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  • I only have three minutes

    譯者: Marie Wu 審譯者: Terry Lin

  • so I'm going to have to talk fast, and it will

    我只有三分鐘

  • use up your spare mental cycles, so multitasking may be hard.

    所以我打算講得快一點

  • So, 27 years ago I got a traffic ticket

    你們得專心一點,因為你很難再同時做別的事情了

  • that got me thinking.

    27年前我收到一張交通罰單

  • I've had some time to think it over.

    這讓我開始想一些事情

  • And energy efficiency is more than just

    我仔細地想了又想

  • about the vehicle --

    發覺提昇能源效能這件事

  • it's also about the road.

    不只和汽車的性能有關

  • Road design makes a difference, particularly intersections,

    也和道路狀況有關

  • of which there are two types: signalized

    道路的設計非常重要,尤其是在十字路口

  • and unsignalized, which means stop signs.

    有二種交通號誌:一種是紅綠燈號

  • Fifty percent of crashes happen at intersections.

    一種是標誌,也就是“停”這個標誌

  • Roundabouts are much better.

    有50%的車禍發生在十字路口

  • A study of 24 intersections

    圓環就沒有這麼多車禍

  • has found crashes drop 40 percent

    一項針對24個十字路口所做的研究發現

  • from when you convert a traffic light into a roundabout.

    把十字路口改成圓環後

  • Injury crashes have dropped 76 percent,

    車禍發生率降低了40%

  • fatal crashes down 90 percent.

    有人受傷的車禍案件下降了76%

  • But that's just safety.

    致命的車禍則下降了90%

  • What about time and gas?

    但這只考慮到行車安全而已

  • So, traffic keeps flowing, so that means less braking,

    我們所浪費的時間和汽油又怎麼計算?

  • which means less accelerating, less gas and less pollution,

    若交通一路順暢,就表示減少了煞車的機率

  • less time wasted,

    也減少了踩油門的機率,同時減少了汽油用量、減少空氣污染

  • and that partly accounts for Europe's better efficiency

    減少時間的浪費

  • than we have in the United States.

    這多少要歸功於歐洲的優良設計

  • So, unsignalized intersections,

    我們美國做得就沒有這麼好

  • meaning stop signs, they save many lives,

    所以,沒有紅綠燈號的十字路口

  • but there's an excessive proliferation of them.

    通常都設有“停”這個標誌,確保行車平安

  • Small roundabouts are starting to appear.

    但是似乎設置得太過浮濫

  • This is one in my neighborhood. And they are

    所以小型的圓環就開始出現了

  • much better -- better than traffic lights, better than four-way stop signs.

    這是我住家附近的一個圓環

  • They're expensive to install,

    我覺得比紅綠燈好,也比四向都設“停”這個標誌來得好

  • but they are more expensive not to. So, we should look at that.

    設置這些圓環的成本不低

  • But they are not applicable in all situations.

    但是不設置卻會付出更高的代價,讓我們看看以下的分析

  • So, take, for example, the three-way intersection.

    這個分析並不適用於每一種狀況

  • So, it's logical that you'd have one there,

    所以我舉三岔路口為例

  • on the minor road entering the major.

    在次幹道要進入主幹道的路口上

  • But the other two are somewhat questionable.

    設置“停”這個標誌是很合理

  • So, here's one. There's another one which I studied.

    但另外二個就還有一點討論空間

  • Cars rarely appear on that third road.

    所以這裡有一個,那裡還有一個

  • And so, the question is, what does that cost us?

    但是車子卻很少從次幹道出現

  • That intersection I looked at had about 3,000

    所以我想到一個問題,我們到底為這些標誌付出多少成本?

  • cars per day in each direction,

    我所研究的路口,每天每一個方向

  • and so that's two ounces of gas to accelerate out of.

    約有3千輛車經過

  • That's five cents each, and times 3,000 cars per day,

    每輛車需要2盎司的汽油才能再從停止狀態加速啟動

  • that's $51,000 per year.

    油錢大約是五分美金,乘上每天有3千輛車

  • That's just the gasoline cost. There is also pollution,

    一年大約就要花掉美金5萬1千元

  • wear on the car, and time.

    這只是油錢而已,還有空氣污染

  • What's that time worth?

    汽車零件和時間等等

  • Well, at 10 seconds per 3,000 cars,

    時間要怎麼換算成金錢?

  • that's 8.3 hours per day. The average wage in the U.S.

    3千輛車每輛車花個10秒

  • is $20 an hour. That is 60,000 per year.

    一天下來就累積出8.3個小時

  • Add that together with the gas, and it's $112,000 per year,

    美國的平均薪資是每小時20美金,一年下來就是6萬美金

  • just for that sign in each direction.

    再把油錢加上去,每年我們因為“停”這個標誌

  • Discount that back to the present, at five percent:

    在一個方向的車流上就花掉11萬2千美金

  • over two million dollars

    我們再用5%的年利率折現成現值

  • for a stop sign, in each direction.

