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  • I've been spending a lot of time

    審譯者: Tracy Hong

  • traveling around the world these days,

    到目前為止, 我花了很多時間

  • talking to groups of students and professionals,

    遊歷世界每一個角落

  • and everywhere I'm finding that I hear similar themes.

    跟許多學生和專業人士交談。

  • On the one hand, people say,

    在每一個地方我都會聽見類似的話題。

  • "The time for change is now."

    一方面, 人們說,

  • They want to be part of it.

    "這一刻就是改造未來的機會。"

  • They talk about wanting lives of purpose and greater meaning.

    他們渴望成為動力的一分子。

  • But on the other hand,

    表達出他們對豐盛人生之渴求。

  • I hear people talking about fear,

    但在另一方面,

  • a sense of risk-aversion.

    我聽見人們談論到憂慮,

  • They say, "I really want to follow a life of purpose,

    對冒險的反感。

  • but I don't know where to start.

    他們說, "我渴望追隨一個有意義的人生,

  • I don't want to disappoint my family or friends."

    但不知從何開始。

  • I work in global poverty.

    我不想讓家人或朋友失望。"

  • And they say, "I want to work in global poverty,

    我從事國際救貧工作。

  • but what will it mean about my career?

    他們又說, "我有意參與國際救貧工作,

  • Will I be marginalized?

    但這對我的事業有何影響?

  • Will I not make enough money?

    我會否被迫至社會邊緣?

  • Will I never get married or have children?"

    我的經濟能力許可嗎?

  • And as a woman who didn't get married until I was a lot older --

    婚姻和培育下一代的機會又怎樣呢?"

  • and I'm glad I waited --

    由一個遲婚女人的角度來看 –

  • (Laughter)

    我欣然地不畏等待 –

  • -- and has no children,

    「笑聲」

  • I look at these young people

    – 而沒有孩子的我,

  • and I say, "Your job is not to be perfect.

    看著這一群年輕人

  • Your job is only to be human.

    我說, "你的使命不是追求完美,

  • And nothing important happens in life

    你的使命只是做人。

  • without a cost."

    任何重大的人生歷程

  • These conversations really reflect what's happening

    都難免要付出代價。"

  • at the national and international level.

    這些交談真實地反映出

  • Our leaders and ourselves

    地區性和國際性的社會狀況。

  • want everything,

    我們的領袖跟我們一樣

  • but we don't talk about the costs.

    渴求着一切,

  • We don't talk about the sacrifice.

    但我們從不談到代價,

  • One of my favorite quotes from literature

    我們從不談到犧牲。

  • was written by Tillie Olsen,

    一篇我最愛的文學

  • the great American writer from the South.

    是來自蒂莉 • 奧晨,

  • In a short story called "Oh Yes,"

    一位美國南部的優秀作家。

  • she talks about a white woman in the 1950s

    在短編小說《哦 是的》內,

  • who has a daughter

    她談到一位生於50年代的白人女子,

  • who befriends a little African American girl,

    她的小女兒

  • and she looks at her child with a sense of pride,

    跟一個非洲裔的女孩結為好友。

  • but she also wonders,

    她看著小女兒而感到自豪,

  • what price will she pay?

    但也沉思,

  • "Better immersion

    她須付出的代價有多大?

  • than to live untouched."

    "沐浴於大度

  • But the real question is,

    總比未嚐透的人生要好得多。"

  • what is the cost of not daring?

    但真正的問題是,

  • What is the cost of not trying?

    不願冒險的代價是什麼?

  • I've been so privileged in my life

    不作嘗試的代價又是什麼?

  • to know extraordinary leaders

    我生命中的榮幸

  • who have chosen to live lives of immersion.

    是認識到一群非凡領袖

  • One woman I knew who was a fellow

    全都選擇生活於大度之中。

  • at a program that I ran at the Rockefeller Foundation

    在我管理的一個洛氏基金會中

  • was named Ingrid Washinawatok.

    我認識一個女同伴

  • She was a leader of the Menominee tribe,

    她的名字叫做英格烈 • 嬅絲娜雲苔。

  • a Native American peoples.

    她是梅諾米尼部落的一個領袖,

  • And when we would gather as fellows,

    帶領著一班美國土著人民。

  • she would push us to think about

    每當我們一起作伴,

  • how the elders in Native American culture

    她會推動我們的思維去想一想

  • make decisions.

