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  • Hi again. I'm Adam. Welcome back to Today's lesson is a little bit tricky. The


  • reason I say it's tricky is because we're talking about specific words that are often


  • interchangeable; that are often used in the same situations or same meanings. We're talking

    可以互相替換使用的 ; 通常在相同情境下使用或是具有相同意義。我們要談論的

  • about "small" versus "little", "big" versus "large", "tall" versus "high". Some students

    有『 small 』與 『 little 』,『 big 』和 『 large 』, 『 tall 』和 『 high 』的比較。某些學生

  • asked: what's the difference between them? I'll do my best to explain the difference


  • between these words. First thing and the most important thing that


  • you need to remember about these words is that yes, they are synonyms -- means they


  • have almost the same meaning. What makes the difference in how to use them is always going


  • to be context. Okay? A lot of the difference in how to use these words depends on the context


  • they are being used in. Some expressions take this word or that word, and not the other,


  • for example. In some situations, the meaning is very different depending on which word


  • you use. Okay? So we're going to start with "small" and "little".

    意義就會相去甚遠。好,現在開始討論『 small 』和 『 little 』。

  • Okay? The main thing to remember and in most cases the biggest difference: when we talk


  • about "small", when we use "small", we talk about size, the size of something or its dimensions

    『 small 』,當我們使用『 small 』這個字時,我們在形容大小,某物的大小或它的尺寸

  • -- dimensions are length, width, height, depth, etcetera -- or intensity. Okay? When we talk

    尺寸是指長,寬,高,深度,等等 -- 或者是指強度。好嗎?當我們說到

  • about the intensity of something. So first of all, the thing to remember about this:


  • we're talking about physical size. When we describe something as "small", generally we

    我們談論物理上的大小。當我們形容某物『 small 』,一般我們是

  • mean physically small, something physical is small. But again, sometimes we can use


  • "little" to talk about the physical size of something.

    『 little 』來描述某些物體的物理大小。

  • So for example: somebody has small hands or somebody has little hands. The nuance is a

    舉例:某人有雙 small hands,或某人有 little hands。細微的差異在

  • little bit different, and this is what you have to be careful about, nuance. If somebody


  • has small hands, it means generally physical small but if somebody has little hands, it

    有雙 small hands,代表物理上的小,如果說某人有 little hands,

  • has more of the idea that he or she can do less with their hands. True, not true - I

    意涵是指他或她用雙手完成的是不需要太多。真,或假 - 我

  • don't know; I'll leave that up to you. But just remember there's a slight nuance in difference.

    不知道 ; 由你判斷。但要記住這裡有細微的差異。

  • But, if you look at somebody, say: "Oh, he has such little hands." Or if you say: "Oh,

    但,如果你看著某人說:『 喔,他有雙好小的手 』或若你說:『 喔,

  • that person has such small hands." Most people will get the same idea. But again, context

    那個人有雙好小的手 』。大多數的人會知道你的意思。但,文章脈絡

  • might tell you it's a little bit different. Okay. When I talk about intensity, again,


  • usually something physical like somebody has a small voice. If somebody has a small voice,

    通常是說某物的物理特性像是某人的聲音很小。若某人有 small voice,

  • sometimes it's a little bit hard to hear them. Did you hear that? Did you hear my small voice


  • or do you hear my big voice now? But we'll get to that after.


  • Usually, we use "little" with uncountables; money, time. "I have a little money." Not

    通常,我們使用『 little 』來形容不可數名詞 ; 如錢,時間。『 我錢很 little。』不是說

  • "small money". Small money means like in Canada, we have a dime, 10 cents, it's a very small

    『 small money 』。Small money 是指像在加拿大,我們有使用十分錢的幣值。十分小的

  • coin but that's not what we're talking about. "A little money", when we're talking about quantity.


  • So usually when you talk about uncountables -- things you can't count and you're not talking

    所以通常你使用不可數名詞 -- 事物們你無法計數以及無法

  • about physical size because it's not something physical, physical things you can count -- uncountables,

    計算物理大小由於它並非實體物,你可以計數的實體物 -- 不可數名詞

  • not physical things, you usually use "small". If we talk about someone's stature... Now,

    非實際物體,你通常用『 small 』來形容它。若我們談論某人的身材...現在,

  • what does "stature" mean? It means more or less like how people view this person or this

    什麼是『 stature 』? 指的是別人怎麼看這個人或這個東西。

  • thing. So look at the example. For example: if I say "A small man" versus "A little man".

