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  • The great texts of the ancient world

    譯者: Alison Yang 審譯者: Yuning912 陳又寧

  • don't survive to us in their original form.

    我們看到的偉大古文字

  • They survive because medieval scribes copied them

    並不是它們的原件。

  • and copied them and copied them.

    由於中世紀抄寫員的不斷抄寫,

  • And so it is with Archimedes,

    反覆抄寫,所以它們仍然存在。

  • the great Greek mathematician.

    阿基米德,

  • Everything we know about Archimedes as a mathematician

    他是個偉大的希臘數學家,

  • we know about because of just three books,

    這就是我們所知有關他的東西。

  • and they're called A, B and C.

    我們從三本書知道他是這樣的一個人,

  • And A was lost by an Italian humanist in 1564.

    分別是A,B和C。

  • And B was last heard of in the Pope's Library

    在1564年,一個意大利人道主義者遺失了A書;

  • about a hundred miles north of Rome in Viterbo in 1311.

    在1311年,人們最後一次在維泰博羅馬

  • Now Codex C was only discovered in 1906,

    北面約一百里的教皇的圖書館聽到B書;

  • and it landed on my desk in Baltimore

    在1906,C的抄本被發現,

  • on the 19th of January, 1999.

    並運到我在巴爾的摩的辦公桌上。

  • And this is Codex C here.

    那是1999年1月19日的事。

  • Now Codex C is actually buried in this book.

    而這就是C書的抄本

  • It's buried treasure.

    事實上,C的抄本是埋在這本書內。

  • Because this book is actually a prayer book.

    這是被埋藏的寶藏,

  • It was finished by a guy called Johannes Myrones

    因為這是一本禱告書。

  • on the 14th of April, 1229.

    約翰內斯在1229年4月14日,

  • And to make his prayer book he used parchment.

    完成了此書。

  • But he didn't use new parchment,

    他用了羊皮紙去釘裝成他的禱告書,

  • he used parchment recycled from earlier manuscripts,

    但他沒有用新的羊皮紙。

  • and there were seven of them.

    他用早期的手稿循環再造的羊皮紙,

  • And Archimedes Codex C was just one of those seven.

    而那些羊皮紙內有七份手稿,

  • He took apart the Archimedes manuscript and the other seven manuscripts.

    阿基米德的C手抄本只是其中一份而已。

  • He erased all of their texts,

    他把阿基米德的手稿和其他七份拆開,

  • and then he cut the sheets down in the middle,

    抹去上面的所有文字,

  • he shuffled them up,

    然後把羊皮只從中間切開。

  • and he rotated them 90 degrees,

    他把它們洗了牌,

  • and he wrote prayers on top of these books.

    旋轉90度變成橫向,

  • And essentially these seven manuscripts

    最後把禱文寫在那些舊書上。

  • disappeared for 700 years, and we have a prayer book.

    基本上,這七份手稿都已經消失700年了,

  • The prayer book was discovered by this guy,

    而幸好我們有這本禱告書。

  • Johan Ludvig Heiberg, in 1906.

    在1906年,一名叫約翰•海伯格的男人

  • And with just a magnifying glass,

    發現了這本禱告書。

  • he transcribed as much of the text as he could.

    他僅用了放大鏡,

  • And the thing is that he found two texts in this manuscript

    盡可能抄寫了那些文字下來。

  • that were unique texts.

    他在整份手稿中

  • They weren't in A and B at all;

    發現了兩份獨特的文本。

  • they were completely new texts by Archimedes,

    它們不是A書或B書,

  • and they were called "The Method" and "The Stomachion."

    而是阿基米德所寫的新文本---

  • And it became a world famous manuscript.

    《阿基米德方法》和《胃痛》。

  • Now it should be clear by now

    它從此成為世界著名的手稿。

  • that this book is in bad condition.

    所以,現在你們應該很清楚

  • It got in worse condition in the 20th century

    這本書的保養情況十分惡劣。

  • after Heiberg saw it.

