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  • This year some 57 million people are expected to cease existence and revert back to their

    LEMMiNO

  • natural state of nonexistence.

    今年預計會有五千七百萬人會從「存在」的狀態

  • Commonly defined as death.

    回歸到「不存在」的自然狀態

  • Roughly two thirds will die of a mysterious and, as of yet, incurable disease known as aging.

    這個現象通常被稱作「死亡」

  • Well, technically and medically speaking, old age is not in and of itself lethal but

    當中大約有三分之二的人是死於 一個名為衰老的不治之症

  • it nonetheless weakens your body so as to make you less capable of combating that which is.

    呃...從理論和醫學層面來說,衰老並不會直接的致命

  • Nevertheless, death as a result of age related conditions is clouded in mystery as we have

    但它會使你的身體逐漸衰弱,使你的抵抗力越來越差

  • yet to discern precisely why we age.

    然而,衰老與死亡的關係是相當神秘的

  • Current understanding implies no singular element commands the aging process but rather

    我們至今仍未明確的找出我們會衰老的真正原因

  • a combination of multiple interconnected factors.

    目前我們知道的是,衰老並非是由某個單一因素造成的

  • For example, the limits imposed by telomeres on cell division implies obsolescence may

    而是由諸多的因素共同導致的

  • be programmed into our DNA.

    例如,端粒在細胞分裂時的消耗可能導致退化的染色體被編入DNA中

  • Manipulation of specific genes in other animals and organisms can have drastic effects on

    我們在操控其他動物和微生物的基因後

  • the aging process.

    可能會對其衰老的過程造成極大的影響

  • Furthermore, numerous studies has evinced that calories accelerates aging and thus less

    此外,已有許多研究證實了卡路里會加速老化

  • food could potentially extend longevity.

    減少飲食將能延年益壽

  • So stop eating and you'll live forever.

    所以,你不吃東西的話就能獲得永生

  • Who eats a burger that way?

    誰會這樣吃漢堡啦?

  • On the opposite side of the spectrum, aging may simply be a result of accumulative damage and waste.

    對老化現象的另一種說法 他們認為老化可能其實是由損傷和廢物的囤積造成的

  • While the human body is capable of maintaining and repairing itself, the processes responsible

    雖然人體可以自我維護和修復

  • are not infallible.

    但這個過程並不是絕對的

  • Over time an accumulation of separately insignificant failures may collectively become significant

    隨著時間的推移,那些單一且微不足道的小故障

  • so as to sporadically degrade various bodily functions.

    堆積到最後變得越發明顯,從而導致身體狀況越來越差

  • If gerontologists do manage to isolate the precise nature of aging we may one day be

    如果老化學學者能設法隔離老化的確切因素

  • able to decelerate, prevent, or even reverse the process.

    也許我們就能減緩、停止,甚至逆轉老化的現象

  • Hanging has been a common method of both suicide and homicide ever since the invention of

    自從發明了繩索和人類的脖子之以來 上吊一直是自殺和行兇的常見方法

  • rope and human necks.

    如今,上吊主要讓人聯想到的都是繩索

  • Today, hanging is primarily associated with hanging from a noose but the word may also

    但這個詞也可以用來描述釘十字架、刺刑

  • describe crucifixion, impalement, or just a general state of suspension upon death.

    或是一般被吊起的死刑

  • At some point, or more likely over an extended period of time, coroners and others remarked

    在某些時候,或者說這個說法已經行之有年

  • that male hanging victims often died with priapism.

    驗屍官和其他相關人員指出 上吊死亡男性受害者的陰莖往往會異常的勃起

  • Which is a medical way of saying, they frequently died with an erection.

    以醫療的角度來說,他們通常死於勃起

  • In fact, it is the belief of some historians that not one but two poles were erected upon

    事實上,一些歷史學家認為

  • the crucifixion of Jesus Christ and that some artistic renditions of his divine likeness

    耶穌基督在被釘上十字架的時候,立起的 不單只有十字架而已

  • was more accurately hung than others.

