Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • All buildings today have something in common.

    譯者: Dennis Lin 審譯者: Yung Hsiang Tseng

  • They're made using Victorian technologies.

    今天世界上的建築都有些相同之處

  • This involves blueprints,

    他們都運用了維多莉亞時期所發展的技術

  • industrial manufacturing

    像是藍圖的繪製

  • and construction using teams of workers.

    使用工業製造出的建材

  • All of this effort results in an inert object.

    以及許多的建築工人

  • And that means that there is a one-way transfer of energy

    結果創造出來的卻是一個毫無"生氣"的物體

  • from our environment into our homes and cities.

    這是一種單向的能源轉換

  • This is not sustainable.

    把能源從大自然傳到我們的城市和家裡

  • I believe that the only way that it is possible for us

    這一點也不符合永續發展的觀念

  • to construct genuinely sustainable homes and cities

    我相信唯一的解決方法

  • is by connecting them to nature,

    是把建築與自然環境結合

  • not insulating them from it.

    建造出能永續使用的家和城市

  • Now, in order to do this, we need the right kind of language.

    而不是把它們區隔開來

  • Living systems are in constant conversation

    因此,我們需要的是一種正確的"語言"

  • with the natural world,

    長久以來,生態系統和自然界

  • through sets of chemical reactions called metabolism.

    不斷地透過新陳代謝

  • And this is the conversion of one group of substances

    來進行對話

  • into another, either through

    也就是,一種物質轉換成另一種物質

  • the production or the absorption of energy.

    或是

  • And this is the way in which living materials

    物質經過能量的吸收與作用而變成另一種物質

  • make the most of their local resources

    這就是生命體如何以一個永續的方式

  • in a sustainable way.

    來運用

  • So, I'm interested in the use of

    所需的資源

  • metabolic materials for the practice of architecture.

    所以,我對於把能重複代謝的物質

  • But they don't exist. So I'm having to make them.

    運用到建築科技上非常有興趣

  • I'm working with architect Neil Spiller

    但這種物質目前並不存在,所以,我打算創造它

  • at the Bartlett School of Architecture,

    我和英國巴特列特建築學院的建築師

  • and we're collaborating with international scientists

    史畢樂先生

  • in order to generate these new materials

    還有其他科學家合作

  • from a bottom up approach.

    從零開始

  • That means we're generating them from scratch.

    研發這種新的材料

  • One of our collaborators is chemist Martin Hanczyc,

    也就是說,我們將是研發這類材料的先驅

  • and he's really interested in the transition from

    化學家Martin Hanczyc也是我們團隊中的一員

  • inert to living matter.

    他對於這種物質轉換的研究

  • Now, that's exactly the kind of process that I'm interested in,

    非常有興趣

  • when we're thinking about sustainable materials.

    談到要研發永續材料

  • So, Martin, he works with a system called the protocell.

    是我非常樂見的

  • Now all this is -- and it's magic --

    所以,Martin採用了一種名為"原生細胞"的系統

  • is a little fatty bag. And it's got a chemical battery in it.

    這彷彿就像魔術一樣-

  • And it has no DNA.

    在這個圓圓胖胖的袋狀物裡,裝著一個化學電池

  • This little bag is able to conduct itself

    它並不具有DNA

  • in a way that can only be described as living.

    這個小小的袋狀物能夠自行運作

  • It is able to move around its environment.

    就像是有生命一樣

  • It can follow chemical gradients.

    它能夠自己在環境中移動

  • It can undergo complex reactions,

    或是跟隨化學梯度移動

  • some of which are happily architectural.

    它也能通過複雜的化學反應

  • So here we are. These are protocells,

    它們對於建築非常有幫助

  • patterning their environment.

    這些原生細胞

  • We don't know how they do that yet.

    能夠仿造他們所在的環境

  • Here, this is a protocell, and it's vigorously shedding this skin.

    我們目前還無法得知他們是如何做到的

  • Now, this looks like a chemical kind of birth.

    這個原生細胞,它正在脫離他的表皮

  • This is a violent process.

    有點像小孩出生一樣

  • Here, we've got a protocell to extract carbon dioxide

    是一個非常激烈的程序

  • out of the atmosphere

    這邊是一個能夠從大氣中把二氧化碳抽離出來的

  • and turn it into carbonate.

