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  • I want to talk about penguins today.

    譯者: Joy Lee 審譯者: Marie Wu

  • But first, I want to start by saying that

    我今天想來談談企鵝,

  • we need a new operating system,

    但首先,我想說,

  • for the oceans and for the Earth.

    為了海洋和地球,

  • When I came to the Galapagos 40 years ago,

    我們需要一個新的操作系統。

  • there were 3,000 people

    當我在40年前來到加拉帕戈斯群島時,

  • that lived in the Galapagos.

    約有3000人

  • Now there are over 30,000.

    住在加拉帕戈斯,

  • There were two Jeeps on Santa Cruz.

    現在的人口則超過3萬。

  • Now, there are around a thousand trucks

    當時,聖克魯茲只有兩台吉普車,

  • and buses and cars there.

    現在,當地約有1000輛卡車、

  • So the fundamental problems that we face

    公車,和汽車。

  • are overconsumption and too many people.

    我們現在所面臨的基本問題

  • It's the same problems in the Galapagos,

    是過度消費和人口過剩,

  • except, obviously,

    加拉帕戈斯也面臨同樣的問題,

  • it's worse here, in some ways, than other places.

    只是,很顯然的,

  • Because we've only doubled the population of the Earth

    在某些層面上,加拉帕戈斯的情況較其他地區嚴重。

  • since the 1960s -- a little more than doubled --

    原因就是地球的人口多了一倍,

  • but we have 6.7 billion people in the world,

    自1960年代起,人口成長了比一倍還多。

  • and we all like to consume.

    然而,世界約有67億人口,

  • And one of the major problems that we have

    而我們都喜愛消費。

  • is our operating system

    我們的主要問題

  • is not giving us the proper feedback.

    是我們的操作系統

  • We're not paying the true

    無法給予我們正常的回饋。

  • environmental costs of our actions.

    我們沒有為我們的行為

  • And when I came at age 22 to live on Fernandina,

    付出相同的環境代價。

  • let me just say, that I had never

    22歲時,我來到費爾南迪納居住,

  • camped before.

    且讓我坦言,我不曾

  • I had never lived alone

    露營過,

  • for any period of time,

    我也不曾

  • and I'd never slept with sea lions

    一個人住過,

  • snoring next to me all night.

    我更不曾

  • But moreover, I'd never lived on an uninhabited island.

    整夜睡在打鼾的海獅身旁。

  • Punta Espinosa is where I lived for over a year,

    此外,我從來沒有住在無人島上過。

  • and we call it uninhabited

    我在蓬埃斯皮諾薩住了一年多,

  • because there are no people there.

    我們稱它無人居住,

  • But it's alive with life;

    因為當地確實杳無人煙。

  • it's hardly uninhabited.

    然而,其他生命卻讓當地別有洞天。

  • So a lot has happened in the last 40 years,

    因此,說它沒有生機不太恰當。

  • and what I learned when I came to the Galapagos

    在過去40年中,(島上)發生了很多事。

  • is the importance of wild places, wild things,

    而我在加拉帕戈斯學到的

  • certainly wildlife,

    即是野生地區、野生事物,

  • and the amazing qualities that penguins have.

    當然還有野生動物的重要性,

  • Penguins are real athletes:

    以及企鵝所獨具的奇妙特質。

  • They can swim 173 kilometers in a day.

    企鵝是名副其實的運動員,

  • They can swim at the same speed day and night --

    牠們一天可以游泳173公里,

  • that's faster than any Olympic swimmer.

    且日夜都能以這種速度游泳,

  • I mean, they can do like seven kilometers an hour

    這比任何奧運游泳選手的速度都還快。

  • and sustain it.

    想想他們可以1小時游7公里,

  • But what is really amazing, because of this deepness here,

    且不斷保持這個速度。

  • Emperor penguins can go down

    但最令人驚嘆的是,因為這裡有一定的深度,

  • more than 500 meters

    國王企鵝竟能潛水

  • and they can hold their breath for 23 minutes.