    看個例子。舉例:若我說:『 一個 small man 』和 『 一個 little man 』。

  • A small man means usually physically small; maybe short, maybe skinny, whatever. A little

    一個 small man 通常只身形實際上小 ; 可能是矮小或瘦小。

  • man is something... we don't care about this person. Right? He's small, I can step on him

    一個 little man 是某個...我們不怎麼在乎的人,可以?他很小,我可以把他踩在腳底下

  • because he's not... doesn't have stature. A big man has a bit more stature. A large

    因為他不是...他身材並不巨大。一個 big man 是擁有壯碩身材的人。一個 large man

  • man is a large man, but we'll get to that in a second.


  • When we talk about adjective of degree. When we want... we use "little" almost like an

    當我們談論程度的形容詞時。我們幾乎把『 little 』當做

  • adverb. So: "I'm a little tired." Not small tired, a little tired. Or if you say... and

    副詞來用。所以:『 我有點累了 』就不能用 small 而用 little。或你若說...

  • that means just a little bit. Right? Not a great amount. But if I say: "I'm a little irritated."

    就只有一點點的意思,到這可以嗎?數量上不是很多。但我若說:『 我有點被激怒 』。

  • I'm a little irritated means like ugh, you know, somebody made me irritated.


  • Again, context will usually tell you that "little irritated" means very irritated.

    同樣,文章脈絡通常會告訴你『 little irritated 』就是 『 very irritated 』的意思。

  • "Ugh, I'm a little irritated." Means I'm pissed off, to be honest, but we use "little" to

    『 ㄜ,我有點不爽了 』。意思其實就是我很不爽,但我們用『 一點 』來

  • make it softer. Okay? But, and another thing, again this usually


  • comes back to countables or uncountables. When we're talking about countables and we


  • want to talk about the quantity, like how much we have, we say: "We have a small amount

    談論數量,就像我們有多少,我們會說:『 我們有一點點的什麼

  • of something" or "We have a small number of somethings." Again, you usually use amount

    東西 』或者 『 我們有少量的某物 』。 一樣,你通常用 amount 形容

  • with uncountables, you'll use number with countables. But for both, you can use: "A

    不可數,用 number 來接在可數名詞前。但這個例子中,兩者都可使用,你可說:『 A

  • small amount", "A small number of". But you would say "a little" with the uncountables.

    small amount 』,『 A small number of 』。但你也可以用 『 a little 』

  • "I have a little time.", "I have a small amount of time to give you.", "I have a small number

    『 我有一點時間 』,『 我有一點點的時間可以給你 』,『 我有一些朋友 』

  • of friends." But here you won't use "little", you will use "few" for the countables. "I

    這邊你不能用 『 little 』,你要用『 few 』來形容可數名詞。『我

  • have a few friends." Okay? So again, if you mix the two "small" or "little",

    有些朋友。』可以嗎?所以再次,如果你把『 small 』和『 little 』搞混

  • most people will understand the same thing that you want them to understand. But if you


  • want the detailed differences, this is basically it. There are other small various degrees


  • of difference; very, very nuanced. But again, context will usually make that clear --which

    小差異 ; 非常、非常微小。但,文章脈絡通常能幫助你清楚了解 -- 告訴你

  • one you should use or which one, or why the one that is being used is being used. Okay?


  • It's not as clear when we talk about "big" and "large". Let's look at that now.

    對於『 big 』和『 large 』還有點不清楚,我們現在來探討。

  • Okay, so now we're going to look at "big" and "large". This is a little bit more complicated

    好,我們現在來看『 big 』和『 large 』。這裡開始有點複雜了

  • because "big" and "large" are almost the same... Have almost the same meaning. There're not

    因為『 big 』和『 large 』意思幾乎是一模一樣...意義幾乎完全相同。

  • many situations where you can't interchange them. Okay? Some people think that "large"

    兩者在很少的狀況下你不能相互替換使用,了解嗎?有些人覺得『 large 』

  • is a little bit more formal than "big" but not necessarily. "Big" and "large" can both

    比『 big 』稍微正式一點,但不盡然。『 big 』和 『 large 』都可用以

  • be used to talk about size and dimensions; we mentioned dimensions before. But again,

    形容尺寸和大小 ; 之前有提過尺寸了。再次強調

  • it's all about context. Okay? Then again, the nuances that come from the context will


  • tell you which one you should or shouldn't use.


  • So for example: if you talk about "the big boss", the big boss is basically like the

    舉例:若你談論『 大老闆 』,基本上就是在說

  • CEO. Right? He's the president, the top guy. He's going to be the big boss, he's at the


  • top, he's the most. If you say: "The large boss", sounds a little bit strange if what

    高位,居最要職。若你說:『 the large boss 』,聽起來有一點點怪,因為你

  • you mean is CEO or president. If you say: "The large boss", I'm thinking the fat one.

