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  • Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

    譯者: Olivia Lo 審譯者: NAN-KUN WU

  • Hey guys.

    嗨,大家好!

  • It's funny, someone just mentioned MacGyver,

    很有趣,有人剛剛提到了馬蓋先

  • because that was, like, I loved it,

    因為我超愛他

  • and when I was seven, I taped a fork to a drill

    七歲的時候,我用膠布把叉子綑在鑽孔機上

  • and I was like, "Hey, Mom, I'm going to Olive Garden."

    然後說:「媽,我要到橄欖園餐廳去。」

  • And -- (Drilling noise) (Laughter)

    然後--(鑽孔聲)(笑聲)

  • And it worked really well there.

    它運作得挺不錯的

  • And you know, it had a profound effect on me.

    這對我有很深的影響

  • It sounds silly, but I thought, okay,

    聽起來很蠢,但是我那時候想,嗯

  • the way the world works can be changed,

    世界運作的方式也可能被改變

  • and it can be changed by me in these small ways.

    而且能被我用小小的方式改變

  • And my relationship to

    我和事物的關係--

  • especially human-made objects

    特別是那些人工作出來的東西--

  • which someone else said they work like this,

    當別人說它們是這樣運作的

  • well, I can say they work a different way, a little bit.

    我則會說它們可以以別的方式運作

  • And so, about 20 years later,

    因此,大約二十年後,

  • I didn't realize the full effect of this,

    我還不知道這件事對我的影響,

  • but I went to Costa Rica

    我去了趟哥斯大黎加

  • and I stayed with these Guaymí natives there,

    和當地的瓜伊米部族住在一起,

  • and they could pull leaves off of trees and make shingles out of them,

    他們會取下樹葉,然後做成屋頂

  • and they could make beds out of trees,

    也會用樹木作床

  • and they could -- I watched this woman for three days.

    還會--我觀察一名婦女觀察了三天

  • I was there. She was peeling this palm frond apart,

    我在那兒,她把棕櫚葉剝成一條條,

  • these little threads off of it, and she'd roll the threads together

    成了細小的絲線,再將絲線纏在一起

  • and make little thicker threads, like strings,

    作成一條條更粗一些的線,像繩子一樣

  • and she would weave the strings together,

    然後她編織這些細繩,

  • and as the materiality of this exact very bag

    成了這個包包的材料

  • formed before my eyes over those three days,

    就在我眼前,以三天的時間形成,

  • the materiality of the way the world works,

    這個世界運作的方式

  • of reality, kind of started to unravel in my mind,

    現實運作的方式,開始在我腦中清晰起來,

  • because I realized that this bag and these clothes

    因為我發現,這個包包、這些衣物

  • and the trampoline you have at home and the pencil sharpener,

    你家裡的跳床和削鉛筆機,

  • everything you have is made out of either a tree or a rock

    你所擁有的一切,不是由一棵樹製成, 就是從一顆石頭作來

  • or something we dug out of the ground and did some process to,

    要不,便是我們從地下挖出某樣東西, 再經過一些加工得來

  • maybe a more complicated one, but still, everything was made that way.

    也許過程更複雜, 但所有的東西仍是如此製造而成

  • And so I had to start studying,

    所以我就開始研究,

  • who is it that's making these decisions?

    是誰做這些決定的?

  • Who's making these things? How did they make them?

    是誰作出這些東西的?他們又是如何製作的?

  • What stops us from making them?

    為何我們不再製造它們?

  • Because this is how reality is created.

    因為這是現實被創造出來的方式

  • So I started right away. I was at MIT Media Lab,

    所以我立即開始

  • and I was studying the maker movement

    我在MIT媒體研究團隊研究製造者的活動、

  • and makers and creativity.

    製造者本身和創造力

  • And I started in nature, because I saw these Guaymís

    我從大自然起頭,因為我看見 那些瓜伊米人從大自然取材造物

  • doing it in nature, and there just seems to be less barriers.

    而大自然裡似乎較少阻礙

  • So I went to Vermont to Not Back to School Camp,

    我到佛蒙特州的「不返校」營隊

  • where there's unschoolers who are just kind of hanging out

    在那兒有一些沒上學的孩子遊手好閒

  • and willing to try anything.

    卻願意嘗試任何事情

  • So I said, "Let's go into the woods near this stream

    因此我說,我們就到那小河旁的樹林裡頭

  • and just put stuff together, you know, make something,

    把東西兜在一起,作出一些東西

  • I don't care, geometrical shapes, just grab some junk from around you.

    我不管,幾何圖形也好,只要從身旁找一些垃圾

  • We won't bring anything with us.

    我們不帶任何東西

  • And, like, within minutes, this is very easy for adults

    然後,大概幾分鐘內--

  • and teens to do.

