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  • I first became fascinated with octopus at an early age.

    譯者: yuanyuan liang 審譯者: Meg Lee

  • I grew up in Mobile, Alabama --

    我第一次被章魚迷住是在小時候

  • somebody's got to be from Mobile, right? --

    我在阿拉巴馬州的Mobile郡長大

  • and Mobile sits at the confluence of five rivers,

    這裡總該有人是從那裡來的吧?

  • forming this beautiful delta.

    Mobile位在五條河流的交會處

  • And the delta has alligators crawling

    形成美麗的三角洲

  • in and out of rivers filled with fish

    這裡有短吻鱷出沒在河裡,

  • and cypress trees dripping with snakes,

    水裡滿滿是魚

  • birds of every flavor.

    柏樹上垂著蛇

  • It's an absolute magical wonderland to live in --

    還有各式各樣的鳥

  • if you're a kid interested in animals, to grow up in.

    那絕對是一個神奇的樂園

  • And this delta water flows to Mobile Bay, and finally into the Gulf of Mexico.

    最適合喜歡動物的孩子在那裡成長。

  • And I remember my first real contact with octopus

    三角洲的水流進Mobile灣,最後進了墨西哥灣

  • was probably at age five or six.

    我記得我和章魚的第一次接觸

  • I was in the gulf, and I was swimming around and saw a little octopus on the bottom.

    大概是在五六歲時

  • And I reached down and picked him up, and immediately

    我在墨西哥灣游泳,在海底看到一隻小章魚。

  • became fascinated and impressed by its speed and its strength and agility.

    我伸手過去把牠拿起來,在那瞬間

  • It was prying my fingers apart and moving to the back of my hand.

    我被牠敏捷靈活有力的身手所震懾。

  • It was all I could do to hold onto this amazing creature.

    牠掰開我的手指,然後爬到我的手背上。

  • Then it sort of calmed down in the palms of my hands

    我所能做的,就是托著他

  • and started flashing colors,

    然後他就在我的手掌上安靜下來

  • just pulsing all of these colors.

    開始改變體色

  • And as I looked at it, it kind of tucked its arms under it,

    不同顏色一直跳動

  • raised into a spherical shape

    我看著牠把觸手藏在身下

  • and turned chocolate brown with two white stripes.

    變成圓形

  • I'm going, "My gosh!" I had never seen anything like this in my life!

    然後變成巧克力色,上面還有兩條白線

  • So I marveled for a moment, and then decided it was time to release him,

    我心想“天啊!”我這輩子從來沒看過這種東西。

  • so I put him down.

    我讚嘆了一會兒,決定是時候把牠放走了

  • The octopus left my hands and then did the damnedest thing:

    所以我把牠放下

  • It landed on the bottom in the rubble

    章魚從我手上離開,然後拿出了它的絕招。

  • and -- fwoosh! -- vanished

    他沈降到水底的亂石上,

  • right before my eyes.

    然後咻一下就不見了

  • And I knew, right then, at age six,

    就在我眼前

  • that is an animal that I want to learn more about. So I did.

    就在那個當下,六歲的我就決定,

  • And I went off to college and got a degree in marine zoology,

    這就是我想要瞭解學習更多的動物。而我也就這麼做了,

  • and then moved to Hawaii and entered graduate school

    我進了大學並拿到了海洋生物學的學位

  • at the University of Hawaii.

    接著搬到夏威夷

  • And while a student at Hawaii, I worked at the Waikiki Aquarium.

    進了夏威夷大學的研究所

  • And the aquarium had a lot of big fish tanks

    當我在夏威夷唸書時,我在威基基水族館工作

  • but not a lot of invertebrate displays,

    水族館裡有很多大魚缸

  • and being the spineless guy, I thought, well

    但是無脊椎動物的展示並不多。

  • I'll just go out in the field and collect these wonderful animals

    既然我是研究無脊椎動物的,我想,好吧,

  • I had been learning about as a student

    我就自己去外面收集這些美妙的動物

  • and bring them in, and I built these elaborate sets and put them on display.

    在我的學生生涯裡,我一直在研究牠們,

  • Now, the fish in the tanks were gorgeous to look at,

    把牠們帶回來,我精心佈置魚缸展示牠們。

  • but they didn't really interact with people.

    現在,魚缸裡的魚看上去非常美麗

  • But the octopus did.

