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  • The substance of things unseen.

    譯者: Cate Kuo 審譯者: Adrienne Lin

  • Cities, past and future.

    看不見的事物的本質。

  • In Oxford, perhaps we can use Lewis Carroll

    城市的過去和未來。

  • and look in the looking glass that is New York City

    在牛津,我們或許可以將路易斯.卡洛爾

  • to try and see our true selves,

    做為借鏡,藉由紐約市反映出的現況,

  • or perhaps pass through to another world.

    並試著看清我們真實的自我,

  • Or, in the words of F. Scott Fitzgerald,

    或許還能穿越到另一個世界。

  • "As the moon rose higher,

    或者,就像史考特‧費茲傑羅所說的,

  • the inessential houses began to melt away

    “當明月冉冉升起時,

  • until gradually I became aware of the old island

    那些微不足道的房屋慢慢消逝,

  • here that once flowered for Dutch sailors' eyes,

    直到我逐漸意識到這座古老島嶼

  • a fresh green breast of the new world."

    當年曾讓荷蘭水手驚艷,

  • My colleagues and I have been working for 10 years

    是新世界中的一塊翠綠寶石。"

  • to rediscover this lost world

    我和我的同事花了10年功夫

  • in a project we call The Mannahatta Project.

    去重現這個消失的世界,

  • We're trying to discover what Henry Hudson would have seen

    這則是“Mannahatta計畫”的主要任務。

  • on the afternoon of September 12th, 1609,

    我們試圖再現Henry Hudson

  • when he sailed into New York harbor.

    在1609年9月12日下午,

  • And I'd like to tell you the story in three acts,

    駕船駛入紐約港時看到的景象。

  • and if I have time still, an epilogue.

    我把故事分成三個部分,

  • So, Act I: A Map Found.

    如果講完還有時間,就再做個總結。

  • So, I didn't grow up in New York.

    第一部分:發現地圖。

  • I grew up out west in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, like you see here,

    我不是在紐約長大的。

  • in the Red Rock Canyon.

    我的家鄉在内華達州山區西部,大家可以看到,

  • And from these early experiences as a child

    就在紅岩峽谷。

  • I learned to love landscapes.

    由於小時候的成長經歷

  • And so when it became time for me to do my graduate studies,

    讓我愛上了自然景觀。

  • I studied this emerging field of landscape ecology.

    因此,當我在念研究所時,

  • Landscape ecology concerns itself

    我選擇了當時新興的景觀生態學作為我的研究方向。

  • with how the stream and the meadow and the forest and the cliffs

    景觀生態學主要是在研究

  • make habitats for plants and animals.

    溪流、草地、森林和懸崖

  • This experience and this training

    如何構成適合動植物生存的環境。

  • lead me to get a wonderful job with the Wildlife Conservation Society,

    這段研究過程

  • which works to save wildlife and wild places all over the world.

    讓我在國際野生生物保護協會找到了一份很棒的工作,

  • And over the last decade,

    主要致力於保護世界各地的野生生物和自然環境。

  • I traveled to over 40 countries

    在過去的十年内,

  • to see jaguars and bears and elephants

    我到過40多個國家,

  • and tigers and rhinos.

    去觀察美洲豹、熊、大象、

  • But every time I would return from my trips I'd return back to New York City.

    老虎和犀牛。

  • And on my weekends I would go up, just like all the other tourists,

    每次旅行結束後,我就會回到紐約,

  • to the top of the Empire State Building,

    在周末時,我就會跟大多數的遊客一樣,

  • and I'd look down on this landscape, on these ecosystems,

    登上帝國大廈頂樓,

  • and I'd wonder, "How does this landscape

    俯看這片土地,和其生態系統,

  • work to make habitat for plants and animals?

    然後我就會想:“這片土地

  • How does it work to make habitat for animals like me?"

    是如何為動植物提供合適的居住地?

  • I'd go to Times Square and I'd look at the amazing ladies on the wall,

    如何為人們提供合適的居住地?”

  • and wonder why nobody is looking at the historical figures just behind them.