    而他的聖像在藝術表現上總會比其他的更加強調上吊

  • Though thy holy loins was frequently covered with drapes, like the Renaissance version

    雖然祂的聖柱經常被布料遮住 布就像是文藝復興時期的馬賽克

  • of pixelization, so the state of his majesty can merely be inferred.

    所以他那裏到底有多威嚴,也只能用想像的了

  • In any case, this discovery gradually evolved into a treatment for erectile dysfunction

    總之,這一發現逐漸演變成了治療勃起功能障礙的方法

  • as non-lethal strangulation produces the same effect.

    因為非致死的窒息也能產生相同的效果

  • Which in turn evolved into erotic asphyxiation.

    這又演變成了窒息式性愛

  • The exact physiological cause is not entirely clear but a general inhibition of normal brain

    雖然確切的生理原因並不完全清楚

  • activity due to pressure or injury to the brain or spinal cord appears to be responsible.

    但普遍認為是大腦或脊隨的壓迫和損傷能對 正常的腦活動造成抑制導致的

  • The fear of death is known as thanatophobia and fearing the end of our existence can be

    對死亡的恐懼被稱之為「死亡恐懼症」

  • so overwhelming that many seek any explanation that promises continuation in place of termination.

    這種人對自身存在的消亡有著極度的恐懼

  • In other words, an afterlife.

    以至於他們會想方設法地尋求一種方式 來讓生命繼續延續

  • As far as science is concerned death is the cessation of brain activity followed by natural

    換句話說,就是超越生死

  • decomposition of the body.

    就科學的角度而言,死亡意指大腦停止活動

  • One could argue that death is merely the absence of life much like a shadow is the absence of light.

    接著就是身體的自然分解

  • But who is this science to tell us what to believe when we could simply ask those brought

    有一種觀點認為,死亡只是一個人不在活著而已

  • back to life after death.

    就如我們看不到沒了光線的陰影

  • Between 10-20% of cardiac arrest survivors recall near death experiences.

    但與其用科學的方法去猜測 我們其實可以直接去問那些起死回生的人

  • Memories from when they where clinically dead and thus unconscious.

    約有10~20%的心臟驟停倖存者能回憶起所謂的瀕死經驗

  • Revived persons often report similar experiences such as a strong sense of peace, love, and happiness.

    (臨床死亡: 心跳停止的5至8分鐘,人體仍有機會復甦) 這是一段從臨床死亡、處於無意識狀態的記憶

  • The perception of ones dead body from an outside perspective.

    起死回生的人們經常有類似的經歷

  • A review of ones life experiences.

    如強烈的和平、愛和幸福感

  • Interactions with deceased loved ones or supernatural entities.

    從第三者的角度來看一具屍體

  • And a light at the end of a dark tunnel.

    回顧的人生跑馬燈

  • Studies have found that these experiences are largely culture dependent.

    和已故親人或超自然的形像接觸

  • For example, Christians are more likely to perceive angles while Hindus are more likely

    以及黑色隧道盡頭的光芒

  • to perceive gods of the underworld.

    研究發現,這些經驗在很大程度上依賴於文化

  • Entities who escort the deceased towards an afterlife are known as psychopomps.

    例如,基督徒更容易看到天使的樣子

  • But you are neither more nor less likely to have a near death experience just because

    而印度教徒則更有機會看到地府使者的形象

  • you are religious as NDEs by atheists and others are just as common.

    這些前來護送死者的形象被稱之為引路人(Psychopomp)

  • Many find comfort in these reports as they may serve as affirmation of a life beyond

    但瀕死經驗並不會因為你是個無神論者就不會遇到

  • but it's worth pointing out that clinical death is not the same as what most of us perceive as death.

    你和其他擁有信仰的人一樣都有機會遇上瀕死經驗

  • The reason you can be revived when clinically dead is that, while your heart and breathing

    不少人認為瀕死經驗的報告證明了人是可以超越生死的 也因此感到安慰

  • may have ceased, your brain is still active.