    可是牠們沒有真的和人互動。

  • If you walked up to an octopus tank,

    但章魚會

  • especially early in the morning before anyone arrived,

    如果你走向一個章魚缸

  • the octopus would rise up and look at you

    特別是一大早,大家都還沒來的時候

  • and you're thinking, "Is that guy really looking at me? He is looking at me!"

    章魚會起身盯著你

  • And you walk up to the front of the tank. Then you realize

    然後你會想“這傢伙真的在看我嗎?他在看我耶!”

  • that these animals all have different personalities:

    然後你走到缸子前,接著你會發現

  • Some of them would hold their ground,

    這些章魚們都有不同個性

  • others would slink into the back of the tank and disappear in the rocks,

    有些原地不動,

  • and one in particular, this amazing animal ...

    有些溜到魚缸後頭,消失在岩石中。

  • I went up to the front of the tank, and he's just staring at me,

    但是有一個很特別,這是個奇異的傢伙……

  • and he had little horns come up above his eyes.

    我走到魚缸前,而牠就這麼瞪著我。

  • So I went right up to the front of the tank --

    牠有些小觸角慢慢從眼睛上方抬起來。

  • I was three or four inches from the front glass --

    於是我走到魚缸正前方。

  • and the octopus was sitting on a perch, a little rock,

    離魚缸玻璃不到十公分的距離。

  • and he came off the rock and he also came down right to the front of the glass.

    而這個章魚就坐在一塊小礁石的邊上,

  • So I was staring at this animal about six or seven inches away,

    然後牠從石頭上溜下來,也來到魚缸玻璃前。

  • and at that time I could actually focus that close;

    我就這樣隔著大概十幾公分的距離盯著它,

  • now as I look at my fuzzy fingers I realize those days are long gone.

    當時,我真的能看清楚那麼近的距離;

  • Anyway, there we were, staring at each other,

    現在當我看著自己的手指都模模糊糊時,我知道青春一去不復返了。

  • and he reaches down and grabs an armful of gravel

    總之,當時我們就是這樣,彼此對視,

  • and releases it in the jet of water entering the tank

    接著牠伸手到魚缸底,抓起一把小砂粒,

  • from the filtration system,

    然後在魚缸濾水機的出水口那裡

  • and -- chk chk chk chk chk! -- this gravel hits the front of the glass and falls down.

    鬆開觸手,

  • He reaches up, takes another armful of gravel, releases it --

    然後“呲呲呲!”這把小砂粒打到魚缸的玻璃上,再沉到水底。

  • chk chk chk chk chk! -- same thing.

    他伸出觸手,又抓起一把砂粒,鬆開……

  • Then he lifts another arm and I lift an arm.

    “呲呲呲呲呲!”跟剛才一樣。

  • Then he lifts another arm and I lift another arm.

    接著他舉起一個觸手。於是我也抬起一邊手臂。

  • And then I realize the octopus won the arms race,

    然後他又舉起另外一邊。我也舉起另一邊。

  • because I was out and he had six left. (Laughter)

    接著我就意識到這場舉手比賽是章魚贏了,

  • But the only way I can describe what I was seeing that day

    因為我已經沒手可舉,而他還有六個呢。

  • was that this octopus was playing,

    但對於那天我的所見所聞,我只有一種解釋

  • which is a pretty sophisticated behavior for a mere invertebrate.

    那就是這個章魚在玩耍,

  • So, about three years into my degree,

    這對於一隻區區無脊椎動物來說是相當複雜的行為。

  • a funny thing happened on the way to the office,

    而在我念這個學位的第三年,

  • which actually changed the course of my life.

    在我去辦公室的路上發生了一件有趣的事,

  • A man came into the aquarium. It's a long story, but essentially

    這件事,確實地改變了我的人生。

  • he sent me and a couple of friends of mine to the South Pacific

    有一個人跑來水族館。說來話長,但是基本上,

  • to collect animals for him,

    這個人派我和我的一些朋友去南太平洋,

  • and as we left, he gave us two 16-millimeter movie cameras.

    為他收集動物,

  • He said, "Make a movie about this expedition."