    我也會去時代廣場,而當我看着廣告牆上的美女時,

  • I'd go to Central Park and see the rolling topography of Central Park

    我會想,為何没有人看看她們身後的歷史人物呢。

  • come up against the abrupt and sheer

    我還會去中央公園,

  • topography of midtown Manhattan.

    看著那裡起伏的地形

  • I started reading about the history and the geography in New York City.

    和曼哈頓中城高聳的地形形成了鮮明對比。

  • I read that New York City was the first mega-city,

    於是我開始研讀紐約市的歷史和地理。

  • a city of 10 million people or more, in 1950.

    我發現紐約市是世界上第一座超级大城,

  • I started seeing paintings like this.

    在1950年居住人口就破千萬。

  • For those of you who are from New York,

    我開始研究這樣的畫作。

  • this is 125th street under the West Side Highway.

    在坐來自紐約的聽眾,我要告訴你們,

  • (Laughter)

    這裡是西城高速公路下的125街。

  • It was once a beach. And this painting

    (笑聲)

  • has John James Audubon, the painter, sitting on the rock.

    這裡曾是一片海灘。

  • And it's looking up on the wooded heights of Washington Heights

    而圖中有一位名叫John James Audubon的畫家,坐在礁石上。

  • to Jeffrey's Hook, where the George Washington Bridge goes across today.

    圖中上方長滿樹木的高地是華盛頓高地。

  • Or this painting, from the 1740s, from Greenwich Village.

    Jeffrey’s Hook燈塔的方向,即是今天喬治華盛頓大橋横跨之處。

  • Those are two students at King's College -- later Columbia University --

    或是這幅1740年描繪格林威治村的畫作。

  • sitting on a hill, overlooking a valley.

    圖中有兩位國王學院(即現今的哥倫比亞大學)的學生

  • And so I'd go down to Greenwich Village and I'd look for this hill,

    坐在山丘上俯瞰山谷。

  • and I couldn't find it. And I couldn't find that palm tree.

    但是當我到格林威治村去找這座山丘時。

  • What's that palm tree doing there?

    卻早就找不到了。就連那棵棕櫚樹也找不到。

  • (Laughter)

    不過那裡怎麼會有一棵棕櫚樹?

  • So, it was in the course of these investigations that I ran into a map.

    (笑聲)

  • And it's this map you see here.

    但就在尋訪過程中,我發現到一張地圖,

  • It's held in a geographic information system

    就是螢幕上大家看到的這張圖。

  • which allows me to zoom in.

    它存在於地理資訊系统中,

  • This map isn't from Hudson's time, but from the American Revolution,

    因此我就可以進行缩放。

  • 170 years later, made by British military cartographers

    這張地圖並非繪製於哈德遜時期,而是在170年後美國獨立革命時,

  • during the occupation of New York City.

    由英國軍事製圖師所繪製,

  • And it's a remarkable map. It's in the National Archives here in Kew.

    當時英軍占領了紐約市。

  • And it's 10 feet long and three and a half feet wide.

    這是一張令人讚嘆的地圖,現存於英國Kew的國家檔案館中。

  • And if I zoom in to lower Manhattan

    整張地圖長10英尺,寬3.5英尺。

  • you can see the extent of New York City as it was,

    如果我把曼哈頓下城放大,

  • right at the end of the American Revolution.

    大家就可以看到美國獨立革命末期

  • Here's Bowling Green. And here's Broadway.

    紐約市的範圍。

  • And this is City Hall Park.

    這裡是Bowling Green,而這裡是百老匯。

  • So the city basically extended to City Hall Park.

    這邊則是市府公園。

  • And just beyond it you can see features

    所以,當時的城市就只有到市府公園。

  • that have vanished, things that have disappeared.

    再往上看,

  • This is the Collect Pond, which was the fresh water source for New York City

    景觀就消失了。

  • for its first 200 years,

    這裡是Collect 水塘,它是紐約市

  • and for the Native Americans for thousands of years before that.

    最初200年的飲用水源,

  • You can see the Lispenard Meadows

    在此之前它滋養了美國原住民數千年。

  • draining down through here, through what is TriBeCa now,

    你們可以看到Lispenard草地,

  • and the beaches that come up from the Battery,

    它流過此處,即Tribeca的現址,

  • all the way to 42nd St.