    但值得一提的是 臨床死亡和我們一般認為的死亡其實並不一樣

  • It is only once your brain activity stops that you are legally dead and no one has ever

    臨床死亡的情況下仍然可以起死回生的原因在於

  • returned from this stage of complete cessation.

    儘管你的心臟和呼吸可能都已經停止了

  • While humans may be stuck with pathetic mortal bodies some animals have transcended this

    但你的大腦還是處於活躍狀態的

  • futile existence and exhibit biological immortality.

    不過一旦你的大腦停止運作時,那就真正死亡了

  • One such creature is the immortal hydra.

    而從來沒有人能從這個狀態中再度醒來

  • Hydras are tiny freshwater animals that look like miniature octopuses.

    雖然人類可能受制於可憐的凡人之軀

  • While humans and our sad excuse of a body grows weaker with age the hydra is just as

    但有一些動物卻早已超擺脫了生命的桎梏

  • strong playing bingo as when it graduated high school.

    展現了所謂的「生物學永生」

  • In other words, they show no signs of aging nor the adverse effects commonly associated with it.

    永生不朽的水螅便是這樣的生物

  • While its regenerative properties are poorly understood the hope is for an improved understanding

    水螅是一種微小的淡水動物,長得有點像微型章魚

  • to aid in our quest for human immortality.

    人類和我們可悲的身體會隨著年齡的增長而變得孱弱

  • Other creatures exhibiting some form of biological immortality

    但水螅的身體卻好像永遠處於能去高中畢業趴 玩賓果的青春肉體

  • include various species of jellyfish, lobsters, and flatworms.

    換句話說,他們並沒有老化的表現 也不會表現出隨時間推移造成的不利影響

  • There's a unit of measurement known as a micromortmt).

    雖然我們對他的再生能力所知甚少

  • The name is a portmanteau of the words micro and mortality and measures the probability

    但理解這些生物是有助於我們追求人類不朽的

  • of sudden death in any given context.

    其他能表現出某種形式的生物學永生的動物包含

  • 1 µmt means the probability of death is 1 in 1,000,000.

    各種水母、螯龍蝦和扁蟲

  • For example, approximately 1 out of every 150,000 skydiving attempts in the US result

    有一種測量單位叫做「微亡率」(µmt)

  • in death which means that skydiving is rated at roughly 7 µmt per jump.

    這個詞是由微小和死亡組成的

  • In order to be exposed to 1 µmt of risk you would have to ride a bike for 10 km,

    是用來計算任一情況下的死亡率

  • drive a car for 400 km, or fly with commercial airlines for 10,000 km.

    1 µmt代表百萬分之一的死亡率

  • Doing something as simple as getting out of bed at 90 years of age will expose you to

    舉例來說,在美國每15萬次跳傘中就會有1次導致死亡

  • a daily dose of over 300 µmt.

    所以每次跳傘的死亡率便是 7 µmt

  • The deadliest job in America is said to be the presidency, which clocks in at a staggering

    高於 1 µmt的活動包含了:騎摩托車 10 公里

  • 186,000 µmt.

    駕駛 400 公里,或是搭飛機 10,000 公里

  • Which is why I decided to make videos on the internet instead.

    當做一些更單純的事情,像是起床

  • In most cultures death is associated with a specific personification and commonly takes

    若高齡90的時候,每次起床的死亡率便高達 300 µmt

  • the shape of the Grim Reaper.

    美國最致命的工作據說就是擔任總統

  • A skeleton cloaked in a dark robe carrying a scythe, used to reap the souls of the dead.

    其在職的死亡率高達 186,000 µmt

  • But some ancient cultures personified death in much less menacing fashion.

    這就是為什麼我只敢躲在家裡上網發影片

  • For example, the ancient Greeks worshiped a god of death known as Thanatos.

