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  • The greatest irony in global health

    譯者: 張新永 Davidchang 審譯者: Marie Wu

  • is that the poorest countries

    全球健康問題中,最諷刺的就是,

  • carry the largest disease burden.

    最貧窮的國家

  • If we resize the countries of the globe

    疾病肆虐最為嚴重。

  • in proportion to the subject of interest,

    如果我們將世界各國疾病肆虐

  • we see that Sub-Saharan Africa

    的嚴重程度進行排序的話,

  • is the worst hit region by HIV/AIDS.

    我們會發現撒哈拉沙漠以南的非洲,

  • This is the most devastating epidemic of our time.

    是愛滋病肆虐最嚴重的地區。

  • We also see that this region

    而愛滋病是我們這時代最致命的傳染性疾病,

  • has the least capability in terms of dealing with the disease.

    我們還會發現,這一地區

  • There are very few doctors

    在對抗愛滋病方面恰恰是最無能爲力的。

  • and, quite frankly, these countries do not have the resources

    那裡缺乏醫生,

  • that are needed to cope

    而且老實說,這些國家根本不具備

  • with such epidemics.

    對抗愛滋病

  • So what the Western countries,

    所需要的資源。

  • developed countries, have generously done

    西方

  • is they have proposed to provide free drugs

    已開發國家,慷慨地

  • to all people in Third World countries

    提供免費藥品,

  • who actually can't afford these medications.

    給買不起這些藥的

  • And this has already saved millions of lives,

    第三世界國家人民,

  • and it has prevented entire economies

    這種義舉挽救了數百萬的生靈,

  • from capsizing in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    也避免撒哈拉南部非洲

  • But there is a fundamental problem

    各國的經濟瓦解。

  • that is killing the efforts

    但這種方式有一個根本的問題,

  • in fighting this disease,

    會讓整個對抗愛滋病

  • because if you keep throwing

    的努力化為烏有。

  • drugs out at people

    因為假如不停盲目地提供藥品

  • who don't have diagnostic services,

    給那些

  • you end up creating a problem of drug resistance.

    沒有經過診斷的人們,

  • This is already beginning to happen in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    就會導致病毒抗藥性增強的問題。

  • The problem is that,

    這個現象已開始在撒哈拉南部非洲地區顯現。

  • what begins as a tragedy in the Third World

    問題在於,

  • could easily become a global problem.

    這始於第三世界國家的悲劇,

  • And the last thing we want to see

    很容易就會演變爲全球性的問題,

  • is drug-resistant strains of HIV

    而我們最不願意見到的事情,

  • popping up all over the world,

    就是産生了抗藥性的愛滋病毒,

  • because it will make treatment more expensive

    在全球各地如雨後春筍般的肆虐,

  • and it could also restore

    這樣一來治療費用就愈發昂貴,

  • the pre-ARV carnage of HIV/AIDS.

    並且它還會使過去愛滋病

  • I experienced this firsthand

    抗逆轉錄病毒泛濫的時代再度降臨。

  • as a high school student in Uganda.

    我曾親身經歷那個時代,

  • This was in the 90s

    那時我是烏干達的中學生,

  • during the peak of the HIV epidemic,

    時間在90年代,

  • before there were any ARVs in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    愛滋病流行的最高峰時期,

  • And during that time, I actually lost more relatives,

    當時撒南非洲還沒有任何抗逆轉錄病毒藥物。

  • as well as the teachers who taught me,

    在那段期間,我大多數的親人

  • to HIV/AIDS.

    以及給我上課的老師,

  • So this became one of the driving passions of my life,

    都死於愛滋病。

  • to help find real solutions

    這經歷轉化為我人生的驅動力,

  • that could address these kinds of problems.

    我的目標就是尋找

  • We all know about the miracle of miniaturization.

    一個有效的辦法,來解決這類問題。

  • Back in the day, computers used to fill this entire room,

    我們都見識過微型化技術的神奇,

  • and people actually used to work inside the computers.