    而當時的海灘則從Battery

  • This map was made for military reasons.

    一路延伸到42街。

  • They're mapping the roads, the buildings, these fortifications

    這張地圖是為了軍事用途而繪製的。

  • that they built.

    所以他們繪製了道路、建築物以及

  • But they're also mapping things of ecological interest,

    他們建造的防禦工事。

  • also military interest: the hills,

    除此之外,他們還繪製了具有生態價值的事物,

  • the marshes, the streams.

    當然也具有軍事價值,像是山丘、

  • This is Richmond Hill, and Minetta Water,

    沼澤和溪流。

  • which used to run its way through Greenwich Village.

    這裡則是Richmond山丘和Minetta Water

  • Or the swamp at Gramercy Park, right here.

    它曾經穿過格林威治村。

  • Or Murray Hill. And this is the Murrays' house

    Gramercy公園的沼澤在這。

  • on Murray Hill, 200 years ago.

    這是Murray高地。這則是200年前位於Murray高地上的

  • Here is Times Square,

    Murray’s House。

  • the two streams that came together to make a wetland

    這邊是時代廣場,

  • in Times Square, as it was at the end of the American Revolution.

    兩條河川交會在此形成一片濕地

  • So I saw this remarkable map in a book.

    也就是在時代廣場的位置,當時是美國獨立戰爭末期。

  • And I thought to myself, "You know, if I could georeference this map,

    我是在一本書上看到這張了不起的地圖。

  • if I could place this map in the grid of the city today,

    當時我想:“如果我可以對這張地圖作地理坐標參照,

  • I could find these lost features

    如果我可以把這張地圖放在今日紐約市地圖的格線上,

  • of the city,

    那我就能找到

  • in the block-by-block geography that people know,

    這座城市曾有的景觀,

  • the geography of where people go to work, and where they go to live,

    一塊塊拼湊出大家熟悉的地貌,

  • and where they like to eat."

    像是我們上班的地點、居住的地方,

  • So, after some work we were able to georeference it,

    以及常去的餐廳。”

  • which allows us to put the modern streets on the city,

    在經過一番努力之後,我們完成了地理座標參照,

  • and the buildings, and the open spaces,

    我們就可以把現今城市的街道、

  • so that we can zoom in to where the Collect Pond is.

    建築物和開放空間放上去,

  • We can digitize the Collect Pond and the streams,

    然後我們就能放大Collect 池塘的所在地,

  • and see where they actually are in the geography of the city today.

    我們可以將Collect 池塘和溪流數位化,

  • So this is fun for finding where things are

    以看出這些地點在現今城市中的實際位置。

  • relative to the old topography.

    有趣的地方在於

  • But I had another idea about this map.

    找出和原先地形相對應的位置。

  • If we take away the streets, and if we take away the buildings,

    關於這張地圖我有另一個想法。

  • and if we take away the open spaces,

    假如我們移除街道、建築,

  • then we could take this map.

    和開放空間,

  • If we pull off the 18th century features

    我們就可以重複使用這張地圖。

  • we could drive it back in time.

    如果我們移除18世紀的景觀,

  • We could drive it back to its ecological fundamentals:

    我們便能穿越時空,

  • to the hills, to the streams,

    讓它回到最初的基本生態,

  • to the basic hydrology and shoreline, to the beaches,

    例如山丘、溪流、

  • the basic aspects that make the ecological landscape.

    基礎水文、海岸線、海灘等,

  • Then, if we added maps like the geology, the bedrock geology,

    也就是構成生態地景的基本要素。

  • and the surface geology, what the glaciers leave,

    然後,假若我們再加上像地質地圖、床岩地質地圖、

  • if we make the soil map,

    地表地質、冰川遺跡,

  • with the 17 soil classes,

    或是土壤地圖,

  • that are defined by the National Conservation Service,

    含有17種

  • if we make a digital elevation model

    經由國家土壤保育署所界定的土壤類型,

  • of the topography that tells us how high the hills were,

    如果我們用數值高程模型,

  • then we can calculate the slopes.

