時 Ushahidi 應運而生

  • In 2008, one of the problems that we faced

    2008 年,我們面臨的問題之一

  • was lack of information flow.

    就是資訊缺乏流動性

  • There was a media blackout in 2008,

    2008 年有過一次媒體封鎖

  • when there was post-election violence in Kenya.

    正值肯亞選舉後的暴動

  • It was a very tragic time. It was a very difficult time.

    那是一段很讓人悲哀的日子 一段很艱困的日子

  • So we came together and we created software

    所以那時我們聯手寫了一個軟體

  • called Ushahidi.

    名叫 Ushahidi

  • And Ushahidi means "testimony" or "witness" in Swahili.

    Ushahidi 是斯瓦希里語的「證詞」或「見證」

  • I'm very lucky to work with two amazing collaborators.

    我有幸能和兩位優秀的夥伴合作

  • This is David and Erik.

    他們叫作大衛和艾力克

  • I call them brothers from another mother.

    我當他們是同父異母的兄弟

  • Clearly I have a German mother somewhere.

    顯然地,我的母親是德國人

  • And we worked together first with building

    首先我們同力建造

  • and growing Ushahidi.

    並發展 Ushahidi

  • And the idea of the software was to gather information

    而這軟體的目的就是收集資料

  • from SMS, email and web, and put a map

    來源是短訊、電郵和網絡 然後繪成地圖

  • so that you could see what was happening where,

    這樣你們就能知道何地發生何事

  • and you could visualize that data.

    你們可以看得到數據

  • And after that initial prototype,

    建立了初始原形系統後

  • we set out to make free and open-source software

    我們開始嘗試寫出 開放原始碼的免費軟體

  • so that others do not have to start from scratch like we did.

    這樣其他人就不用像我們一樣 從零開始

  • All the while, we also wanted to give back

    一直以來,我們都想報答

  • to the local tech community that helped us

    早期幫助我們製作 Ushahidi

  • grow Ushahidi and supported us in those early days.

    並支持我們的當地技術團隊

  • And that's why we set up the iHub in Nairobi,

    因此我們決定在奈洛比設立 iHub

  • an actual physical space

    一個實際存在的空間

  • where we could collaborate,

    讓我們可以一起工作

  • and it is now part of an integral tech ecosystem in Kenya.

    這地方現在成了 整個肯亞科技生態系統的一部分

  • We did that with the support of different organizations

    我們得到了不同機構的協助

  • like the MacArthur Foundation and Omidyar Network.

    例如麥克阿瑟基金會 奧米迪亞網路

  • And we were able to grow this software footprint,

    因此我們可以擴張這軟體的版圖

  • and a few years later it became

    短短幾年就成為了

  • very useful software,

    一個十分好用的軟體

  • and we were quite humbled when it was used in Haiti

    我們自覺不能居功 當海地的居民使用它

  • where citizens could indicate where they are

    來標示自己的位置

  • and what their needs were,

    和需要的物資

  • and also to deal with the fallout from the nuclear crisis

    還有人們用它來處理 日本的核幅射危機

  • and the tsunami in Japan.

    和海嘯的時候

  • Now, this year the Internet turns 20,

    然而 今年是網際網路的二十週年

  • and Ushahidi turned five.

    Ushahidi 也五歲了

  • Ushahidi is not only the software that we made.

    Ushahidi 並非我們寫過的唯一軟體

  • It is the team, and it's also the community

    那是個團體,那也是個社區

  • that uses this technology in ways that we could not foresee.

    他們以我們無法預料的方式 使用這種科技

  • We did not imagine that there would be this many maps

    我們沒有想過會有這麽多的地圖

  • around the world.

    出現在世界各地

  • There are crisis maps, election maps, corruption maps,

    有危機地圖、選舉地圖 貪污地圖

  • and even environmental monitoring crowd maps.

    甚至環境監控組群的地圖

  • We are humbled that this has roots in Kenya

    我們不能居功,這本是為肯亞而設

  • and that it has some use to people around the world

    現在卻能為全世界的人服務

  • trying to figure out the different issues that they're dealing with.

    面臨各種問題時 幫他們想出解決方法

  • There is more that we're doing to explore this idea

    我們還要藉著這個概念 發掘出更多

  • of collective intelligence, that I, as a citizen,

    關於集體智慧的想法 而我,身為一個公民

  • if I share the information with whatever device that I have,

    如果能運用我所有的設備 來分享資訊

  • could inform you about what is going on,

    告知你們現在發生的事

  • and that if you do the same, we can have a bigger picture

    如果你們也這樣做 就可以讓我們大家

  • of what's going on.

    更瞭解全局

  • I moved back to Kenya in 2011.

    2011年,我搬回了肯亞

  • Erik moved in 2010.

    艾力克是 2010 年回來的

  • Very different reality. I used to live in Chicago

    兩個非常不同的世界 我以前住在芝加哥

  • where there was abundant Internet access.