    在我們離開時,他給我們兩部16毫米攝影機。

  • "OK, a couple of biologists making a movie --

    他說,“把這次考察活動拍成電影吧。”

  • this'll be interesting,"

    ……好吧,一堆生物學家拍電影——

  • and off we went. And we did, we made a movie,

    應該會很有趣。

  • which had to be the worst movie ever made

    於是我們就出發了,而且還真的拍了部電影,

  • in the history of movie making,

    這肯定是電影史上

  • but it was a blast. I had so much fun.

    最爛的片子了。

  • And I remember that proverbial light going off in my head,

    但是它很有衝擊力;我玩得不亦樂乎。

  • thinking, "Wait a minute.

    我還記得當時我突然靈機一動,

  • Maybe I can do this all the time.

    想到,“等等。

  • Yeah, I'll be a filmmaker."

    說不定我可以一直做這個。

  • So I literally came back from that job,

    對,我要成為一個電影製片人。”

  • quit school, hung my filmmaking shingle

    於是,當我完成這工作回來,我當真

  • and just never told anyone that I didn't know what I was doing.

    退了學,掛上製片的招牌

  • It's been a good ride.

    不過我從沒告訴過任何人我其實根本不知道自己在做什麽。

  • And what I learned in school though was really beneficial.

    到現在為止都很順利。

  • If you're a wildlife filmmaker

    而我在學校裡學到的東西其實都非常有用。

  • and you're going out into the field to film animals,

    如果你是一名野生動物製片人

  • especially behavior,

    跑去野外拍攝動物,

  • it helps to have a fundamental background

    尤其是動物的行為,

  • on who these animals are,

    具備基本的知識背景是很有幫助的

  • how they work and, you know, a bit about their behaviors.

    比如要拍的是怎樣一種動物,

  • But where I really learned about octopus

    牠們如何活動,你們懂的,一些關於牠們行為的知識。

  • was in the field, as a filmmaker

    但讓我真正瞭解章魚

  • making films with them,

    是我在身為製片人,

  • where you're allowed to spend large periods of time

    實地拍攝關於牠們電影的時候,

  • with the animals, seeing octopus being octopus

    在那裡你可以花大量的時間

  • in their ocean homes.

    和這些動物在一起,在章魚們的家鄉,海洋

  • I remember I took a trip to Australia,

    觀察真正的章魚是怎樣的。

  • went to an island called One Tree Island.

    我記得有次去澳洲,

  • And apparently, evolution had occurred

    我去了一個名叫“一棵樹”的小島。

  • at a pretty rapid rate on One Tree,

    而顯然,演化過程在

  • between the time they named it and the time I arrived,

    “一棵樹”上以相當快的速度發生,

  • because I'm sure there were at least three trees

    就在他們給它命名到我到達的這段時間裡,

  • on that island when we were there.

    因為我明明在島上看到至少三棵樹

  • Anyway, one tree is situated right next to

    當我們抵達那裡的時候。

  • a beautiful coral reef.

    總之,這個島緊挨著

  • In fact, there's a surge channel

    一片美麗的珊瑚礁。

  • where the tide is moving back and forth, twice a day, pretty rapidly.

    事實上,這裡有一條衝浪流道

  • And there's a beautiful reef,

    在那裡,潮汐一天兩次快速地來回沖刷,

  • very complex reef, with lots of animals,

    這裡還有一片美麗的珊瑚礁

  • including a lot of octopus.

    很多動物生活在這片複雜的珊瑚礁中,

  • And not uniquely

    包括很多章魚。

  • but certainly, the octopus in Australia

    雖不是獨門行為,

  • are masters at camouflage.

    但澳洲的章魚,

  • As a matter of fact,

    肯定是偽裝界的大師。

  • there's one right there.

    事實上,

  • So our first challenge was to find these things,

    在這個島上就有這樣的章魚。

  • and that was a challenge, indeed.

    所以我們的第一個挑戰就是找到這些傢伙,

  • But the idea is, we were there for a month

    而這的確是一個挑戰。

  • and I wanted to acclimate the animals to us

    但是我們會在那裡呆上一個月,

  • so that we could see behaviors without disturbing them.

    我想讓章魚適應我們的存在。

  • So the first week was pretty much spent

    這樣我們才能看到它們未被騷擾時的行為。

  • just getting as close as we could,

    所以第一個星期就是

  • every day a little closer, a little closer, a little closer.

    儘量靠近它們

  • And you knew what the limit was: they would start getting twitchy

    每天都更近一點,更近一點,更近一點。

  • and you'd back up, come back in a few hours.