    描繪出代表山丘高度的地形,

  • We can calculate the aspect.

    我們便能計算出坡度,

  • We can calculate the winter wind exposure --

    並算出方位,

  • so, which way the winter winds blow across the landscape.

    還能算出冬季風向,

  • The white areas on this map are the places protected from the winter winds.

    算出吹過地景的冬季季風走向。

  • We compiled all the information about where the Native Americans were, the Lenape.

    地圖上白色的部份是冬季季風吹不到的地方。

  • And we built a probability map of where they might have been.

    我們編輯所有關於當時美國原住民,Lenape部落居住地的資訊

  • So, the red areas on this map indicate the places

    並且繪製他們可能駐足處的機率地圖

  • that are best for human sustainability on Manhattan,

    紅色區塊是全曼哈頓裡

  • places that are close to water,

    最適合人類居住的地區,

  • places that are near the harbor to fish,

    因為最靠近河流,

  • places protected from the winter winds.

    和可捕魚的港口,

  • We know that there was a Lenape settlement

    也可抵擋冬季刺骨寒風的侵襲。

  • down here by the Collect Pond.

    我們都知道Lenape聚落曾居住之處,

  • And we knew that they planted a kind of horticulture,

    就在Collect 池塘旁。

  • that they grew these beautiful gardens of corn, beans, and squash,

    我們也得知他們在那種植花草樹木,

  • the "Three Sisters" garden.

    他們一手打造了美麗且生氣蓬勃的穀物、豆類、及南瓜花園,

  • So, we built a model that explains where those fields might have been.

    也就是“三姐妹”花園。

  • And the old fields, the successional fields that go.

    所以,我們製作了這個模型,來解釋這些花園的可能位置。

  • And we might think of these as abandoned.

    以及舊時園地,和後來新園地的位置

  • But, in fact, they're grassland habitats

    我們也許會以為它們早已荒蕪

  • for grassland birds and plants.

    但事實上,

  • And they have become successional shrub lands,

    它們已變成草原鳥類和植物的棲息地。

  • and these then mix in to a map of all the ecological communities.

    並進而演變為灌木林地,

  • And it turns out that Manhattan had 55 different ecosystem types.

    所有的一切都集合於生態社區地圖中。

  • You can think of these as neighborhoods,

    所以有55種不同生態系統共同存在於曼哈頓。

  • as distinctive as TriBeCa and the Upper East Side and Inwood --

    你可以把他們看成是各有特色的鄰近社區,

  • that these are the forest and the wetlands

    就像是Tribeca, Upper East Side和Inwood一樣 --

  • and the marine communities, the beaches.

    只是它們是森林、溼地、

  • And 55 is a lot. On a per-area basis,

    海洋生態社區,以及沙灘。

  • Manhattan had more ecological communities

    55種生態系統算是非常的多。以單位面積來看,

  • per acre than Yosemite does,

    曼哈頓每英畝擁有比

  • than Yellowstone, than Amboseli.

    優勝美地國家公園、

  • It was really an extraordinary landscape

    黃石國家公園,安波沙里國家公園更多的生態社區。

  • that was capable of supporting an extraordinary biodiversity.

    這真的是非常不可思議的環境

  • So, Act II: A Home Reconstructed.

    可以讓如此多種的生態社區同時共存。

  • So, we studied the fish and the frogs and the birds and the bees,

    第二部份:重現家園。

  • the 85 different kinds of fish that were on Manhattan,

    所以我們開始研究所有曾出現在曼哈頓的生物,像是魚、蛙、鳥、蜜蜂

  • the Heath hens, the species that aren't there anymore,

    光是在曼哈頓就曾有85種不同種類的魚,

  • the beavers on all the streams, the black bears,

    新英格蘭黑琴雞(the Heath hens), 現在早已絕種,

  • and the Native Americans, to study how they used

    還有曾經在溪流四處可見的河狸和黑熊,

  • and thought about their landscape.