    在形容的是總裁或總經理的職銜不是指實體大小。若你說:『 the large boss 』,我會以為是他很胖

  • Okay? There're two or three bosses; there's the CEO, there's a president, there's a COO,

    明白了嗎?這有兩個或三個老闆 ; 他是總裁,他是總經理,而他是營運長,

  • etcetera. You're talking about the "large boss" -- I'm thinking about the big burly

    以此類推。你說『 large boss 』的話 -- 我會往這個人很壯碩

  • guy. Okay? So I wouldn't really say "big boss" if I mean heavy guy. I wouldn't say "large

    方面去想。了解?我不會真的說『 big boss 』去形容那個人很胖。或者是『 large boss 』

  • boss" if I mean top guy. Now, let's look at this one. You're talking


  • about your brother. "My big brother" -- what does that mean? Generally, it means older,

    『 我的哥哥 』-- 意思是?一般來說,你只他比你年長,

  • my older brother, my big brother. Okay? And if you talk about your younger brother, "my

    我的哥哥,我的 big brother。明白?你若要說他是你弟弟,『 my little brother 』

  • little brother". He's not physically small, he's younger. Okay? So it's the same idea.


  • If you say: "my large brother", again, you're talking about a big boy, bigger than you anyway

    若你說:『 my large brother 』,同樣的,你在談論的是一個體型大比你的男孩,

  • -- that's why you think he's large. And again, here we go about with amount or

    -- 這也是你用 large 形容他的原因。而當我們談論數量多寡或

  • number describing a quantity. I would say: "A large number of people came to the party.",

    用數字來描述數量,我會說:『 有很多的人參加派對 』,

  • "A large number of stars are in the sky." Whatever, it's not a good example but it's

    『 有很多星星在天上 』都會用 large 來形容。這個例子雖然不是很好

  • an example. I wouldn't say: "A big number" -- it just sounds a little bit strange. It's

    但總是個例子。我不會說:『 a big number 』-- 聽起來就有點怪怪的。

  • not very common to say: "a big number". Again, not wrong. If you say: "A big number of people

    我們不常說:『 a big number 』。雖然是沒有錯誤啦。若你說:『 a big number of people

  • came", everybody will understand. It's fine, but not commonly heard. But if you talk about

    會來 』,大家都聽的懂。是沒關係,但不常聽到人這樣說。但若你用 amount

  • amount, again, more common: "a large amount of whatever", "a large amount of money was

    就很常見:『 a large amount of whatever 』,『 花了 a large amount of money 』

  • spent." But you could say: "a big amount". Most people prefer to say "large"; it just

    但你可以說:『 a big amount 』。大多數人偏好用『 large 』; 聽起來

  • sounds a little bit better for whatever reason. Now, again, here you go: context. "Large business"

    就是沒來由的比較順耳。現在,沒錯,文章脈絡。『 large business 』

  • versus "big business". Okay? "Big business". So you're talking about a big company or a big

    對上『 big business 』。可以嗎?說『 big business 』的話,你在談論大公司或者

  • industry. Okay? "Large business" means you do, it does a lot of traffic, a lot of trading,

    龐大的產業,明白?而『 large business 』表示你交易量很大,貨物運送量很大

  • a lot of sales and incoming/outgoing revenues, etcetera. So I can't tell you exactly there's


  • a difference between "big" and "large", it's about context: which one sounds better? Okay?

    『 big 』和『 large 』的差異,完全看上下文章脈絡而定:哪個聽起來比較正確、順耳?明白?

  • You could say: "a big house", you could say: "a large house", they will mean exactly the

    你可以說:『 a big house 』也可以說『 a large house 』,意義完全相同。

  • same thing. So basically, be careful about the context. If it doesn't feel right, change


  • it to the other one but don't worry about using one or the other. And if you're doing


  • a test like TOEFL or IELTS, "big" and "large" in the essay will get you the same points.

    參加托福或雅思考試,使用『 big 』或『 large 』在你的小論文中分數會是相同無異的。

  • "Large" is not a fancy word, it's just another way of saying "big". Okay? So the best I can

    『 large 』並不是艱澀的字,就是『 big 』的另一個說法,了解?所以這兩個字

  • do for you with these two. "Small" and "little", they have some variations, "big" and "large",

    我能說的最多就這樣了。『 small 』和『 little 』,有些差異,『 big 』和『 large 』,

  • not so much. Now, let's take a look at "tall" and "high".

    則沒差多少。現在,我們來看看『 tall 』和『 high 』。

  • Okay, so let's look at our last one here: "tall" and "high". This one should be a little

    好的,我們來看最後一組:『 tall 』和『 high 』。這組就比較

  • bit more straightforward. Okay? When we talk about tall things, generally it's, generally


  • it's always about physical things. Not always, there are certain exceptions but mostly it's


  • about physical things. And if you want to remember, think about things that are standing.