    然後你就知道底線在哪裡,再近牠們就要開始不安了,

  • And after the first week, they ignored us.

    這時你就撤退,過幾個小時再回來,

  • It was like, "I don't know what that thing is, but he's no threat to me."

    第一個星期以後,它們就忽視我們了。

  • So they went on about their business

    章魚可能覺得,“我也不知道這東西是啥,但是他對我沒什麽威脅。”

  • and from a foot away, we're watching mating

    於是就繼續忙自己的事了。

  • and courting and fighting

    就在三十公分的距離之外,我們觀察牠們交配,

  • and it is just an unbelievable experience.

    求偶和爭鬥,

  • And one of the most fantastic displays

    這真是一個令人難以置信的經驗。

  • that I remember, or at least visually,

    而我記得的其中一個最奇妙的行為

  • was a foraging behavior.

    至少是我能視覺上觀察到的

  • And they had a lot of different techniques

    是捕食行為。

  • that they would use for foraging,

    牠們掌握了很多不同的技巧

  • but this particular one used vision.

    用以捕食。

  • And they would see a coral head,

    但這種技巧用到視覺。

  • maybe 10 feet away,

    比如它們看到一塊珊瑚岬

  • and start moving over toward that coral head.

    大約離著三公尺遠

  • And I don't know whether they actually saw crab in it, or imagined that one might be,

    就開始朝著那裡移動過去。

  • but whatever the case, they would leap off the bottom

    我也不知道牠們到底是看到有一隻螃蟹,還是猜想那裡可能有螃蟹,

  • and go through the water and land right on top of this coral head,

    無論怎樣,牠們都是凌空而起,

  • and then the web between the arms

    游過去,降落在這塊珊瑚岬的正頂部,

  • would completely engulf the coral head,

    然後各觸手之間的襟膜

  • and they would fish out, swim for crabs.

    將珊瑚岬完全包裹起來,

  • And as soon as the crabs touched the arm, it was lights out.

    接著牠們把螃蟹從裡面趕出來。

  • And I always wondered what happened under that web.

    只要螃蟹一碰到觸手,牠就完蛋了。

  • So we created a way to find out, (Laughter)

    我總是想知道在襟膜包裹之下發生了些什麽。

  • and I got my first look at that famous beak in action.

    於是我們發明了一個方法去觀察。

  • It was fantastic.

    這樣我才第一次看到章魚那著名的嘴如何運動。

  • If you're going to make a lot of films about a particular group of animals,

    真是太奇妙了。

  • you might as well pick one that's fairly common.

    如果你想拍攝關於某一群動物的大量影片,

  • And octopus are, they live in all the oceans.

    你可能也想選擇一種非常常見的動物。

  • They also live deep.

    章魚就是;牠們生活在各個大洋裡。

  • And I can't say octopus are responsible

    牠們也生活在深海。

  • for my really strong interest

    雖不能說章魚就是主因

  • in getting in subs and going deep,

    觸發我真正濃厚的興趣

  • but whatever the case, I like that.

    鑽進潛艇潛入深海,

  • It's like nothing you've ever done.

    但不管怎樣,我都喜歡這一行。

  • If you ever really want to get away from it all

    這個工作是無與倫比的。

  • and see something that you have never seen,

    如果你真的想從現實世界抽身而出,

  • and have an excellent chance of seeing something

    去看一些前所未見的東西,

  • no one has ever seen, get in a sub.

    那一個絕好的機會就是

  • You climb in, seal the hatch, turn on a little oxygen,

    鑽進一個潛水艇。

  • turn on the scrubber,

    你爬進去,密封艙門,釋放一些氧氣,

  • which removes the CO2 in the air you breathe, and they chuck you overboard.

    啟動這個刷子,

  • Down you go. There's no connection to the surface

    它能去除你呼出的二氧化碳,然後他們把你扔下船。

  • apart from a pretty funky radio.

    你就開始下沉。與水面失去一切聯繫,

  • And as you go down, the washing machine

    除了一個相當時髦的無線電對講器。

  • at the surface calms down.

    在下沉的過程中,水面上的顛簸

  • And it gets quiet.

    平靜下來。

  • And it starts getting really nice.