    從前的電腦大到能填滿這一整個屋子,

  • But what electronic miniaturization has done

    使用它的人們還得在其間穿梭,

  • is that it has allowed people to shrink

    但是隨著電子技術微型化的發展,

  • technology into a cell phone.

    人們已經可以把科技縮小,

  • And I'm sure everyone here enjoys cell phones

    小到可以放進手機裡。

  • that can actually be used in the remote areas of the world,

    我想在座的各位都享受過手機的便利性吧,

  • in the Third World countries.

    手機在偏遠地區的第三世界

  • The good news is that the same technology

    國家裡,也能派上用場。

  • that allowed miniaturization of electronics

    好消息是,同一個

  • is now allowing us to miniaturize

    電子微型化技術,

  • biological laboratories.

    也可以用來微縮

  • So, right now, we can actually miniaturize

    生物實驗室。

  • biological and chemistry laboratories

    所以,如今,我們可以把

  • onto microfluidic chips.

    生化實驗室微縮成

  • I was very lucky to come

    微流體晶片。

  • to the US right after high school,

    我很幸運,

  • and was able to work on this technology

    高中畢業之後就直接來到美國,

  • and develop some devices.

    後來參與了這項技術的研究,

  • This is a microfluidic chip that I developed.

    也研發了一些設備。

  • A close look at how the technology works:

    這是我研發的一種微流體晶片,

  • These are channels that are about the size of a human hair --

    細看一下這種技術的工作原理:

  • so you have integrated valves, pumps, mixers and injectors --

    這些管道孔徑跟人的頭髮差不多粗細,

  • so you can fit entire diagnostic experiments

    將閥門、泵、注射器和混合器整合進去之後,

  • onto a microfluidic system.

    這樣你就可以把整套診斷化驗用的設備,

  • So what I plan to do with this technology

    都裝到一個微流體晶片上去。

  • is to actually take the current state

    我計劃應用前述科技,

  • of the technology

    也就是將這技術

  • and build an HIV kit

    現在已經發展的成果,

  • in a microfluidic system.

    在一個微流體晶片上,

  • So, with one microfluidic chip,

    建立起愛滋病的化驗實驗室。

  • which is the size of an iPhone,

    用這樣一個

  • you can actually diagnose

    跟iPhone差不多大小的晶片,

  • 100 patients at the same time.

    就可以同時診斷

  • For each patient, we will be able to do

    上百位病人;

  • up to 100 different viral loads per patient.

    而對每位病人,

  • And this is only done in four hours,

    我們可以做出多達百組的病毒負荷量檢測。

  • 50 times faster than the current state of the art,

    而作這一切檢測僅費時四小時,

  • at a cost that will be five to 500 times cheaper

    比現有的方法要快上五十倍,

  • than the current options.

    價格卻只有現有的方法的

  • So this will allow us to create

    五到五百分之一。

  • personalized medicines in the Third World

    這讓我們能夠

  • at a cost that is actually achievable

    在第三世界國家提供個人化治療,

  • and make the world a safer place.

    而費用也是他們負擔得起的,

  • I invite your interest

    這將會使世界變得更加安全。

  • as well as your involvement

    我希望大家能關注這項技術,

  • in driving this vision

    更希望你們能實際參與,

  • to a point of practical reality.

    一同推動這個願望,

  • Thank you very much.

    使它能夠早日實現。

  • (Applause)

    非常感謝。

The greatest irony in global health

譯者: 張新永 Davidchang 審譯者: Marie Wu

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 愛滋病 晶片 肆虐 技術 病毒

【TED】Frederick Balagadde:芯片上的生物實驗室(Frederick Balagadde: Bio-lab on a microchip) (【TED】Frederick Balagadde: Bio-lab on a microchip (Frederick Balagadde: Bio-lab on a microchip))

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    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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