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  • Microbes are everywhere,

    微生物無所不在

  • on your phone,

    在你的手機上

  • in your water bottle,

    在你的水瓶裡

  • on your hands before you wash them,

    在你洗乾淨前的手上

  • on your hands after you wash them,

    以及洗乾淨後的手上

  • and literally everywhere else on top of you too.

    還有在你全身各處,絕不誇張

  • Microbes are omnipresent at any moment, and there is nothing we can do about it

    微生物無時無刻無所不在,而我們對此卻束手無策

  • So, millions of years ago we made a pact,

    因此幾百萬年來,人類和他們就簽訂了契約

  • we give them shelter and food,

    我們提供庇護和食物

  • and in turn they work for us.

    而他們反過來為我們工作

  • But the more we learn about this partnership, the more it looks like a cold war

    但是我們對這段夥伴關係瞭解的越多, 就越加發現這就像是場冷戰

  • Inside our mother's womb, humans start out sterile

    人類胎兒在母親子宮裡,是完全無菌的

  • When we are born and traveling through the birth canal,

    在經過產道出生時

  • billions of our mother's bacteria cover every single part of our bodies.

    無數母親身上的細菌就鋪蓋在新生兒的身上

  • This is an essential part of human health.

    這對人類健康來說是不可或缺的一環

  • Children born via C-section have a higher rate of asthma,

    剖腹產出生的新生兒,有較高的機率得到氣喘、

  • immune diseases and even leukemia.

    免疫疾病、甚至是白血病

  • So our bodies do not only accept the invasion of microorganisms, they welcome it.

    因此我們的身體不僅是接受這些微生物的入侵 更是歡迎他們

  • Over millions of years, we co-evolved to make the best of our relationship.

    幾百萬年來,我們共同演化出對彼此最佳的關係

  • Mother's milk for example,

    例如:母乳

  • contains special sugars that are meant to feed and support

    母乳含有特殊的醣類

  • certain groups of microbes,

    可以餵養特定族群的微生物生長

  • work as a decoy for others,

    他們可以做為別人的誘餌

  • and help to modulate the immune system.

    並且幫助調控免疫系統

  • It takes up to two years, until a healthy microbe community has formed.

    新生兒約需要兩年的時間 才能形成完整健康的菌叢

  • Every human has their own unique microbiome, made up of bacteria,

    每個人都有他獨特的微生物群系 包含有細菌、

  • viruses, fungi and other organisms.

    病毒、真菌以及其他微生物

  • We have three categories of guests, on and in our bodies.

    在我們身上及體內有三種類型的賓客

  • One:

    第一:

  • Quiet passengers that do their own thing, and are politely ignored.

    默不作聲的乘客做著他的事情,並且被禮貌地忽視

  • By being there, they take up space and keep more aggressive intruders in check.

    他們佔據空間,讓其他更有侵略性的外來者受到控制

  • Two:

    第二:

  • Guests that harm us,

    那些會傷害我們的客人們

  • But with whom we've learned to live,

    但透過他們使我們學習生存

  • for example, bacteria that literally create acid that melts our teeth,

    例如產生酸性物質腐蝕我們牙齒的細菌

  • if we don't brush enough.

    若是我們沒有刷牙刷乾淨

  • They want to take up as much space as they can,

    他們就會盡其所能佔據所有他們能佔據的空間

  • and we don't want them to.

    而我們並不想讓他們為所欲為

  • But, we can't get rid of them entirely.

    但卻無法完全擺脫他

  • Three:

    第三:

  • Friendly fellows that our bodies want to have around,

    我們身體很想要結交的友善傢伙

  • most of them are a community of 380,000 billion bacteria,

    他們大多是380兆個細菌族群

  • from up to 5,000 different species, that live in our gut.

    有超過5,000種不同的物種,住在我們腸道中

  • These gut microorganisms help us digest food,

    這些腸道微生物幫助我們消化食物

  • and pull additional calories from things that we can't digest ourselves.

    並且從我們不能消化的食物中分解出更多的熱量

  • Unfortunately, our gut is also the perfect point of attack for intruders,

    不幸的,腸道也是外來侵略者完美的攻擊點

  • so it's guarded by an aggressive army,

    因此腸道有非常果敢的軍隊鎮守

  • our immune system.

    我們的免疫系統

  • To survive here, our microbiome co-evolved with us

    為了在此生存,微生物和我們共同演化

  • to be able to communicate with our body.