    超過500公尺,

  • Magellanic penguins, the ones that I work on,

    並能閉氣長達23分鐘。

  • they can dive to about 90 meters

    我所研究的麥哲倫企鵝,

  • and they can stay down for

    則可潛水大約90公尺,

  • about 4.6 minutes.

    並能在水中

  • Humans, without fins: 90 meters, 3.5 minutes.

    待上大約4.6分鐘。

  • And I doubt anybody in this room

    人類,沒有鰭:90公尺,3.5分鐘,

  • could really hold their breath for 3.5 minutes.

    而我懷疑聽眾裡是否真有人

  • You have to train to be able to do that.

    能閉氣長達3.5分鐘。

  • So penguins are amazing athletes.

    你必須經過訓練才能閉氣那麼久。

  • The other thing is, I've never met anybody

    所以,企鵝確實是令人驚嘆的運動員。

  • that really doesn't say that they like penguins.

    另外,我不曾碰過

  • They're comical, they walk upright,

    不喜歡企鵝的人。

  • and, of course, they're diligent.

    牠們滑稽、牠們直立行走,

  • And, more importantly, they're well-dressed.

    並且,想當然爾,牠們很勤奮。

  • So they have all the criteria

    更重要的是,牠們穿著體面。

  • that people normally like.

    所以,牠們擁有

  • But scientifically, they're amazing because they're sentinels.

    人類喜歡的一切標準。

  • They tell us about our world in a lot of different ways,

    不過,從科學的角度來看,牠們令人驚嘆是因為牠們扮演著哨兵的角色。

  • and particularly the ocean.

    牠們用很多不同的方式讓我們了解世界,

  • This is a picture of a Galapagos penguin

    尤其是海洋。

  • that's on the front of a little zodiac here in the Galapagos.

    這是一張加拉帕戈斯企鵝的照片,

  • And that's what I came to study.

    在加拉帕戈斯的前端。

  • I thought I was going to study the social behavior of Galapagos penguins,

    這也是我後來研究的內容。

  • but you already know

    我本以為我要研究的是加拉帕戈斯企鵝的社會習性,

  • penguins are rare.

    但你們知道

  • These are the rarest penguins in the world.

    企鵝是稀有動物,

  • Why I thought I was going to be able to do that, I don't know.

    而加拉帕戈斯企鵝則是世界上最稀有的企鵝。

  • But the population has changed

    爲何我認為自己會研究成功,我也不知道。

  • dramatically since I was first here.

    然而,從我第一次來到這裡至今,

  • When I counted penguins for the first time

    企鵝的數量已發生劇烈的變化。

  • and tried to do a census,

    當我第一次數企鵝

  • we just counted all the individual beaks that we could

    並試著統計時,

  • around all these islands.

    我們的作法是數出這些島上

  • We counted around 2,000, so I don't know how many penguins there really are,

    每一隻企鵝的喙。

  • but I know I can count 2,000.

    數量大概2000左右,所以我不知道企鵝的確切數量,

  • If you go and do it now, the national parks

    不過我知道數到2000沒有問題。

  • count about 500.

    倘若你現在去數,國家公園的企鵝總數

  • So we have a quarter of the penguins

    大概只剩500隻。

  • that we did 40 years ago.

    因此,相較於40年前的企鵝數量,

  • And this is true of most of our living systems.

    現在的企鵝只剩下1/4。

  • We have less than we had before,

    我們多數的生存系統也面臨了這種情況。

  • and most of them are in fairly steep decline.

    我們擁有的較之前少,

  • And I want to just show you a little bit about why.

    且大部分是在急遽下降中。

  • (Braying)

    接下來,我要給大家看看一小部分的原因。

  • That's a penguin braying

    (叫聲)

  • to tell you that

    那是企鵝的叫聲,

  • it's important to pay attention to penguins.

    告訴各位

  • Most important of all,

    關注企鵝是很重要的。

  • I didn't know what that was the first time I heard it.

    最重要的是,

  • And you can imagine sleeping on Fernandina your first night there

    我已忘記第一次聽到這個聲音是在何時。

  • and you hear this lonesome, plaintful call.