    在二十世紀經海伯格看完以後,

  • Forgeries were painted over it,

    它的情況更強差人意。

  • and it suffered very badly from mold.

    偽造的文字曾被塗在上面,

  • This book is the definition of a write-off.

    黴菌更長滿此書。

  • It's the sort of book

    這本書肯定會被報銷,

  • that you thought would be in an institution.

    它的情況好像

  • But it's not in an institution,

    你在機構裡見到的舊書一般。

  • it was bought by a private owner in 1998.

    但它不在機構內,

  • Why did he buy this book?

    而被一個人在1998年賣下來。

  • Because he wanted to make that which was fragile safe.

    為什麼他會買此書呢?

  • He wanted to make that which was unique ubiquitous.

    因為他想令脆弱得東西得以安全,

  • He wanted to make that which was expensive free.

    令獨一無二的東西普及,

  • And he wanted to do this as a matter of principle.

    令昂貴的東西變得免費。

  • Because not many people are really going to read Archimedes in ancient Greek,

    當然,這也是根據他一貫的原則---

  • but they should have the chance to do it.

    即使只有少數人真的會閱讀阿基米德的古希臘文本,

  • So he gathered around himself the friends of Archimedes,

    所有人都應有機會閱讀它。

  • and he promised to pay for all the work.

    所以,他召集了一群阿基米德的支持者,

  • And it was an expensive job,

    並承諾負擔一切的費用。

  • but actually it wouldn't be as much as you think

    預料之內,這是十分昂貴的工作,

  • because these people, they didn't come from money,

    但你絕對意想不到

  • they came from Archimedes.

    那些人不是為錢而來,

  • And they came from all sorts of different backgrounds.

    而是為阿基米德而來。

  • They came from particle physics,

    他們來自不同背景,

  • they came from classical philology,

    包括粒子物理、

  • they came from book conservation,

    古典哲學、

  • they came from ancient mathematics,

    書本保養、

  • they came from data management,

    古代數學、

  • they came from scientific imaging and program management.

    數據管理、

  • And they got together to work on this manuscript.

    科技成像和程序管理。

  • The first problem was a conservation problem.

    他們一起開始工作,

  • And this is the sort of thing that we had to deal with:

    而首個難題是關於書本保養。

  • There was glue on the spine of the book.

    這是我們無可避免要處理的難題:

  • And if you look at this photograph carefully,

    書脊上有膠水。

  • the bottom half of this is rather brown.

    如果你仔細看看這張照片,

  • And that glue is hide glue.

    你會發現底下的一半是偏啡色的。

  • Now if you're a conservator,

    那是隱藏膠水。

  • you can take off this glue reasonably easily.

    假如你是一個管理員,

  • The top half is Elmer's wood glue.

    你會頗容易地把這些膠水剝下來。

  • It's polyvinyl acetate emulsion

    但上面的那一半是牛頭牌木膠,

  • that doesn't dissolve in water once it's dry.

    一種乾後不溶於水的

  • And it's much tougher than the parchment that it was written on.

    聚醋酸乙烯乳液。

  • And so before we could start imaging Archimedes,

    它的質地遠遠比那張羊皮紙硬。

  • we had to take this book apart.

    故此,在開始進行影像掃描之前,

  • So it took four years to take apart.

    我們要把這本書拆開。

  • And this is a rare action shot, ladies and gentlemen.

    我們用了四年才完成。

  • (Laughter)

    先生小姐,這可是很不平常的事。

  • Another thing is that we had to get rid of all the wax,

    (笑)

  • because this was used in the liturgical services

    另外,我們還要弄走那些臘,

  • of the Greek Orthodox Church

    那是希臘東正教教堂

  • and they'd used candle wax.

    的禮拜儀式滴留在書上的。

  • And the candle wax was dirty,

    而且,那些是臘燭的臘,

  • and we couldn't image through the wax.

    那些臘是很髒的,

  • So very carefully we had to mechanically scrape off all the wax.