    使自己有能力與我們身體聯絡

  • The most important part of that is to ask the immune system to not kill them.

    最重要的部分就是 請免疫系統不要殺死他們

  • But, they also have a real motivation to keep our gut healthy,

    但其實背後他們保持我們腸道健康的真正動機

  • so some of them produce a messenger substances,

    所以某些微生物會產出一種訊息物質

  • that help to educate the immune system,

    來幫助教育免疫系統

  • and others stimulate the gut cells to regenerate faster.

    其他還有些微生物能刺激腸道細胞再生

  • But, over the last few years.

    在最近幾年

  • Evidence has emerged that the influence of our gut microbiome,

    證據顯示腸道微生物

  • goes much much further.

    能影響的程度更遠了

  • It might even talk directly to our brain.

    甚至能夠直接和大腦對話

  • We've observed a few curious things,

    我們觀察到幾個古怪的事情

  • 90% of our body's serotonin,

    我們身體90%的血清素(serotonin)

  • an important messenger substance for nerve cells,

    是神經細胞重要的傳遞訊息物質

  • is produced in the gut.

    是由腸道製造的

  • Some scientists think the microbiome does this,

    以些科學家認為這是微生物引起的

  • to communicate with the vagus nerve.

    目的是要和迷走神經聯絡

  • The information highway of our nervous system.

    迷走神經是我們神經系統訊息傳遞的高速公路

  • Other examples are bacteria that stimulate immune cells in the gut,

    其他例子還包含有細菌能刺激腸道的免疫細胞

  • so they send a kind of alarm signal to the brain.

    然後傳送警告訊息給大腦

  • Here, it activates immune cells that help the brain recover from injuries.

    這樣能活化免疫細胞,幫助大腦從創傷中恢復

  • Since the brain decides what we eat,

    由於大腦決定了我們吃什麼

  • the microbiome is interested in a healthy brain.

    微生物們對健康的大腦非常有興趣

  • A new field of science is opening up here,

    這裡開創了科學中新的領域

  • and we're just on the verge of understanding how these

    而我們只理解其冰山一角,關於

  • complex systems inside our bodies interact.

    這些複雜的系統究竟在身體裡如何運作

  • But we are starting to see how much our microbiome

    但我們逐漸開始瞭解

  • actually influences us and our behavior.

    這些微生物影響我們及我們的行為有多深

  • Take depression for example,

    以憂鬱為例

  • Healthy rats fed microbes from the guts of depressed people,

    健康的大鼠被餵食來自憂鬱人類腸道的微生物

  • began showing anxiety-like behavior,

    便會開始出現類似焦慮不安的行為

  • and symptoms that look like depression.

    以及類似憂鬱的症狀

  • And in early 2017, a study linked the microbiome to intelligence,

    在2017年初一個研究指出微生物和智力之間的關係

  • by connecting a certain set up of bacteria in newborns,

    研究指出新生兒體內特別的一群細菌

  • with better motor and language skills.

    能使其擁有較好的運動及語言能力

  • But it might also influence our daily lives.

    其也可能影響我們的日常生活

  • Tests with fruit flies,

    以果蠅做研究時發現

  • showed that their microbiome, influenced what kinds of food they craved.

    他們身上的微生物族群,會影響他們想吃哪種食物

  • This could mean your microbes are able to tell your brain,

    這可能指出,微生物能告訴你的大腦

  • which food it should get them.

    你該吃哪些食物

  • Although, this is not a one-way street

    然而這並不是單方向的影響

  • The seed for our microbiome comes from our mother,

    我們身上微生物源自母親

  • but how it develops and changes, is determined by what we eat.

    但其發展以及改變則是取決於我們吃了什麼

  • the organisms in our gut feed on different things,

    腸道微生物以不同的食物為食

  • some like fibers and leafy greens,

    有些喜歡纖維類和葉菜類植物

  • others go for sugars and starches,

    有些則喜歡糖類和澱粉類

  • and some love greasy fries and butter.

    有些喜歡油炸食物、油脂類

  • Our gut is like a garden in which we constantly decide,

    我們的腸道就像個花園一樣,在這裡我們不斷地決定

  • what will grow and blossom.

    我們想要栽種繁盛什麼東西

  • If we eat healthily, we breed bacteria that like healthy food.