    你可以想像睡在費爾南迪納的第一夜,

  • I fell in love with penguins,

    就聽到這孤獨單調的呼喚。

  • and it certainly has changed the rest of my life.

    我愛上了企鵝,

  • What I found out I was studying

    這點無疑改變了我往後的人生。

  • is really the difference in how the Galapagos changes,

    後來,我發現我在研究的

  • the most extreme variation.

    其實是加拉帕戈斯改變了多少,

  • You've heard about these El Ninos,

    且是最極端的變化。

  • but this is the extreme that penguins all over the world

    你曾聽過聖嬰現象,

  • have to adapt to.

    但這是全球的企鵝

  • This is a cold-water event

    所必須適應的極端變化。

  • called La Nina.

    這則是讓海水異常變冷的

  • Where it's blue and it's green, it means the water is really cold.

    反聖嬰現象。

  • And so you can see this current coming up --

    藍色與綠色的地方代表水溫非常冷。

  • in this case, the Humboldt Current --

    你可以看到這股洋流的出現-

  • that comes all the way out to the Galapagos Islands,

    它叫做祕魯寒流-

  • and this deep undersea current, the Cromwell Current,

    一直流到加拉帕戈斯群島。

  • that upwells around the Galapagos.

    還有這個深海洋流:克倫威爾洋流,

  • That brings all the nutrients:

    在加拉帕戈斯周圍湧出。

  • When this is cold in the Galapagos,

    洋流帶來了大量養分。

  • it's rich, and there's plenty of food for everyone.

    當加拉帕戈斯的天氣轉冷,

  • When we have extreme El Nino events,

    小島變得豐饒,大家都有足夠的食物。

  • you see all this red,

    當極端的聖嬰現象發生,

  • and you see no green

    你看到的是一片紅色,

  • out here around the Galapagos.

    完全沒有綠色

  • That means that there's no upwelling,

    在加拉帕戈斯周圍。

  • and there's basically no food.

    這代表沒有上湧的洋流,

  • So it's a real desert

    基本上也代表沒有食物。

  • for not only for the penguins and the sea lions and the marine iguanas ...

    於是,這裡就變成了沙漠,

  • things die when there's no food.

    不單是對企鵝、海獅,和海鬣蜥而言。

  • But we didn't even know that that

    沒有食物,生物就會死亡。

  • affected the Galapagos when I went to study penguins.

    然而,當我過去研究企鵝的時候,

  • And you can imagine being on an island hoping you're going to see penguins,

    我們根本不知道這會影響加拉帕戈斯島。

  • and you're in the middle of an El Nino event

    想像你在一個島上,期盼能看到企鵝,

  • and there are no penguins.

    但因為當地有聖嬰現象,

  • They're not breeding; they're not even around.

    所以看不到任何企鵝。

  • I studied marine iguanas at that point.

    牠們不是在繁衍後代,牠們根本不在那兒。

  • But this is a global phenomenon, we know that.

    那個時間點,我研究了海鬣蜥。

  • And if you look along the coast of Argentina, where I work now,

    然而,我們都知道這是個全球性的現像,

  • at a place called Punta Tombo --

    倘若觀察阿根廷海岸,也就是我現在工作的地方,

  • the largest Magellanic penguin colony in the world

    那裡有個地方叫湯波角,

  • down here about 44 degrees south latitude --

    那是世界上最大的麥哲倫企鵝居住地。

  • you see that there's great variation here.

    大約在南緯44度,

  • Some years, the cold water

    你可以看到這裡的變化很大。

  • goes all the way up to Brazil,

    有幾年,

  • and other years, in these La Nina years, it doesn't.

    寒流會一直流到巴西,

  • So the oceans don't always act together; they act differently,

    但在反聖嬰現象的這幾年,寒流則不會流到巴西。

  • but that is the kind of variation

    因此,海洋不會一成不變,而是變幻莫測。

  • that penguins have to live with,

    但這種變化

  • and it's not easy.