    這對大人和年輕人來說相當容易--

  • Here's a triangle that was being formed underneath a flowing stream,

    有個三角形便在流水底下形成了

  • and the shape of an oak leaf being made

    還有一個橡木樹葉的圖形

  • by other small oak leaves being put together.

    是由其他小片的橡木樹葉拼湊在一起而成的

  • A leaf tied to a stick with a blade of grass.

    用草綁在木棍上的葉子

  • The materiality and fleshiness and meat of the mushroom

    香菇的材質和菇肉也被拿來做實驗

  • being explored by how it can hold up different objects being stuck into it.

    看看它能造出哪些不同的東西

  • And after about 45 minutes, you get really intricate projects

    45分鐘後,一些相當精巧繁複的作品出來了

  • like leaves sorted by hue, so you get a color fade

    像是把顏色區分後,得到的漸近色

  • and put in a circle like a wreath.

    擺成一個圓圈,便成了花環

  • And the creator of this, he said,

    而這個作品的創作者,他說

  • "This is fire. I call this fire."

    「這是火,我把它叫作火。」

  • And someone asked him, "How do you get those sticks

    有人問他:「你是怎麼讓這些木棒

  • to stay on that tree?"

    停留在那棵樹上的?」

  • And he's like, "I don't know, but I can show you."

    他說:「我也不知道,但是我可以做給你看。」

  • And I'm like, "Wow, that's really amazing.

    我說:「哇!這實在是太驚人了。

  • He doesn't know, but he can show you."

    他不知道怎麼說,但他卻能夠做給你看。」

  • So his hands know and his intuition knows,

    他的手知道,他的直覺知道

  • but sometimes what we know gets in the way

    有時候,我們所知道的東西,

  • of what could be, especially

    就是以它可能成為的樣子得來的

  • when it comes to the human-made, human-built world.

    尤其是當我們說到人工製作、人工建造的世界

  • We think we already know how something works,

    我們以為我們已經知道事物是如何運作的

  • so we can't imagine how it could work.

    所以我們就想不到它還能怎麼運作

  • We know how it's supposed to work,

    我們知道它應該是怎麼運作

  • so we can't suppose all the things that could be possible.

    所以我們就沒想到所有的事情都是有可能的

  • So kids don't have as hard of a time with this,

    因此孩子們就不會感到困難

  • and I saw in my own son, I gave him this book.

    我自己的兒子就是如此,我給他這本書

  • I'm a good hippie dad, so I'm like,

    我是個嬉皮的好爸爸,我就說

  • "Okay, you're going to learn to love the moon.

    「好,現在你要學著愛月亮。

  • I'm going to give you some building blocks

    我要給你一些積木

  • and they're nonrectilinear cactus building blocks,

    它們是一些非直線的仙人掌積木,

  • so it's totally legit."

    所以它是完全正統的。」

  • But he doesn't really know what to do with these.

    但是他不太曉得該怎麼運用這些東西

  • I didn't show him.

    我沒有秀給他看

  • And so he's like, "Okay, I'll just mess around with this."

    所以他就想:「好,我就隨便亂弄吧。」

  • This is no different than the sticks are to the teens in the forest.

    這和樹林中的少年們 使用那些樹枝的方式沒什麼兩樣--

  • Just going to try to put them in shapes

    試著把它們拼湊成一個形狀就對了

  • and push on them and stuff.

    然後在上面堆疊東西

  • And before long, he's kind of got this mechanism

    不久後,他有點抓到技巧了

  • where you can almost launch and catapult objects around,

    他發現他可以四處投擲或彈射這些物品

  • and he enlists us in helping him.

    然後他要求我們的幫助

  • And at this point, I'm starting to wonder,

    就在這時,我開始在想

  • what kind of tools can we give people,

    在人們的日常生活中

  • especially adults, who know too much,

    特別是那些已經知道太多道理的大人們

  • so that they can see the world as malleable,

    我們能夠給予他們什麼樣的工具

  • so they see themselves as agents of change

    讓他們將世界視為可被塑造的

  • in their everyday lives.

    讓他們將自己視為改變的媒介

  • Because the most advanced scientists are really

    因為,大部份先進的科學家

  • just kind of pushing the way the world itself works,

    其實只是在世界本身運作的方式中開闊出一條路

  • pushing what matter can do,

    在事物能做到的事情上開路

  • the most advanced artists are just pushing the medium,

    而大部分先進的藝術家也只是在媒介中開路

  • and any sufficiently complicated task,

    任何夠複雜的任務

  • whether you're a cook or a carpenter or you're raising a child --

    不管你是廚師或是木匠或是在撫養孩子--

  • anything that's complicated --

    任何複雜的事情--

  • comes up with problems that aren't solved in the middle of it,

    在實作時會遇到的問題, 都無法從這些路當中獲得解決之道

  • and you can't do a good job getting it done unless you can say,

    你無法把這些事做好,除非你說:

  • "Okay, well we're just going to have to refigure this.