    如果我們飲食健康,就養育了那些喜歡健康食物的細菌

  • If we eat a lot of fast food, then we breed fast food loving bacteria.

    如果吃了很多速食,則養育了喜愛速食的細菌

  • Life is hard, so we can get trapped in a vicious circle.

    生活艱辛,因此我們被這惡性循環困著

  • You have a stressful time, and eat lots of burgers and fries and pizza.

    你處於壓力大的狀態時,吃了很多漢堡、薯條和披薩

  • This is awesome for fast food bacteria,

    這對喜愛速食的細菌來說很棒

  • they multiply and multiply, and take up space from vegetable loving bacteria.

    他們快速地繁殖,從喜愛蔬果的細菌手中搶奪生存空間

  • But even worse, they send signals to the brain to continue what it's doing.

    更糟的是,他們向大腦傳遞訊息要你繼續

  • this makes you want more fast food.

    進而讓你想要吃更多的速食

  • Which breeds more fast food bacteria,

    就養育出更多的速食細菌

  • which makes you crave fast food, and so on.

    而又讓你更想吃速食,如此循環著

  • This kind of self-reinforcing cycle,

    這樣自我回饋增強的循環

  • could play a huge role in obesity.

    在肥胖中扮演了非常重要的角色

  • But, it's important to stress that you can fight this process,

    但重要的是,你是可以對抗這個過程

  • and reverse it, by eating healthily and breeding more good bacteria.

    並翻轉這個情況,透過吃下健康的食物,養育好的細菌

  • Beyond weight gain, our microbiome has also been linked to other

    除了增重之外,微生物還被連結到其他嚴重的疾病

  • serious diseases like autism,

    例如自閉症

  • schizophrenia, and cancer.

    人格分裂以及癌症

  • One of the earliest symptoms of Parkinson's, is actually gut problems.

    帕金森氏症的最早的症狀之一,就是腸道出問題

  • If your body is overrun with bacteria that harm you,

    如果腸道中細菌猖獗而傷害你

  • there is often only one solution.

    那麼通常只有一個解決方法

  • You bring in an army of good guys.

    從外面帶來一群良善的軍隊

  • That's very easy,

    這非常的簡單

  • You just transplant some healthy poop.

    移植某些健康人的糞便

  • You do that by literally transferring poop, from a healthy person,

    將健康人的糞便確實地移植

  • into your gut.

    到你的腸道內

  • This method is already used, to cure diarrhea

    這個方法已經被使用來治療腹瀉

  • that's caused when C. difficile bacteria, take over a gut microbiome.

    是由腸道內艱難梭菌(C. difficile)引起的腹瀉

  • But we just don't know enough about the complex interplay at work here yet.

    但對於其中的交互作用我們仍然瞭解得不夠

  • For example, a transplant from an overweight donor cured a woman's diarrhea,

    例如:移植來自過重的人的糞便,治療了該名女性腹瀉

  • but contributed to her obesity down the line.

    但卻造成她跟著也肥胖了

  • This caused some ways and another study tried to reverse the effect.

    更有其他的研究嘗試想要逆轉這樣的影響

  • Poop transplants from slim people to obese ones,

    移植來自身材苗條的人的糞便到肥胖的人

  • gave them a more diverse microbiome,

    給予其更多元不同的微生物族群

  • and made them less sensitive to insulin.

    並且使其對胰島素敏感度下降

  • Both things that also happen when people lose weight

    這兩件事情皆發生在接受者體重減輕的例子中

  • We need to do a lot more science, to really understand

    我們需要做更多的科學研究,才能真正地瞭解

  • how our microbes make us healthy or sick.

    微生物究竟如何讓我們身體健康或生病

  • But, whether we like it or not.

    但不論我們是否喜歡

  • We need our microbiome, and it needs us.

    我們都需要這些微生物,而他們也需要我們

  • We'll never have our bodies to ourselves.

    我們永遠不會只有自己擁有自己的身體

  • But we have gained a powerful ally,

    而是獲得了有力的盟軍

  • if we can just keep the peace.

    如果我們能保持和平共處的話

Microbes are everywhere,

微生物無所不在

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B2 中高級 中文 微生物 腸道 細菌 速食 免疫 健康

細菌如何統治你的身體 - 微生物組 (How Bacteria Rule Over Your Body - The Microbiome)

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    mommy 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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