    是企鵝必須面對的,

  • So when I went to study the Magellanic penguins,

    且一點都不容易。

  • I didn't have any problems.

    因此,當我赴當地研究麥哲倫企鵝,

  • There were plenty of them.

    我並沒有碰上麻煩。

  • This is a picture at Punta Tombo in February

    當地的麥哲倫企鵝很多。

  • showing all the penguins along the beach.

    這是二月時在湯波角拍的照片,

  • I went there because the Japanese wanted to start harvesting them

    所有企鵝都在沙灘上。

  • and turning them into high fashion golf gloves,

    我會到那邊是因為日本人想開始捕殺牠們,

  • protein and oil.

    並把牠們變成時尚的高球手套、

  • Fortunately, nobody has harvested any penguins

    蛋白質,和油。

  • and we're getting over 100,000 tourists a year to see them.

    幸運的是,還沒有人捕殺任何一隻企鵝,

  • But the population is declining

    反而一年有十萬多名遊客去一睹牠們的盧山面目。

  • and it's declined fairly substantially, about 21 percent

    然而,企鵝的數量正在下降中,

  • since 1987, when I started these surveys,

    且下降的幅度相當大,自我從1987年開始調查,

  • in terms of number of active nests.

    已下降了大約百分之21,

  • Here, you can see where Punta Tombo is,

    這些數據是根據企鵝的巢穴數量計算而得。

  • and they breed in incredibly dense colonies.

    現在大家看到的是湯波角的位置,

  • We know this because of long-term science,

    此地的企鵝在很密集的地方繁殖。

  • because we have long-term studies there.

    我們會知道這些,得歸因於長期的科學發展,

  • And science is important in informing decision makers,

    也歸因於我們長期在當地的研究。

  • and also in changing how we do

    科學不僅對決策很重要,

  • and knowing the direction of change that we're going in.

    它對改變我們的行爲,

  • And so we have this penguin project. The Wildlife Conservation Society

    以及讓我們了解改變的方向也同樣重要。

  • has funded me along with a lot of individuals

    因此,我們有了這項企鵝研究計畫。野生動物保護協會

  • over the last 27 years

    在過去27年中,

  • to be able to produce these kinds of maps.

    贊助我和其他人,

  • And also, we know that it's not only

    讓我們有辦法繪製出這些地圖。

  • Galapagos penguins that are in trouble,

    此外,我們知道不單只有

  • but Magellanics and many other species of penguins.

    加拉帕戈斯企鵝遭遇到麻煩,

  • And so we have started a global penguin society

    就連麥哲倫企鵝和其他種類的企鵝也碰到同樣的麻煩。

  • to try to focus on the real plight of penguins.

    所以,我們建立了一個全球企鵝社群,

  • This is one of the plights of penguins: oil pollution.

    以關注企鵝面臨的真實困境。

  • Penguins don't like oil

    企鵝面臨的困境之一是石油污染。

  • and they don't like to swim through oil.

    企鵝不喜歡石油,

  • The nice thing is, if you look down here in Argentina,

    也不喜歡在石油中游泳。

  • there's no surface oil pollution from this composite map.

    好事是,如果你看看阿根廷,

  • But, in fact, when we went to Argentina,

    你從這張合成的地圖上看不到石油污染。

  • penguins were often found

    然而,真實情況是當我們到達阿根廷,

  • totally covered in oil.

    我們常發現企鵝

  • So they were just minding their own business.

    全身沾滿了油污。

  • They ended up swimming through ballast water that had oil in it.

    牠們只是在做自己的事,

  • Because when tankers carry oil

    卻落得必須在飄滿石油的水中游泳。

  • they have to have ballast at some point,

    原因是當油輪載著石油,

  • so when they're empty, they have the ballast water in there.

    石油就是這些油輪的壓艙物,

  • When they come back, they actually dump

    而當船身清空的時候,油輪就必須將水引入船體。

  • this oily ballast water into the ocean.

    每當油輪回航,油輪便將船中油膩的壓艙水

  • Why do they do that? Because it's cheaper,

    往海中傾倒。

  • because they don't pay the real environmental costs.