    四周變得安靜。

  • And as you go deeper, that lovely, blue water you were launched in

    一切開始變得非常美好。

  • gives way to darker and darker blue.

    當你繼續下潛,剛才悅目的藍色海水

  • And finally, it's a rich lavender,

    變成越來越深邃的藍。

  • and after a couple of thousand feet, it's ink black.

    最終,變成深紫色,

  • And now you've entered the realm

    而幾百公尺以下,就成了漆黑一團。

  • of the mid-water community.

    現在你所在的

  • You could give an entire talk

    是海洋的中間層區域。

  • about the creatures that live in the mid-water.

    你可以開一個講座

  • Suffice to say though, as far as I'm concerned,

    就講生活在中間層的生物。

  • without question, the most bizarre designs

    就我所知,我可以這麼說,

  • and outrageous behaviors

    毫無疑問,最古怪的生理構造

  • are in the animals that live in the mid-water community.

    和最駭人聽聞的行為

  • But we're just going to zip right past this area,

    就存在於生活在中間層的動物群落中。

  • this area that includes about 95 percent

    但是我們要很快地離開這個區域,

  • of the living space on our planet

    這個區域包括了我們星球95%的

  • and go to the mid-ocean ridge, which I think is even more extraordinary.

    有生命存在的空間。

  • The mid-ocean ridge is a huge mountain range,

    我們要去的是洋中脊,我覺得這個地區更加光怪陸離。

  • 40,000 miles long, snaking around the entire globe.

    洋中脊是一片巨大的山脈,

  • And they're big mountains, thousands of feet tall,

    六萬五千公里長,綿延了整個地球。

  • some of which are tens of thousands of feet

    而且它們都是巍峨的群山,幾百公尺高,

  • and bust through the surface,

    有些甚至上千近萬,

  • creating islands like Hawaii.

    高聳出海面,

  • And the top of this mountain range

    形成像夏威夷這樣的海島。

  • is splitting apart, creating a rift valley.

    而這些山脈的頂部

  • And when you dive into that rift valley, that's where the action is

    分開成兩半,形成裂谷。

  • because literally thousands of active volcanoes

    當你潛入到這裂谷,那裡才是所有事情發生的地方

  • are going off at any point in time

    因為那裡真的有上千個活火山

  • all along this 40,000 mile range.

    隨時會噴發,

  • And as these tectonic plates are spreading apart,

    這些火山就分佈在這六萬五千公里長的洋中脊。

  • magma, lava is coming up and filling those gaps,

    當這些構造板塊移動分開的時後,

  • and you're looking land -- new land --

    岩漿和熔岩就會湧出來,填入這些空隙。

  • being created right before your eyes.

    你看到的就是大陸,新大陸

  • And over the tops of them is 3,000 to 4,000 meters of water

    正在你眼前創生。

  • creating enormous pressure,

    而在這之上是3到4千米的水體,

  • forcing water down through the cracks toward the center of the earth,

    產生巨大的壓力,

  • until it hits a magma chamber

    促使海水向下穿裂壓向地心,

  • where it becomes superheated

    直到擊中一個岩漿室,

  • and supersaturated with minerals,

    那裡的溫度極高

  • reverses its flow and starts shooting back to the surface

    充滿了大量的礦物質,

  • and is ejected out of the earth like a geyser at Yellowstone.

    造成水流逆轉,衝向洋面,

  • In fact, this whole area

    像黃石公園的間歇泉一樣衝出地表。

  • is like a Yellowstone National Park with all of the trimmings.

    事實上,這整個區域

  • And this vent fluid is about 600 or 700 degrees F.

    就像一個全套的黃石公園。

  • The surrounding water is just a couple of degrees above freezing.

    這管流溫度高達三四百度。

  • So it immediately cools,

    而周圍的水溫只比冰點高幾度。

  • and it can no longer hold in suspension

    所以它馬上就冷卻了,

  • all of the material that it's dissolved,

    無法再維持懸浮狀態,

  • and it precipitates out, forming black smoke.

    所有的物質熔化

  • And it forms these towers, these chimneys

    和凝析出來的東西,形成黑煙。

  • that are 10, 20, 30 feet tall.

    然後又形成這些塔,這些煙囪,

  • And all along the sides of these chimneys

    有三米高的,六米的,八米的。

  • is shimmering with heat and loaded with life.

    沿著這些煙囪上下