    在一個路口為雙向車流各設置一個“停”的標誌

  • Now, if you look at what that adjacent property is worth,

    要花超過二百萬美金

  • you could actually buy the property,

    如果你看看鄰近土地的價值

  • cut down the shrubbery to improve the sight line,

    你大可以用這二百萬買下一塊地

  • and then sell it off again.

    砍掉附近的灌木叢改善一下視野

  • And you'd still come out ahead.

    再脫手一次

  • So, it makes one wonder, "Why is it there?"

    你都還有賺頭

  • I mean, why is there that stop sign in each direction?

    這不禁讓人想問:“為什麼要這樣做?”

  • Because it is saving lives. So, is there a better way to accomplish that goal?

    我的意思是,為什麼要在每一個方向都設置一個“停”的標誌?

  • The answer is to enable cars

    就因為安全考量嗎?有沒有什麼別的方法可以達成這個目的?

  • to come in from that side road safely.

    答案是我們該確保從次幹道出來的車子

  • Because there are a lot of people who might live up there

    安全地通過

  • and if they're waiting forever a long queue could form

    因為有許多人可能住在裡面

  • because the cars aren't slowing down on the main road.

    若主幹道的車子都不減速

  • Can that be accomplished with existing signs?

    那這些車子可能就會等上很久才能通過

  • So, there is a long history of stop signs and yield signs.

    我們是否能用既有的交通標誌來解決這個問題呢?

  • Stop signs were invented in 1915,

    我們可以考慮一下有悠久歷史的“停”和“讓”這二個標誌

  • yield signs in 1950. But that's all we got.

    “停”這個標誌是在1915年問世

  • So, why not use a yield sign?

    “讓”這個標誌則是在1950年,我們只有這二個選擇

  • Well the meaning of yield is: You must yield the right-of-way.

    我們是否可以選擇使用“讓”這個標誌?

  • That means that if there are five cars waiting, you have to wait

    讓的意思是:你必須禮讓用路的權利

  • till they all go, then you go. It lacks the notion

    也就是說,若有五輛車已經等在那裡了

  • of alternating, or taking turns,

    你必須等到他們都離開後,你才能走

  • and it's always on the minor road,

    這裡面缺少了輪流的概念

  • allowing the major one to have primacy.

    而且次幹道的用路人永遠必須

  • So, it's hard to create a new meaning for the existing sign.

    禮讓主幹道的用路人先行

  • You couldn't suddenly tell everyone, "OK, remember

    所以用既有的標誌很難表達出新的意義

  • what you used to do at yield signs? Now do something different."

    你不能突然對大家說:還記得原來

  • That would not work.

    “讓”這個標誌的涵義嗎?現在有不同的解釋哦

  • So, what the world needs now

    這樣是行不通的

  • is a new type of sign.

    所以我們需要的

  • (Applause)

    是一個全新的交通標誌

  • So, you'd have a little instruction below it,

    (掌聲)

  • you know, for those who didn't see the public service announcements.

    下面還有一段小說明

  • And it merges the stop sign and yield signs.

    讓那些從來不關心政府公告的人可以參考

  • It's kind of shaped like a T, as in taking turns.

    這個標誌結合了“停”和“讓”這二個標誌

  • And uncertainty results in caution.

    形狀就像個“T”,教大家要輪流通過

  • When people come to an unfamiliar situation they don't know how to deal with

    而且在不確定的狀況下會讓人更加小心

  • they slow down.

    當你看到一個不熟悉的標誌,又不知道該怎麼辦的時候

  • So, now that you are all "Road Scholars" ...

    你就會減速下來

  • (Laughter)

    現在,你們都是“道路專家”了

  • don't wait for that sign to be adopted, these things don't change quickly.

    (笑聲)

  • But you all are members of communities,

    不必等政府採用這個新標誌,因為改變沒有這麼快

  • and you can exercise your community influence

    但是每一個人都是社區的一員

  • to create more sensible traffic flows.

    你可以運用你的影響力

  • And you can have more impact on the environment

    讓你的社區擁有更合理的交通秩序

  • just getting your neighborhood to change these things

    而且你只要讓社區改變一些事情

  • than by changing your vehicle. Thank you very much.

    就可以改變整個環境

  • (Applause)

    而不必更換你的汽車,謝謝大家

I only have three minutes

譯者: Marie Wu 審譯者: Terry Lin

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A2 初級 中文 美國腔 TED 標誌 十字路口 車禍 美金 交通

【TED】Gary Lauder的新交通標誌:Take Turns。轉彎(Gary Lauder的新交通標誌:Take Turns)。 (【TED】Gary Lauder's new traffic sign: Take Turns (Gary Lauder's new traffic sign: Take Turns))

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    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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