    原生細胞

  • And that's the shell around that globular fat.

    之後,二氧化炭將會被轉換成碳酸鹽

  • They are quite brittle. So you've only got a part of one there.

    而這些就是球狀物邊緣的硬殼

  • So what we're trying to do is, we're trying to push these technologies

    他們非常的脆,所以我們能夠弄到的並不多

  • towards creating bottom-up construction approaches

    現在我們研究的,就是對這項科技

  • for architecture,

    發展出由下到上的建築技術

  • which contrast the current, Victorian, top-down methods

    並且應用在建築上

  • which impose structure upon matter.

    這跟目前採用這種維多莉亞式由上而下

  • That can't be energetically sensible.

    加強結構的方法並不一樣

  • So, bottom-up materials

    因為這並不符合永續的概念

  • actually exist today.

    所以,由下到上的材料

  • They've been in use, in architecture, since ancient times.

    確實存在

  • If you walk around the city of Oxford, where we are today,

    這種材料早在古代就已被使用在建築上過

  • and have a look at the brickwork,

    在英國的牛津

  • which I've enjoyed doing in the last couple of days,

    他們牆上使用的磚

  • you'll actually see that a lot of it is made of limestone.

    和我最近做的事不謀而合

  • And if you look even closer,

    你可以看見他們大量使用了石灰岩

  • you'll see, in that limestone, there are little shells

    再靠近一點看

  • and little skeletons that are piled upon each other.

    你可以看見石灰岩中的殼

  • And then they are fossilized over millions of years.

    還有一些殘骸堆積在裡面

  • Now a block of limestone, in itself,

    隨著時間,它們現在都已成了化石

  • isn't particularly that interesting.

    這些石灰岩本身

  • It looks beautiful.

    並不是甚麼特別有趣的東西

  • But imagine what the properties of this limestone block might be

    雖然它看起來美極了

  • if the surfaces were actually

    但想想這些石灰岩磚的特性

  • in conversation with the atmosphere.

    如果它們的表面

  • Maybe they could extract carbon dioxide.

    和空氣有接觸的話

  • Would it give this block of limestone new properties?

    他們或許就能吸收二氧化碳

  • Well, most likely it would. It might be able to grow.

    這些沉積物能賦予石灰岩新的價值嗎?

  • It might be able to self-repair, and even respond

    非常有可能.它能夠生長

  • to dramatic changes

    自我修復或是對周圍環境的

  • in the immediate environment.

    立即變化

  • So, architects are never happy

    能夠有反應

  • with just one block of an interesting material.

    但建築師對這些一塊塊的東西

  • They think big. Okay?

    當然還不滿足

  • So when we think about scaling up metabolic materials,

    他們想要的還不只是如此

  • we can start thinking about ecological interventions

    提到增加能夠代謝的材料時

  • like repair of atolls,

    我們先考慮生態干預

  • or reclamation of parts of a city

    像是修復珊瑚礁

  • that are damaged by water.

    和城市中曾經

  • So, one of these examples

    遭受水災的地方

  • would of course be the historic city of Venice.

    這些例子

  • Now, Venice, as you know, has a tempestuous relationship with the sea,

    就跟威尼斯一樣

  • and is built upon wooden piles.

    和海有著密不可分的關係

  • So we've devised a way by which it may be possible

    而且威尼斯整個城市是建築在木頭上的

  • for the protocell technology that we're working with

    所以我們想出了一個計畫

  • to sustainably reclaim Venice.

    就是使用原生細胞的科技

  • And architect Christian Kerrigan

    來修復威尼斯

  • has come up with a series of designs that show us

    而建築師Christian Kerrigan

  • how it may be possible to actually grow a limestone reef

    已經有了一連串的設計

  • underneath the city.

    來告訴我們要如何在威尼斯底下

  • So, here is the technology we have today.

    種植石灰岩礁

  • This is our protocell technology,

    這就是我們現今所擁有的

  • effectively making a shell, like its limestone forefathers,

    原生細胞科技

  • and depositing it in a very complex environment,

    有效率地生產石灰岩上的那些沉積物外殼

  • against natural materials.

    並把它們放置在複雜的環境中

  • We're looking at crystal lattices to see the bonding process in this.

    對抗自然的素材

  • Now, this is the very interesting part.