    在大多數的文化中 死亡的具體化身通常會是以「死神」的形式出現

  • He was often depicted as a bearded man or a child with wings that merely guided the

    一個身穿黑色長袍的骷髏,揮舞手持鐮刀收割靈魂

  • human soul into the afterlife.

    但一些古老的文化卻以非威脅的形式來將死亡形象化

  • In other words, a psychopomp.

    例如,古希臘崇拜的其中一個神便是桑納托斯,死亡之神

  • The Egyptian god Osiris was depicted as a man with green skin and was more often revered than feared.

    他通常被描述為一個留鬍子的男子,或有著翅膀的小孩

  • This modern depiction of a menacing skeleton or demon, can largely be attributed to the

    而且他所做也僅只是引導人類的靈魂進入來世

  • most devastating pandemic humanity has ever faced, the black death.

    也就是所謂的引路人

  • This horrifying medieval plague may have reduced the European population by as much as 60%

    埃及神祇歐西里斯則被描繪成一個受人敬重的綠皮人

  • and consequently gave rise to a more dismal depiction of the Grim Reaper as to more accurately

    而現代威脅意義重大的骷髏和惡魔形象

  • reflect the hopelessness and dismality of this plague.

    很大程度可以歸因於人類所面臨破壞力最大的流行病

  • Well, most depictions at least.

    黑死病

  • Sometimes Death is just ecstatic to play some mortal board games.

    這個可怕的中世紀瘟疫削減了歐洲人口的60%

  • Just look at that face. That is the face of a skeleton ready to play some chess.

    這才使得「死神」的形象變得負面

  • Who are you?

    反映出當時對這場瘟疫的絕望與不安

  • I am Death!

    呃,至少大多數的形象是這樣啦

  • There's a rare mental disorder known as Cotard Syndrome and persons afflicted often deny

    有時候死神只是很喜歡把人類當作棋盤遊戲玩而已

  • the existence of one or multiple body parts but in some extreme cases patients deny that

    看看這張臉...他就一副準備下棋的樣子

  • they themselves exist and paradoxically come to believe that they are dead.

    "你是誰...?"

  • Named after French neurologist Jules Cotard, in 1880 he described a middle-aged woman who

    "我是死神"

  • believed her body was completely hollow with the exception of her skin and bones.

    有一種罕見的精神疾病叫做「科塔爾症候群」

  • As such she insisted she didn't need to eat and eventually died of starvation.

    患者經常否認自身某個或某幾個部位的存在

  • Strangely enough, victims of this disorder often believe themselves to be immortal as

    在某些極端的情況下,患者甚至會否定自身存在 相信自己已經死亡

  • from their delusional perspective you can't die if you're already dead.

    它是由法國精神病學家Jules Cotard命名

  • Can't really argue with that logic.

    1880年,他在診斷一名中年女子時發現,她相信自己的身體

  • A more recent case from 2012 describes a man who, after suffering a stroke, grew convinced he was dead.

    除了皮膚和骨頭外都是空的

  • He told his doctor:

    因此,她認為自己不需要進食,最終死於飢餓

  • "I guess I'm dead."

    奇怪的是,這種疾病的患者經常相信自己是不朽的

  • "I'd like to ask for your opinion."

    因為從妄想的角度來看 如果你已經死亡,那你就不會再死了

  • But when asked if he believed it possible for a dead man to speak he recognized the

    真是無懈可擊的理論...

  • contradiction yet paradoxically maintained his belief of nonexistence.

    近期的案例則有,2012年一名男子在經歷一次中風之後 便認為自己已經死了

  • He further elaborated:

    他告訴醫生:

  • "I feel I am dead [but] I'm talking with you in this world."

    "我想我已經死了"

  • "I do not know whether I am alive or not."

    "我想問問你的意見"

  • "I am unable to realize that I'm alive."

    但當他被反問是否認為一個死人能與人溝通時

  • A few months later his condition fortunately improved and he no longer believed himself

    他認為不能,卻依然覺得自己已經死亡

  • to be dead yet he maintained that he once had been.