    而我們更不能透過那些臘進行影像掃描。

  • It's hard to tell you exactly

    所以,我們得小心翼翼地動手刮去所有的臘。

  • how bad this condition of this book is,

    我很難確實地告訴你

  • but it came out in little bits very often.

    這本書有多殘舊,

  • And normally in a book, you wouldn't worry about the little bits,

    只能說它的碎片不時的跌出來。

  • but these little bits might contain unique Archimedes text.

    通常,這種大小的碎片你跟本不會在意,

  • So, tiny fragments

    但是這些碎片都可能有獨一無二的阿基米德字跡。

  • we actually managed to put back in the right place.

    所以,這些小碎片,

  • Then, having done that, we started to image the manuscript.

    我們還是要仔細的放回原頁。

  • And we imaged the manuscript

    然後,我們開始影像掃描。

  • in 14 different wavebands of light.

    我們用了14種光波的波段

  • Because if you look at something in different wavebands of light,

    來掃描。

  • you see different things.

    當你在不同波段看同一樣東西的時候,

  • And here is an image of a page

    你看到不同的東西。

  • imaged in 14 different wavebands of light.

    這一頁上有14種

  • But none of them worked.

    不同波段的各個映像。

  • So what we did was we processed the images together,

    但是,沒有一個可用。

  • and we put two images into one blank screen.

    所以我們把那些映像一起處理,

  • And here are two different images of the Archimedes manuscript.

    把兩個映像疊在同一頁。

  • And the image on the left

    這是阿基米德的兩個不同的綜合手稿。

  • is the normal red image.

    左邊的映像

  • And the image on the right is an ultraviolet image.

    是普通的紅色圖像;

  • And in the image on the right

    右邊的映像則是紫外光的圖像。

  • you might be able to see some of the Archimedes writing.

    右邊的映像

  • If you merge them together into one digital canvas,

    有比較清晰的阿基米德字跡。

  • the parchment is bright in both images

    當你把這兩個圖像合併成同一個數碼影像,

  • and it comes out bright.

    羊皮紙在原本兩個圖像都是亮色的,

  • The prayer book is dark in both images

    所以它現在是亮色的。

  • and it comes out dark.

    禱告書在兩個圖像都是暗色的,

  • The Archimedes text is dark in one image and bright in another.

    所以它結果也是暗色的

  • And it'll come out dark but red,

    阿基米德文字在一張是暗的,在另一張是亮的,

  • and then you can start to read it rather clearly.

    所以它結果是暗紅色的。

  • And that's what it looks like.

    現在你可以清楚的看到了,

  • Now that's a before and after image,

    就在這裡。

  • but you don't read the image on the screen like that.

    這是處理前和處理後的圖像,

  • You zoom in and you zoom in

    但是你不會在這種背景去閱讀的。

  • and you zoom in and you zoom in,

    你把它放大,放大,

  • and you can just read it now.

    放大,然後再放大,

  • (Applause)

    然後再去讀。

  • If you process the same two images in a different way,

    (掌聲)

  • you can actually get rid of the prayer book text.

    如果你把同樣的圖像用不同的方法處理,

  • And this is terribly important,

    你甚至可以弄走禱告書本身的文字。

  • because the diagrams in the manuscript

    這是非常重要的,

  • are the unique source for the diagrams

    因為手稿上的影像

  • that Archimedes drew in the sand in the fourth century B.C.

    是所有其他合成影像的唯一來源。

  • And there we are, I can give them to you.

    阿基米德在公元前四世紀時在沙子上畫的

  • With this kind of imaging --

    這裡,我會給你看到,

  • this kind of infrared, ultraviolet, invisible light imaging --

    在影像掃描之下的

  • we were never going to image through the gold ground forgeries.

    紅外線影像,紫外線影像,和透明光影像。

  • How were we going to do that?

    但是,我們還是無法對有金色底稿的偽書進行掃描。

  • Well we took the manuscript,

    我們怎麼辦呢?