    那裡上網的據點很多

  • I had never had to deal with a blackout.

    我從來不會遇到網路中斷的問題

  • And in Kenya, it's a very different reality,

    而在肯亞,情況完全不同

  • and one thing that remains despite the leaps in progress

    有件事是連數位革命的大躍進

  • and the digital revolution is the electricity problem.

    也沒能解決的,那就是供電問題

  • The day-to-day frustrations of dealing with this

    每天都要處理這令人沮喪的事

  • can be, let's just say very annoying.

    可說是非常麻煩

  • Blackouts are not fun.

    停電很討厭

  • Imagine sitting down to start working, and all of a sudden

    想像一下,你坐下來準備工作時

  • the power goes out,

    突然所有供電都中斷了

  • your Internet connection goes down with it,

    你的網路連線也跟著中斷

  • so you have to figure out, okay, now, where's the modem,

    然後你要找出問題 好,數據機在哪裡?

  • how do I switch back?

    怎麼重新啟動?

  • And then, guess what? You have to deal with it again.

    而且你知道嗎? 這種事不會只發生一次

  • Now, this is the reality of Kenya, where we live now,

    這就是我們所居住的肯亞的現況

  • and other parts of Africa.

    非洲其他地區也是如此

  • The other problem that we're facing

    我們面對的另一問題是

  • is that communication costs are also still a challenge.

    通訊費用依然高得離譜

  • It costs me five Kenyan shillings,

    我需要花五肯亞先令

  • or .06 USD to call the U.S., Canada or China.

    或者六角美元 才能打電話到美國、加拿大或中國

  • Guess how much it costs to call Rwanda, Ghana, Nigeria?

    你猜猜打電話到盧安達、迦納 和奈及利亞的費用是多少?

  • Thirty Kenyan shillings. That's six times the cost

    30肯亞先令。比非洲內陸的通話費

  • to connect within Africa.

    貴了六倍

  • And also, when traveling within Africa,

    而且,在非洲境內旅行時

  • you've got different settings for different mobile providers.

    你還須根據不同通訊營運商 來改變設定

  • This is the reality that we deal with.

    這就是我們正面對的現實

  • So we've got a joke in Ushahidi

    我們 Ushahidi 流傳著一個笑話

  • where we say, "If it works in Africa, it'll work anywhere."

    「在非洲行得通的,在哪裡都行得通了。」

  • [Most use technology to define the function. We use function to drive the technology.]

    [多數人以科技決定功能, 我們以功能推動科技。]

  • What if we could overcome the problem

    如果我們可以藉由解決

  • of unreliable Internet and electricity

    網絡連接和電力供應不穩定的問題

  • and reduce the cost of connection?

    從而減低通訊成本呢?

  • Could we leverage the cloud?

    或許我們可以善用雲端技術?

  • We've built a crowd map, we've built Ushahidi.

    我們建立了群眾匯報地圖 我們寫出了 Ushahidi

  • Could we leverage these technologies

    我們可否利用這些科技

  • to switch smartly whenever you travel from country to country?

    執行所有跨國旅行中的智能轉換呢?

  • So we looked at the modem,

    因此我們著眼於數據機

  • an important part of the infrastructure of the Internet,

    那是網際網路中重要的基礎建設

  • and asked ourselves why

    然後我們自問

  • the modems that we are using right now

    為甚麼我們正在使用的數據機

  • are built for a different context, where you've got

    是為了一個截然不同

  • ubiquitous internet, you've got ubiquitous electricity,

    有著無所不在的網際網路 和不會斷電的環境而造?

  • yet we sit here in Nairobi and we do not have that luxury.

    然而,我們奈洛比的人可沒有這些福份

  • We wanted to redesign the modem

    我們希望重新設計數據機

  • for the developing world, for our context,

    使其適用於發展中的國家 適用於我們的環境

  • and for our reality.

    適於於我們面臨的現實

  • What if we could have connectivity with less friction?

    我們的網路連線是不是能更順暢?

  • This is the BRCK.

    這就是 BRCK

  • It acts as a backup to the Internet

    其功能是充當網際網路的後援

  • so that, when the power goes out,

    因此,電力中斷時 它會執行

  • it fails over and connects to the nearest GSM network.

    故障轉移 連結至最近的全球行動通訊系統網路

  • Mobile connectivity in Africa is pervasive.

    行動網路在非洲十分普及

  • It's actually everywhere.

    可說是無處不在

  • Most towns at least have a 3G connection.

    很多市鎮至少都有三頻網路

  • So why don't we leverage that? And that's why we built this.

    我們何不善用這技術? 這就是我們建造 BRCK 的原因

  • The other reason that we built this

    我們建造它的另一個原因

  • is when electricity goes down, this has eight hours

    是電力中斷時 這裝置的電池還能撐

  • of battery left, so you can continue working,

    八小時,因此你可以繼續工作

  • you can continue being productive,

    你的效率不受影響

  • and let's just say you are less stressed.