    在美國土著文化裡的長老們

  • And she said they would literally visualize

    是怎樣運籌決算。

  • the faces of children

    她說他們會幻想出

  • for seven generations into the future,

    孩子的臉龐

  • looking at them from the Earth,

    一路延續到未來的第七代,

  • and they would look at them, holding them as stewards

    從地球上遙望著他們。

  • for that future.

    長老會看著他們, 委任他們爲

  • Ingrid understood that we are connected to each other,

    新一代的管理人。

  • not only as human beings,

    英格烈明白到我們命脈雙連,

  • but to every living thing on the planet.

    不單止於人與人之間,

  • And tragically, in 1999,

    還有天下萬物。

  • when she was in Colombia

    可是, 悲慘之事在1999年發生

  • working with the U'wa people,

    那年她在哥倫比亞

  • focused on preserving their culture and language,

    跟雨娃部落的土著合作,

  • she and two colleagues were abducted

    專注於保育當地文化及語言,

  • and tortured and killed by the FARC.

    她跟兩位同僚被綁架

  • And whenever we would gather the fellows after that,

    最後受到哥倫比亞革命軍的折磨及殺害。

  • we would leave a chair empty for her spirit.

    從此每當我們聚在一起,

  • And more than a decade later,

    我們會留一張空椅子紀念她的精神。

  • when I talk to NGO fellows,

    十多年後,

  • whether in Trenton, New Jersey or the office of the White House,

    每當我跟非政府組織的同伴傾談,

  • and we talk about Ingrid,

    不論在特倫頓, 新澤西州或是白宮的辦公室,

  • they all say that they're trying to integrate her wisdom

    當我們談到英格烈,

  • and her spirit

    每人都會提到怎樣聯繫她的智慧

  • and really build on the unfulfilled work

    和她的精神

  • of her life's mission.

    來建造那未完成的工作

  • And when we think about legacy,

    她一生中的使命。

  • I can think of no more powerful one,

    當我們想到遺志,

  • despite how short her life was.

    我想不到什麼比這個更偉大,

  • And I've been touched by Cambodian women --

    儘管她那短暫的一生。

  • beautiful women,

    我亦曾被柬埔寨的婦女感動,

  • women who held the tradition of the classical dance in Cambodia.

    美麗的婦女,

  • And I met them in the early '90s.

    致力地保存著柬埔寨傳統舞蹈。

  • In the 1970s, under the Pol Pot regime,

    我於90年代初認識她們。

  • the Khmer Rouge killed over a million people,

    70年代中, 在波爾布特的獨權下,

  • and they focused and targeted the elites and the intellectuals,

    赤柬時期內有過百萬人殄亡。

  • the artists, the dancers.

    他們的矛頭指向精英和知識份子,

  • And at the end of the war,

    藝術家, 舞蹈家。

  • there were only 30 of these classical dancers still living.

    在干戈之後,

  • And the women, who I was so privileged to meet

    倖存的只有30位傳統舞蹈家。

  • when there were three survivors,

    我有幸認識到的婦女

  • told these stories about lying in their cots

    是其中三位生還者,

  • in the refugee camps.

    她們回憶起躺在窄床上

  • They said they would try so hard

    於難民營內。

  • to remember the fragments of the dance,

    她們形容各人設法

  • hoping that others were alive and doing the same.

    去回想舞蹈之點滴,

  • And one woman stood there with this perfect carriage,

    期望仍然活著的也一般地想。

  • her hands at her side,

    其中一位擁有完美體態的婦人,

  • and she talked about

    她的手放置在兩旁,

  • the reunion of the 30 after the war

    她訴說

  • and how extraordinary it was.

    戰後30年的團圓

  • And these big tears fell down her face,

    是那麼的難以忘懷。

  • but she never lifted her hands to move them.

    她淚珠滿面,

  • And the women decided that they would train

    但她未有一次張手抹去。

  • not the next generation of girls, because they had grown too old already,

    這些婦女決意指導,

  • but the next generation.

    不是下一代, 因她們已經成年,

  • And I sat there in the studio

    而是尚年幼的一代。

  • watching these women clapping their hands --

    我坐於工作室中

  • beautiful rhythms --

    看著這些婦女拍著手掌 –

  • as these little fairy pixies

    美麗的拍子 –

  • were dancing around them,

    而這些小精靈

  • wearing these beautiful silk colors.

    圍繞著她們跳舞,

  • And I thought, after all this atrocity,

    穿著美麗和五彩賓紛的絲綢。

  • this is how human beings really pray.