    他再更進一步地闡述:

  • Oh, and he also believed Kim Jong-il was a patient of the same hospital.

    "我覺得自己已經死了,但我卻還能和你對話"

  • Naturally.

    "我不知道自己是否還算不算活著?"

  • In 2007, a middle aged man in Bosnia decided to fake his own death in an effort to uncover

    "我無法意識到自己還活著"

  • how many friends and family members would attend his funeral.

    幾個月後,他的狀況得到了改善 起碼不再認為自己已經死了

  • Unfortunately for him, only one person attended his fake service and that person was his mother.

    但他還是經稱自己曾經死過

  • The thing is, this is a quite common fear because no one wants to die alone and if no

    哦,他還認為金正日和他是同一間醫院的病患

  • one attends your funeral than that's likely to have been the case.

    ...合理

  • Actually I'm surprised there isn't a specific phobia for dying alone so let's create one.

    2007年,波士尼亞一名中年男子決定假死

  • Okay, thanatophobia is the fear of dying and monophobia is the fear of being alone so naturally

    來看看有多少親友會出席自己的葬禮

  • monatophobia is the fear of dying alone.

    不幸的是,只有一個人出席了這個假葬禮 那個人就是他母親

  • Anyway, the fear of a lack of funeral attendees is so common that in the UK you can preemptively

    這是一個相當常見的恐懼 因為沒有人想要像個邊緣人一樣獨自死去

  • pay a company, known as Rent A Mourner, to have random persons attend your funeral and

    而如果沒有人出席的你葬禮,那就會像是這樣

  • act as if they mourn your passing.

    老實說,我很驚訝孤獨的死亡竟然沒有一個專有名詞

  • In early 1921, an American named Thomas Bradford decided he was going to

    所以...我們來創造一個吧

  • prove the existence of an afterlife.

    好,Thanatophobia是死亡恐懼症 Monophobia則是孤獨恐懼症

  • In order to realize such an impossible task, Bradford reasoned the most logical course

    所以說,Monatophobia就是害怕邊緣到死恐懼症

  • of action would be for him to commit suicide and then communicate the existence of an afterlife

    總之,擔心缺少葬禮的參加者是一個非常普遍的現象

  • from beyond the grave.

    (Rent A Mourner) 所以在英國,你可以到一間叫做「租個悼念者」公司進行預購

  • He began by publishing a newspaper advert in search for a spiritualistic accomplice

    他們會讓一些你不認識的專業悼念者來出席你的葬禮

  • that would remain alive and wait for the spirit of Bradford to return from the dead.

    並表現得好像他們真的在哀悼你的逝世一樣

  • Thus undeniably ascertaining a different plane of existence.

    1921年,美國一名男子Thomas Bradford

  • A foolproof plan or at least a woman named Ruth Doran thought so as she quickly responded

    決定要來證明死後世界的存在

  • to Bradford's advert.

    為了實現這個不可能的任務

  • After a few meetings of what I can only imagine must've consisted of intense scrutinization

    Bradford認為,最合理的方法就是去自殺

  • of this ingenious plan, Bradford took his own life on the 5th of February, 1921, with

    然後再用地府通訊來傳達來死後世界的存在

  • the full intention of returning to this plane of existence and relay any juicy details about

    他開始在報紙上刊登找尋靈媒夥伴

  • the world beyond to his lively accomplice.

    這位夥伴將要活著,並接收Bradford來自地府的訊息

  • A week later, Doran claimed she had actually been in contact with the ghost of Bradford

    藉此證明死後世界的存在

  • and this is some of what he had to say:

    這個萬無一失的計畫,或者說至少有那麼一個人相信了 她叫做Ruth Doran

  • "I am the professor who speaks to you from the Beyond."

    她很快的就回應了Bradford刊登的廣告

  • "I have broken through the veil."

    經過幾次的商討後,我只能想像這些內容應該

  • "I woke up and at first did not realize that I had passed on."