  • and we decided to image it in X-ray fluorescence imaging.

    我們拿了那些手稿,

  • So an X-ray comes in in the diagram on the left

    放在螢光X射線下掃描。

  • and it knocks out an electron from the inner shell of an atom.

    所以,一束X射線在圖像左面射進來,

  • And that electron disappears.

    從原子的電子內殼層撞了一顆電子出來,

  • And as it disappears, an electron from a shell farther out

    然後這顆電子消失了。

  • jumps in and takes its place.

    當它消失的同時,外一層得電子外殼中,

  • And when it takes its place,

    一顆電子跳進內層,取代原本的位置。

  • it sheds electromagnetic radiation.

    同時,那顆電子

  • It sheds an X-ray.

    釋出一束電磁輻射。

  • And this X-ray is specific in its wavelength

    它釋出的便是X射線。

  • to the atom that it hits.

    這種X-射線有獨特的波長,

  • And what we wanted to get

    專門為這種原子調校。

  • was the iron.

    我們想要拿到的

  • Because the ink was written in iron.

    是鐵,

  • And if we can map

    因為原手稿的墨水含有鐵的成份。

  • where this X-ray that comes out, where it comes from,

    如果我們可以

  • we can map all the iron on the page,

    把X射線從哪裡射入、那裡射出的地方標記,

  • then theoretically we can read the image.

    我們就可以標示出整頁有鐵成份的地方。

  • The thing is that you need a very powerful light source to do this.

    理論上,我們可借此閱讀圖像。

  • So we took it to the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    實際上,我們則需要用一個強大的光源去做這件事。

  • in California,

    所以我們把手稿拿去史丹佛的同步輔射實驗室,

  • which is a particle accelerator.

    坐落於加州的

  • Electrons go around one way,

    一部粒子加速器。

  • positrons go around the other.

    電子從一邊走,

  • They meet in the middle,

    正電子則往另一邊,

  • and they create subatomic particles

    然後在中間相遇,

  • like the charm quark and the tau lepton.

    合成亞原子粒子,

  • Now we weren't actually going to put Archimedes in that beam.

    就好像夸克和τ子。

  • But as the electrons go round at the speed of light,

    我們本來沒有打算把阿基米德的手搞放進那光束裡,

  • they shed X-rays.

    但是當電子以光束打圈時,

  • And this is the most powerful light source in the solar system.

    它們會釋出X射線。

  • This is called synchrotron radiation,

    這是太陽系內最強的光源---

  • and it's normally used to look at things

    同步輻射,

  • like proteins and that sort of thing.

    而我們平常看東西也會用它,

  • But we wanted it to look at atoms, at iron atoms,

    例如蛋白質那類東西。

  • so that we could read the page from before and after.

    但現在我們想看到原子,鐵原子,

  • And lo and behold, we found that we could do it.

    然後讓我們看到的是處理前和處理後的影像。

  • It took about 17 minutes to do a single page.

    你看,我們的確可以做到的。

  • So what did we discover?

    它用大約17分鐘去完成一頁的掃描。

  • Well one of the unique texts in Archimedes

    我們發現什麼了?

  • is called "The Stomachion."

    一份獨特的阿基米德手稿

  • And this didn't exist in Codices A and B.

    《胃痛》,

  • And we knew that it involved this square.

    這並不存在於抄本A和抄本B內。

  • And this is a perfect square,

    我們知到它談到這個正方形,

  • and it's divided into 14 bits.

    這是一個完美的正方形,

  • But no one knew what Archimedes was doing with these 14 bits.

    然後分成14塊。

  • And now we think we know.

    沒有人會知道阿基米德用這十四塊做什麼,

  • He was trying to work out

    而現在,我們認為我們知道了。

  • how many ways you can recombine those 14 bits

    他試圖找出

  • and still make a perfect square.

    不同方法重新組合這 14 塊

  • Anyone want to guess the answer?