    可以說你的壓力就不會那麼大了

  • And for rural areas, it can be

    對郊區的人來說

  • the primary means of connection.

    這可能是主要的連線方式

  • The software sensibility at Ushahidi is still at play

    Ushahidi 這軟體的靈敏度仍很有用

  • when we wondered how can we use the cloud

    當我們思索如何善用雲端科技

  • to be more intelligent so that

    提高其智能表現

  • you can analyze the different networks,

    那麼你就能分析不同的網路

  • and whenever you switch on the backup,

    每當你開啟一個備份

  • you pick on the fastest network,

    你就能選一個最快的網絡

  • so we'll have multi-SIM capability

    所以我們也會提供多 SIM 卡功能

  • so that you can put multiple SIMs,

    讓你能同時插入多張 SIM 卡

  • and if one network is faster, that's the one you hop on,

    哪個網路較順暢 就連到哪個網路

  • and if the up time on that is not very good,

    如果網路的運行速度不理想

  • then you hop onto the next one.

    就會切換到另一個

  • The idea here is for you to be able to connect anywhere.

    我們的想法是 讓你在哪裡都能上網

  • With load balancing, this can be possible.

    靠著負載均衡技術 這是可能實現的

  • The other interesting thing for us -- we like sensors --

    對我們來說,還有一件很棒的事 我們喜歡感應器

  • is this idea that you could have an on-ramp

    就是你可以掌握一個閘道

  • for the Internet of things.

    連接上各種網路

  • Imagine a weather station that can be attached to this.

    想像一下 這個閘道能連接到某個氣象台

  • It's built in a modular way so that you can also attach

    這用模塊化的形式來建立

  • a satellite module so that you could have

    因此也可以連接到衛星的模塊上

  • Internet connectivity even in very remote areas.

    那麼在偏僻地區也能上網了

  • Out of adversity can come innovation,

    身處逆境可以刺激創新

  • and how can we help the ambitious coders and makers

    我們該如何協助肯亞 的雄心勃勃的編碼師和設計師

  • in Kenya to be resilient in the face of problematic infrastructure?

    在基礎設施問題百出的環境中 隨機應變呢?

  • And for us, we begin with solving the problem

    我們的作法首先是解決

  • in our own backyard in Kenya.

    肯亞內部的問題

  • It is not without challenge.

    過程不是一帆風順的

  • Our team has basically been mules carrying components

    我們的團隊可說像騾子一般 把零件由美國運到肯亞

  • from the U.S. to Kenya. We've had very interesting conversations

    有些很有趣的對話,是我們當初

  • with customs border agents.

    遇到那些邊境人員時說的

  • "What are you carrying?"

    「你們帶的是什麼?」

  • And the local financing is not

    而當地的金融機構並不屬於

  • part of the ecosystem for supporting hardware projects.

    支持硬體計畫的生態系統

  • So we put it on Kickstarter, and I'm happy to say that,

    我們只好依靠 Kickstarter 我很開心的說

  • through the support of many people,

    因為許多人的支持

  • not only here but online,

    不只這裡,還有網路上的

  • the BRCK has been Kickstarted,

    BRCK 起步了

  • and now the interesting part of bringing this to market begins.

    現在有趣的步驟開始了 那就是把產品帶入市場

  • I will close by saying that, if we solve this

    最後我想說的是 要是我們能

  • for the local market, it could be impactful

    為當地市場解決這個問題

  • not only for the coders in Nairobi

    影響的不止是奈洛比的編碼員

  • but also for small business owners

    還有小型企業的老闆

  • who need reliable connectivity,

    他們需要可靠的網路連接

  • and it can reduce the cost of connecting,

    這項技術可以降低連接的成本

  • and hopefully collaboration within African countries.

    希望也能促進非洲各國共同合作

  • The idea is that the building blocks of the digital economy

    我們的理念是 數位經濟的基石就是

  • are connectivity and entrepreneurship.

    連繫力和創業精神

  • The BRCK is our part

    BRCK 就是我們所作的努力

  • to keep Africans connected,

    為了讓非洲人民能保持聯繫

  • and to help them drive the global digital revolution.

    並且幫助他們搭上 全球數位革命的列車

  • Thank you.

    謝謝大家

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

譯者: Yuen-Lam Tsang 審譯者: Ho-chung Chou

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 肯亞 非洲 網路 通訊 中斷

【TED】朱麗安娜-羅蒂奇。迎接BRCK,為非洲而建的互聯網接入(朱麗安娜-羅蒂奇:迎接BRCK,為非洲而建的互聯網接入)。 (【TED】Juliana Rotich: Meet BRCK, Internet access built for Africa (Juliana Rotich: Meet BRCK, Internet access built for Africa))

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    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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