    包含了對這個巧妙計畫的嚴格審查之類的

  • "I find no great change apparent."

    Bradford在1921年2月5日自殺了

  • "I expected things to be much different."

    他完全有回到活人的世界的打算

  • "They are not."

    並且想要將多采多姿的死後世界的各種細節 傳達給他活著的夥伴

  • "Human forms are retained in outline but not the physical."

    一星期後,Doran表示她確實與Bradford的靈魂取得聯繫

  • "I have not traveled far. I am still much in the darkness."

    以下便是她代替Bradford傳達的訊息

  • "I see many persons."

    "我是一名教授 我正從另一個世界與你對話"

  • "They appear natural."

    "我已經突破了生死的界線"

  • "There is a lightness of responsibility here unlike in life."

    "當我剛醒來時,一開始還沒意識到自己已經死去"

  • "One feels full of rapture and happiness."

    "我發現這裡和現世差別並不大"

  • Make of that what you will.

    "我本來預期死後的世界會很不一樣"

  • As previously mentioned a complete lack of brain activity is, according to modern medical science,

    "但我錯了"

  • the point of no return.

    "在這裡的人們有輪廓卻沒有實體"

  • Once your brain dies, there is no chance of revival.

    "我並沒有走得太遠,我還在黑暗之中"

  • But some disagrees with this view of death and argues that as long as the brain is left

    "但我看到了很多的人"

  • intact it should be possible to restore brain activity at a later date.

    "他們看起來相當怡然自得"

  • At least theoretically.

    "這裡並沒有像現世那樣的重擔"

  • While no one has ever returned from complete brain cessation it is plausible that future

    "唯一能感覺到的就只有喜樂與幸福"

  • medical advances could allow for that to happen.

    信不信由你囉

  • And this mere plausibility is enough for some individuals to literally put their body on

    如前所述,當大腦完全停止運作時

  • ice in the hopes that in the future they can be unfrozen and resurrected.

    根據現代科學醫學的理論,一切就回不去了

  • A practice known as cryonics.

    一旦你的大腦死亡,就沒有任何復活的機會了

  • The first person to be cryopreserved was an American by the name of James Bedford who

    但有些人不同意這種死亡的觀點 他們認為只要大腦保持完整

  • in 1967 died of cancer and was subsequently frozen.

    應該就可以在之後讓大腦恢復運作

  • Over 250 individuals has since undergone this expensive procedure and thousands more plan

    至少理論上是這樣

  • on joining them.

    雖然還沒有人能實現這一個工程

  • The question is, is this a form of suspended animation or a freezer for corpses?

    但醫療更加進步的未來可能就有這樣的技術能達成

  • In 2016 scientists successfully restored a frozen rabbit brain to near-perfect condition

    而為了這種不確定是否可行的理論

  • demonstrating that subzero preservation is feasible.

    就真有一些人把自己的身體冰封起來

  • But the next issue is revival.

    以期能在未來解凍並復活

  • While some microscopic animals have successfully been frozen, unfrozen, and revived larger

    這種作法被稱之為人體冷凍技術(Cryonics)

  • mammals, like ourselves, are significantly more complex.

    第一個被冷凍保存的是一位名叫James Bedford的美國人

  • In any case, cryonics is currently one of the most plausible methods of escaping death.

    他在1967年因癌症去世,隨後便被冰封冷凍

  • So while there is some tangible hope for the future to save us from the cruelty of nonexistence,

    自此之後,已有超過250個人進行了這項昂貴的程序

  • the present will for the time being remain a dystopian netherworld

    還有數千人正計畫加入他們

  • filled with pain, suffering, Denmark, death, and despair.

    問題是,這到底是一台生命暫停機呢,還是屍體冷凍庫?

This year some 57 million people are expected to cease existence and revert back to their

LEMMiNO

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 死亡 衰老 老化 冷凍 大腦 死亡率

十大關於死亡的真相 (Top 10 Facts - Death)

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    kismet 發佈於 2018 年 03 月 20 日
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