    「好,我們得重新弄清楚這回事。

  • I don't care that pencils are supposed to be for writing.

    我不管鉛筆是不是應該被用來寫字。

  • I'm going to use them a different way."

    我要用不同的方式使用它們。」

  • So let me show you a little demo.

    讓我稍稍示範給你們看。

  • This is a little piano circuit right in here,

    這裡有一個小小的鋼琴電路板

  • and this is an ordinary paintbrush

    而這是一個普通的水彩筆

  • that I smashed it together with. (Beeping)

    我把兩者結合在一起(嗶嗶聲)

  • And so, with some ketchup,

    然後,用一些番茄醬

  • — (musical notes) —

    --(樂聲)--

  • and then I can kind of

    接著我就可以

  • — (musical notes) —

    --(樂聲)--

  • (Laughter) (Applause)

    (笑聲)(掌聲)

  • And that's awesome, right?

    這超酷的,不是嗎?

  • But this is not what's awesome.

    但是酷的不是這個東西

  • What's awesome is what happens

    酷的是,當你把鋼琴電路板給了人們

  • when you give the piano circuit to people.

    它所會發生的事情

  • A pencil is not just a pencil.

    鉛筆不只是鉛筆

  • Look what it has in the middle of it.

    看看這支筆中間

  • That's a wire running down the middle,

    有一條電線被穿在鉛筆中心

  • and not only is it a wire,

    它不僅是一條電線

  • if you take that piano circuit, you can thumbtack

    如果你將鋼琴電路板用圖釘

  • into the middle of a pencil,

    釘入鉛筆之中

  • and you can lay out wire on the page, too,

    你就能使這條電線延展到紙張上

  • and get electrical current to run through it.

    電流同樣會通過紙上的線

  • And so you can kind of hack a pencil,

    所以,將一個小小的鋼琴電路板

  • just by thumbtacking into it with a little piano electrical circuit.

    用圖釘釘入鉛筆之中, 你就能改變了鉛筆的「程式」

  • And the electricity runs through your body too.

    電也會通過你的身體

  • And then you can take the little piano circuit off the pencil.

    接著,你可以把鋼琴電路板拿走

  • You can make one of these brushes just on the fly.

    讓水彩筆開始它的「系統運作」

  • All you do is connect to the bristles,

    你要做的,就只是讓刷毛通上電路

  • and the bristles are wet, so they conduct,

    刷毛是濕的,所以導電

  • and the person's body conducts,

    人體也能導電

  • and leather is great to paint on,

    皮革是很好塗畫的材質

  • and then you can start hooking to everything,

    然後你就可以把電路板接上所有的事物

  • even the kitchen sink.

    甚至是廚房的洗水槽

  • The metal in the sink is conductive.

    水槽的金屬也是導電體

  • Flowing water acts like a theremin or a violin.

    流出來的水就會變成特雷門 (一種電子樂器)或小提琴

  • (Musical notes)

    (樂聲)

  • And you can even hook to the trees.

    你甚至可以接在樹上

  • Anything in the world is either conductive or not conductive,

    世界上所有的東西 不是可以導電就是無法導電

  • and you can use those together.

    你能把這些東西接在一起

  • So — (Laughter) —

    因此--(笑聲)--

  • I took this to those same teens, because those teens are

    我把這玩意帶給那些年輕人,因為這些小夥子

  • really awesome, and they'll try things that I won't try.

    真的超厲害,他們會嘗試我不會去試的事物

  • I don't even have access to a facial piercing if I wanted to.

    就算我想接在鼻環耳洞 之類的地方我也沒得接

  • And this young woman, she made what she called a hula-looper,

    這個年輕女孩,她做了這個「呼拉圈」

  • and as the hula hoop traveled around her body,

    呼拉圈繞行她的身體

  • she has a circuit taped to her shirt right there.

    同時她將電路板黏在衣服上

  • You can see her pointing to it in the picture.

    如同她在這張圖中指著的地方

  • And every time the hula hoop would smush against her body,

    每當呼拉圈壓過她的身體

  • it would connect two little pieces of copper tape,

    她的身體就會和呼拉圈上的兩條小銅片通電

  • and it would make a sound, and the next sound,

    然後發出聲音,接著又有下一個聲音

  • and it would loop the same sounds over and over again.

    同樣的聲音會一次次地跟著呼拉圈循環

  • I ran these workshops everywhere.

    我到各地舉辦這些工作坊

  • In Taiwan, at an art museum, this 12-year-old girl

    在台灣的一間美術館,這個十二歲的女孩

  • made a mushroom organ out of some mushrooms