    我想, 經過了所有殘酷暴行,

  • Because they're focused on honoring

    這就是人們禱告的方法。

  • what is most beautiful about our past

    因為她們注視和尊敬

  • and building it into

    我們最美麗的過去

  • the promise of our future.

    將它建立於

  • And what these women understood

    我們對未來的誠諾。

  • is sometimes the most important things that we do

    這些婦女明白到

  • and that we spend our time on

    有時候我們做最重要的事

  • are those things that we cannot measure.

    和我們花上最多的時間

  • I also have been touched

    就是那些我們無法衡量的東西。

  • by the dark side of power and leadership.

    我也曾領教過,

  • And I have learned that power,

    強權跟領導層的黑暗。

  • particularly in its absolute form,

    我領悟到權力,

  • is an equal opportunity provider.

    在激進極端的形態裏,

  • In 1986, I moved to Rwanda,

    是一個平等機會提供者。

  • and I worked with a very small group of Rwandan women

    於1986年, 我搬到盧旺達,

  • to start that country's first microfinance bank.

    我跟一班盧旺達婦女合作

  • And one of the women was Agnes --

    開設那國家的小額信貸銀行。

  • there on your extreme left --

    其中一位婦人英家妮絲 –

  • she was one of the first three

    屬於極端左派 –

  • women parliamentarians in Rwanda,

    她是三位盧旺達國會女議員之中

  • and her legacy should have been

    的其中一位,

  • to be one of the mothers of Rwanda.

    她的傳奇應當是

  • We built this institution based on social justice,

    成為其中一個盧旺達之母。

  • gender equity,

    我們建立社會正義架構,

  • this idea of empowering women.

    性別平等主義,

  • But Agnes cared more about the trappings of power

    女性賦權理念。

  • than she did principle at the end.

    但英家妮絲沈醉於權勢

  • And though she had been part of building a liberal party,

    最終多於她的原則。

  • a political party

    她雖曾幫助帶動自由黨,

  • that was focused on diversity and tolerance,

    一個專注多元文化

  • about three months before the genocide, she switched parties

    和寬容主義的政黨,

  • and joined the extremist party, Hutu Power,

    在種族滅絕前三個月, 她轉了黨

  • and she became the Minister of Justice

    加入一個激進政黨, 胡圖勢力,

  • under the genocide regime

    成為種族滅絕政權內

  • and was known for inciting men to kill faster

    的公義師政部長

  • and stop behaving like women.

    這勢力善於煽動男子殺人

  • She was convicted

    及輟止任何屬於女性化的行為。

  • of category one crimes of genocide.

    她被定罪

  • And I would visit her in the prisons,

    於種族滅絕內的第一項罪行。

  • sitting side-by-side, knees touching,

    我會到監獄探望她,

  • and I would have to admit to myself

    一塊兒坐著, 膝頭碰膝頭,

  • that monsters exist in all of us,

    我對自己承認

  • but that maybe it's not monsters so much,

    我們的心魔,

  • but the broken parts of ourselves,

    可能不是惡魔,

  • sadnesses, secret shame,

    而是破碎的自己,

  • and that ultimately it's easy for demagogues

    悲傷, 隱蔽著的羞恥,

  • to prey on those parts,

    所以最終能容易地被煽動者

  • those fragments, if you will,

    哺獵那些部位,

  • and to make us look at other beings, human beings,

    那些碎片, 就這樣,

  • as lesser than ourselves --

    令其他人在我們眼中,

  • and in the extreme, to do terrible things.

    比我們自己渺小 –

  • And there is no group

    被偏激圍繞著, 做出可怕的事。

  • more vulnerable to those kinds of manipulations

    沒有一個群體

  • than young men.

    比其他人更脆弱地蒙受精神操縱

  • I've heard it said that the most dangerous animal on the planet

    這一群就是年輕的男人。

  • is the adolescent male.

    我曾聽說這星球上最危險的動物

  • And so in a gathering

    是在青春期的男性。

  • where we're focused on women,

    然而在一個聚會裏

  • while it is so critical that we invest in our girls

    當我們的焦點是女性,

  • and we even the playing field

    那關鍵是投資在女孩子身上

  • and we find ways to honor them,

    制做同等商機

  • we have to remember that the girls and the women

    找方法去表揚她們,

  • are most isolated and violated

    我們要記得女孩子和婦女

  • and victimized and made invisible

    多受到孤立和冒犯

  • in those very societies

    成為看不見的受害者

  • where our men and our boys

    在某些社會裏

  • feel disempowered,

    當男人和男孩子

  • unable to provide.