    成一個完美的正方形。

  • It's 17,152 divided into 536 families.

    有人要猜猜看嗎?

  • And the important point about this

    總數是 17,152, 分為 536 類別。

  • is that it's the earliest study in combinatorics in mathematics.

    最重要的是,

  • And combinatorics is a wonderful and interesting branch of mathematics.

    它是組合數學的最早研究,

  • The really astonishing thing though about this manuscript

    組合數學是數學中精彩而有趣的分支。

  • is that we looked at the other manuscripts

    這份手稿令人驚異的事情

  • that the palimpsester had made,

    是當我們看著再生羊皮紙卷上的其他的手稿

  • the scribe had made his book out of,

    其他手稿時,

  • and one of them was a manuscript containing text by Hyperides.

    在抄寫員釘裝成它那本禱告書時,

  • Now Hyperides was an Athenian orator from the fourth century B.C.

    其中一份是包含海柏維特的文字,

  • He was an exact contemporary of Demosthenes.

    海柏維特是西元前四世紀雅典的演說家,

  • And in 338 B.C. he and Demosthenes together

    堪稱當代的狄摩西尼。

  • decided that they wanted to stand up

    在西元前 338 年,他和狄摩西尼一起

  • to the military might of Philip of Macedon.

    決定反抗

  • So Athens and Thebes went out to fight Philip of Macedon.

    馬其頓菲力浦的軍隊,

  • This was a bad idea,

    所以雅典人和底比斯人去抵抗馬其頓菲力浦的軍隊。

  • because Philip of Macedon had a son called Alexander the Great,

    這是一個糟糕的主意,

  • and they lost the battle of Chaeronea.

    因為馬其頓菲力蒲的兒子是亞歷山大大帝,

  • Alexander the Great went on to conquer the known world;

    所以他們在海羅尼亞的戰鬥落敗了。

  • Hyperides found himself on trial for treason.

    亞歷山大大帝繼續征服那時的世界 ;

  • And this is the speech that he gave when he was on trial --

    海柏維特則因叛國罪受審。

  • and it's a great speech:

    這是他在判刑時的演說,

  • "Best of all," he says, "is to win.

    一個偉大的演講全文:

  • But if you can't win,

    "最好的結果,"他說:"是勝利。

  • then you should fight for a noble cause,

    但如果你贏不了,

  • because then you'll be remembered.

    你應該為一個崇高的理想去打那場仗,

  • Consider the Spartans.

    因為你會名留青史。

  • They won enumerable victories,

    試想想斯巴達,

  • but no one remembers what they are

    他們贏得不可枚舉的勝利,

  • because they were all fought for selfish ends.

    但沒有人記得它們是哪些戰場,

  • The one battle that the Spartans fought that everybody remembers

    因為他們為一己之私而戰。

  • is the the battle of Thermopylae

    我們唯一記得斯巴達的

  • where they were butchered to a man,

    是溫泉關的戰役,

  • but fought for the freedom of Greece."

    他們完全被宰殺了,戰敗了,

  • It was such a great speech

    但為希臘的自由而戰鬥。"

  • that the Athenian law courts let him off.

    這是一個偉大的演講

  • He lived for another 10 years,

    雅典法院判他無罪釋放。

  • then the Macedonian faction caught up with him.

    他又活了十年,

  • They cut out his tongue in mockery of his oratory,

    然後,馬其頓派的分子抓到他。

  • and no one knows what they did with his body.

    他們砍下他的舌頭,並諷刺

  • So this is the discovery of a lost voice from antiquity,

    並沒有人會知道他們對他身體做的所作所為。

  • speaking to us, not from the grave,

    所以,我們發現了一把在遠古遺失的聲音

  • because his grave doesn't exist,

    對我們說話,不是從墳墓中,

  • but from the Athenian law courts.

    因為他根本沒有墳墓,

  • Now I should say at this point

    而是從雅典法院。

  • that normally when you're looking

    現在我應該說明一下