  • Okay? So a person, like for example myself, I am standing here and I am this tall.


  • If somebody this tall is next to me, then I am tall. If somebody is here, then I am short.


  • But it doesn't matter, by talking about a person and then we're talking about tall or


  • not tall. We don't say: "A person is high." If you say: "A person is high", he's probably

    我們不諱說:『 a person is high 』。若你這樣說,他可能

  • doing something very different than studying English.


  • Anyway, if we talk about "high", generally speaking, we talk about above average, above

    總之,若我們談到『 high 』,一般而言,我們在談論平均,高於其他跟它一樣

  • others like it. Okay? So we're talking about high ground. Okay? So let's say you have,


  • this is sea level, this is called high ground; it's above the other ground around it, above

    這是海平面,而這就叫做高地 ; 比周圍的地區還要高,

  • sea level generally speaking. We also use "high" to talk about ideas, things that are

    一般而言就高於海平面。我們也會用『 high 』來形容概念、點子,概念化的事物。

  • ideas; they're not real, they're not physical. High cost, the high cost of living, a high


  • price. We would never say "tall" about these things because there's nothing to compare

    我們絕不會用『 tall 』去描述上述那些概念,因為並沒有其他可以比較的

  • them to. They're just an idea and they're high. Okay?


  • Position, for example: an official in government, he's a high official means he has a very high


  • rank. Or we talk about high culture, people who go to the opera and drink champagne and


  • drive in limousines, they live in a slightly higher lifestyle, higher culture, etc.


  • Something when you're reaching for a peak. So for example: travelling -- the reason you

    某事當你達到頂端,舉例而言:旅行 -- 你不想要在

  • don't want to travel in summer is because it's high season; prices are very high then.

    夏天旅行的原因在於夏天是旅遊的高峰季節 ; 那時價格會非常高。

  • We don't use "tall" for any of these things. Okay?

    我們不用『 tall 』來描述上述這些事物。明白嗎?

  • But, in some situations you can use either one. If you describe something or someone...


  • He, let's say for example: "He is 6 feet high." It sounds a little strange. You would say:

    他,舉例來說:『 他六呎高 』。用『 high 』聽起來怪怪的。你會說:

  • "He is 6 feet tall." But if you're talking about like a wall or a door, "The door is

    『 He is 6 feet tall 』。但你若談論一到牆或一扇門,『 這扇門

  • 6 feet high, six feet tall", both are okay. Okay?

    6 feet high, six feet tall 』,都可以,了解嗎?

  • Now, sometimes people mix these up. If we're talking about a building, some people say:


  • "It's a very tall building." Like: the World Trade Center is a very tall building. Some

    『那是棟 tall building 』像是:世貿中心是棟非常 tall 的建築物。

  • people say: "It's a very high building." Again, depends which one you want to use. I, personally,

    有人會說:『 那是棟 high 建物 』。但還是一樣,根據你想要怎麼用。我個人

  • would use "tall building" because a building is standing, somebody built it, it is standing.

    會用『 tall 』,因為建物是站立的,某些人建造的,它是佇立的。

  • If you're talking about a mountain, I would say: "It's a high mountain." You could say:

    如果談論山,我會用『 high 』。你可以說:

  • "It's a tall mountain." But a mountain isn't standing, a mountain is sitting; it's been

    『 tall 』mountain。但山並非站立的,山是坐落在那的 ; 它就永遠

  • there forever, it's sitting there. Nobody put it there, it's not moving so I consider


  • it sitting and therefore it's high. It's higher than the ground or the other mountains around

    為坐落,故我用 high 形容。它比周圍的地區高或者其他環繞在它周圍的山要高。

  • it. Okay? Again, context. Don't forget that. It's always


  • about context. Although the distinctions here are a little bit more clear. "Big" and "large",

    準則。儘管這裡釐清了許多用法差異。但『 big 』 和 『 large 』

  • not so much; "small" and "little", yes and no; "tall" and "high", more clear cut. Okay?

    界線則依然有些模糊 ; 『 small 』和『 little 』,或多或少 ; 『 tall 』和『 high 』,涇渭分明,明白?

  • But again, if you need more practice go to There's a quiz there you can


  • try out. Also, don't forget to subscribe to my YouTube channel, and come back again and

    自我評量。也別忘了訂閱我的 YouTube 頻道,且再和我們一起

  • take some more lessons with us. Thank you.


Hi again. I'm Adam. Welcome back to Today's lesson is a little bit tricky. The


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