    為什麼會這樣?因為比較省錢,

  • We usually don't, and we want to start

    因為這些船隻不必爲環境付出真正的代價。

  • getting the accounting system right

    我們通常不會這樣,而是想開始

  • so we can pay the real cost.

    建立完好的會計系統,

  • At first, the Argentine government said, "No, there's no way.

    好讓人人都能爲自己的所作所為買單。

  • You can't find oiled penguins in Argentina.

    剛開始,阿根廷政府表示,「不,不可能。

  • We have laws,

    你在阿根廷看不到被石油污染的企鵝,

  • and we can't have illegal dumping; it's against the law."

    我們有法律規定,

  • So we ended up spending nine years

    不允許非法傾倒廢油,那是違法的。」

  • convincing the government that there were lots of oiled penguins.

    所以我們花了九年的時間,

  • In some years, like this year, we found

    讓政府相信當地有很多被石油污染的企鵝。

  • more than 80 percent

    有某幾年,像是這一年,我們發現

  • of the adult penguins dead on the beach

    超過80%

  • were covered in oil.

    的成年企鵝死在沙灘上,

  • These little blue dots are the fledglings --

    牠們全身沾滿了石油。

  • we do this survey every March --

    這些小藍點代表幼雛,

  • which means that they're only in the environment

    我們每年三月都會做這項調查,

  • from January until March,

    這代表幼鳥在這裡的時間

  • so maybe three months at the most

    只從1月到3月。

  • that they could get covered in oil.

    所以牠們被石油污染的機會

  • And you can see, in some years over 60 percent

    最多有三個月。

  • of the fledglings were oiled.

    你可以看到在某幾年中,超過60%

  • Eventually, the government listened

    的幼雛全身佈滿石油。

  • and, amazingly, they changed their laws.

    最後,政府聽進去了,

  • They moved the tanker lanes

    令人訝異的是,他們也進行了修法。

  • 40 kilometers farther off shore,

    他們將油輪航線

  • and people are not doing as much illegal dumping.

    移到岸邊40公里外的地方,

  • So what we're seeing now

    且人們傾倒廢油的非法動作也降低許多。

  • is very few penguins are oiled.

    所以,我們現在看到的是,

  • Why are there even these penguins oiled?

    只有極少數的企鵝遭到石油污染。

  • Because we've solved the problem in Chubut province,

    為什麼還是有被石油污染的企鵝?

  • which is like a state in Argentina

    因為我們解決了丘布特省的問題,

  • where Punta Tombo is --

    它像是阿根廷境內的一個州,

  • so that's about 1,000 kilometers of coastline --

    也是湯波角的所在地,

  • but we haven't solved the problem

    那邊的海岸線大概有1000公里,

  • in northern Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil.

    但我們還沒解決

  • So now I want to show you that penguins are affected.

    阿根廷北部、烏拉圭,和巴西境內的問題。

  • I'm just going to talk about two things.

    所以,我現在要給大家看看被這些問題影響的企鵝。

  • This is climate change. Now this has really been a fun study

    我只說兩件事。

  • because I put satellite tags on the back

    這是氣候變遷,這其實是項有趣的研究,

  • of these Magellanic penguins.

    因為我把衛星標記置於

  • Try to convince donors to give you a couple thousand dollars

    麥哲倫企鵝的背上。

  • to glue a satellite tag on the back of penguins.

    想想要說服捐款者贊助我們幾千美元,

  • But we've been doing this now for more than a decade to learn where they go.

    把衛星標記貼在企鵝的後背。

  • We thought we needed a marine protected area

    然而,這個動作已持續十年以上了,以了解牠們的遷徙。

  • of about 30 kilometers,

    我們認為我們需要一個海洋保護區,

  • and then we put a satellite tag on the back of a penguin.

    範圍大約30公里,

  • And what the penguins show us --

    接著,我們便把衛星標記貼在企鵝的背部。

  • and these are all the little dots

    而企鵝則透過