    我們現在看的是水晶晶格的結合過程

  • We don't just want limestone dumped everywhere in all the pretty canals.

    這是一個非常有趣的部分

  • What we need it to do is to be

    我們不要只是把石灰岩丟在威尼斯美麗的運河裡

  • creatively crafted around the wooden piles.

    我們要做的是

  • So, you can see from these diagrams that the protocell is actually

    讓它們圍繞著水底下的木頭

  • moving away from the light,

    你可以從這些圖中看見原生細胞正在

  • toward the dark foundations.

    遠離光源

  • We've observed this in the laboratory.

    朝著深色的底座靠近

  • The protocells can actually move away from the light.

    我們在實驗室中就觀察出了這點

  • They can actually also move towards the light. You have to just choose your species.

    原生細胞是有趨光性的

  • So that these don't just exist as one entity,

    但也有些不同種類的原生細胞是有向光性的

  • we kind of chemically engineer them.

    他們不只是以一種實體的狀態存在

  • And so here the protocells are depositing their limestone

    我們利用化學工程改良他們

  • very specifically, around the foundations of Venice,

    原生細胞沈積在石灰岩上

  • effectively petrifying it.

    有目標地包覆著威尼斯的底座

  • Now, this isn't going to happen tomorrow. It's going to take a while.

    使底座更堅固

  • It's going to take years of tuning and monitoring this technology

    但這不是一蹴可及的.我們還需要一段時間

  • in order for us to become ready

    我們可能還需要幾年的時間做觀察並且調整

  • to test it out in a case-by-case basis

    接著才能

  • on the most damaged and stressed buildings within the city of Venice.

    在威尼斯受損的建築上

  • But gradually, as the buildings are repaired,

    測試

  • we will see the accretion of a limestone reef beneath the city.

    等到建築物漸漸被修復之後

  • An accretion itself is a huge sink of carbon dioxide.

    我們將看到石灰岩礁和城市的底座附著在一起

  • Also it will attract the local marine ecology,

    這整個沈機物會是由一大塊固體狀的二氧化碳組成

  • who will find their own ecological niches within this architecture.

    而且還會使附近的海洋生態

  • So, this is really interesting. Now we have an architecture

    趨於穩定

  • that connects a city to the natural world

    這非常的有趣.我們有一座城市

  • in a very direct and immediate way.

    能夠與大自然

  • But perhaps the most exciting thing about it

    有最直接的關連

  • is that the driver of this technology is available everywhere.

    但最讓人感到興奮的

  • This is terrestrial chemistry. We've all got it,

    莫過於驅動這項科技的元素都處都可以找的到

  • which means that this technology is just as appropriate

    那是現在地球上現有的,要取得它們完全不成問題

  • for developing countries as it is

    這意味著,這像科技不但適合在

  • for First World countries.

    開發中國家使用

  • So, in summary, I'm generating metabolic materials

    也適合在已開發的國家中使用

  • as a counterpoise to Victorian technologies,

    總而言之,我正在開發這種能夠代謝的素材

  • and building architectures from a bottom-up approach.

    來和維多莉亞式的科技取得平衡

  • Secondly, these metabolic materials

    並以一個下到上的方式應用到建築上

  • have some of the properties of living systems,

    第二,這些代謝材料

  • which means they can perform in similar ways.

    存在著一些生物的特質

  • They can expect to have a lot of forms and functions

    他們和生物有些相似處

  • within the practice of architecture.

    應用到建築上

  • And finally, an observer in the future

    它們能夠有各種不同的型式與功能

  • marveling at a beautiful structure in the environment

    最後,當未來的人

  • may find it almost impossible to tell

    對這些美麗的建築讚嘆不已時

  • whether this structure

    將分不出來

  • has been created by a natural process

    這個建築

  • or an artificial one.

    是自然生成的?

  • Thank you.

    還是人造的?

  • (Applause)

    謝謝!

All buildings today have something in common.

譯者: Dennis Lin 審譯者: Yung Hsiang Tseng

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 建築 威尼斯 細胞 底座 材料

TED】Rachel Armstrong:修理自己的建築?(蕾切爾-阿姆斯特朗:建築可以自我修復?) (【TED】Rachel Armstrong: Architecture that repairs itself? (Rachel Armstrong: Architecture that repairs itself?))

  • 45 11
    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字