    感到無能爲力,

  • And that, when they sit on those street corners

    無法供養配給。

  • and all they can think of in the future

    那樣, 當他們蹲在街角

  • is no job, no education,

    他們只可想到一個未來

  • no possibility,

    沒有工作, 沒有學歷,

  • well then it's easy to understand

    沒有遠景,

  • how the greatest source of status

    那就可以容易理解

  • can come from a uniform

    身分待遇的最大來源

  • and a gun.

    可來自一件制服

  • Sometimes very small investments

    和一枝槍。

  • can release enormous, infinite potential

    有時候很少的投資

  • that exists in all of us.

    便可釋放巨大, 無限的潛能

  • One of the Acumen Fund fellows at my organization,

    於我們各人懷內。

  • Suraj Sudhakar,

    我成立的機構內有一位雅決文基金之友,

  • has what we call moral imagination --

    舒華子 • 舒達克加,

  • the ability to put yourself in another person's shoes

    擁有一種道德想像 –

  • and lead from that perspective.

    一種置身處地的能力

  • And he's been working with this young group of men

    從那個角度受到帶動。

  • who come from the largest slum in the world, Kibera.

    他一直跟一班男生合作

  • And they're incredible guys.

    全都來自世界最大的貧民窟, 基貝拉。

  • And together they started a book club

    他們是優秀的男生。

  • for a hundred people in the slums,

    他們一起創辦書社

  • and they're reading many TED authors and liking it.

    跟貧民窟內的一百人,

  • And then they created a business plan competition.

    出於喜愛他們一起閱讀 TED 作家的作品。

  • Then they decided that they would do TEDx's.

    他們又創立商業計劃比賽。

  • And I have learned so much

    他們更決意參與 TEDx。

  • from Chris and Kevin

    我學會了很多

  • and Alex and Herbert

    由奇爾士和加芬

  • and all of these young men.

    亞力士和何百之

  • Alex, in some ways, said it best.

    還有這全班男生。

  • He said, "We used to feel like nobodies,

    亞力士, 用他的方法, 形容得最好。

  • but now we feel like somebodies."

    他說, "我們以前覺得自己是無名氏,

  • And I think we have it all wrong

    但現在我們感到自己的存在。"

  • when we think that income is the link.

    我想可能我們全都錯了

  • What we really yearn for as human beings

    我們以爲金錢收入是關鍵。

  • is to be visible to each other.

    其實我們人類最渴望的

  • And the reason these young guys

    就是互相看到大家。

  • told me that they're doing these TEDx's

    而這班男生告訴我

  • is because they were sick and tired

    他們之所以參與 TEDx

  • of the only workshops coming to the slums

    是因為他們厭倦

  • being those workshops focused on HIV,

    在貧民窟中僅有的工作坊

  • or at best, microfinance.

    全都把焦點放在愛滋病,

  • And they wanted to celebrate

    最棒的也只是, 小額信貸。

  • what's beautiful about Kibera and Mathare --

    他們希望可以表揚

  • the photojournalists and the creatives,

    基貝拉和馬非亞的美麗 –

  • the graffiti artists, the teachers and the entrepreneurs.

    攝影記者和藝術文人,

  • And they're doing it.

    街頭壁畫家, 老師和企業家。

  • And my hat's off to you in Kibera.

    他們真的做到了。

  • My own work focuses

    我脫掉帽子對基貝拉你表示尊敬。

  • on making philanthropy more effective

    我的工作焦點是

  • and capitalism more inclusive.

    讓慈善工作更有效

  • At Acumen Fund, we take philanthropic resources

    令資本主義更包容。

  • and we invest what we call patient capital --

    在雅決文基金, 我們將慈善性資源

  • money that will invest in entrepreneurs who see the poor

    投資在命名為「耐心資本」之內 –

  • not as passive recipients of charity,

    資金放在對貧窮另有見解的企業家身上,

  • but as full-bodied agents of change

    不視窮人爲接受施捨的被動者,

  • who want to solve their own problems

    而是社會變革的醇媒體

  • and make their own decisions.

    一些希望解決自身問題

  • We leave our money for 10 to 15 years,

    作出自我決定的人。

  • and when we get it back, we invest in other innovations

    我們將資金投放出去10~15年,

  • that focus on change.

    收到回報後, 再投資去促進創新

  • I know it works.

    將焦點放在社會變革。