    和美國原住民,

  • We wanted to try and map these. And to do that what we did

    要研究他們如何善用和看待這片土地。

  • was we mapped their habitat needs.

    我們所需作的就是

  • Where do they get their food?

    繪製他們的棲息地點分布圖。

  • Where do they get their water? Where do they get their shelter?

    例如,他們去哪覓食?

  • Where do they get their reproductive resources?

    他們去哪擷取水源? 他們都居住在哪?

  • To an ecologist, the intersection of these is habitat,

    以及他們去哪取得繁殖資源?

  • but to most people, the intersection of these is their home.

    對生態學家來說,這一切的交集就是所謂的棲息處。

  • So, we would read in field guides, the standard field guides

    但對大多數人來說,這則是他們稱為家的地方。

  • that maybe you have on your shelves,

    所以我們閱讀田野指南,

  • you know, what beavers need is, "A slowly meandering stream

    我想你們書架上應該都會有這一類的書,

  • with aspen trees and alders and willows,

    例如河狸的棲息處是"蜿蜒而平靜的小溪,

  • near the water." That's the best thing for a beaver.

    兩側有白楊木,赤楊和柳樹,

  • So we just started making a list.

    靠近水源處。"這就是海狸的理想家園。

  • Here is the beaver. And here is the stream,

    所以我們製作了一張對照表

  • and the aspen and the alder and the willow.

    左邊是海狸,上面則是牠們的棲息地點:溪流,

  • As if these were the maps that we would need

    白楊木,赤楊和柳樹。

  • to predict where you would find the beaver.

    彷彿這些是可以用來預測

  • Or the bog turtle, needing wet meadows and insects and sunny places.

    能在哪遇見海狸的地圖。

  • Or the bobcat, needing rabbits and beavers and den sites.

    同理,牟式龜需要的是潮濕的草地,昆蟲和陽光充足的地方。

  • And rapidly we started to realize that beavers can be

    山貓需要兔子,海狸還有洞穴。

  • something that a bobcat needs.

    由此可知,海狸是

  • But a beaver also needs things. And that having it

    山貓的獵物。

  • on either side means that we can link it together,

    但海狸也有所需的食物。

  • that we can create the network

    把兩邊連結起來之後,

  • of the habitat relationships for these species.

    我們就可以創造出一個

  • Moreover, we realized that you can start out

    這些物種的棲息地關係網。

  • as being a beaver specialist,

    再來,我們了解你可以成為

  • but you can look up what an aspen needs.

    一名海狸專家,

  • An aspen needs fire and dry soils.

    不過你還可以研究白楊需要什麼。

  • And you can look at what a wet meadow needs.

    白楊需要火和乾燥土壤。

  • And it need beavers to create the wetlands,

    同樣的,你也可以查查潮濕草地需要些什麼。

  • and maybe some other things.

    它需要海狸來製造溼地,

  • But you can also talk about sunny places.

    也許你還能探討其他東西。

  • So, what does a sunny place need? Not habitat per se.

    但當提到陽光充足的地點時,

  • But what are the conditions that make it possible?

    你會問說,"那它需要什麼呢?" 不是棲息地本身。

  • Or fire. Or dry soils.

    而是什麼樣的條件讓它充滿陽光

  • And that you can put these on a grid that's 1,000 columns long

    是火嗎? 還是乾燥土壤?

  • across the top and 1,000 rows down the other way.

    然後你將所有的資料逐一放在

  • And then we can visualize this data like a network,

    欄列各1000行的表格上後。

  • like a social network.

    我們就能把這個生態網路具體化,

  • And this is the network of all the habitat relationships

    就像社群網路一樣。

  • of all the plants and animals on Manhattan,

    而這就是所有在曼哈頓的動植物

  • and everything they needed,

    及其所需一切的

  • going back to the geology,

    棲地網路圖,

  • going back to time and space at the very core of the web.

    我們就能回溯到當時地質的情況,

  • We call this the Muir Web. And if you zoom in on it it looks like this.

    和網路核心當時的時空。

  • Each point is a different species

    我們稱它為Muir Web。如果你放大來看的話就會像這樣。

  • or a different stream or a different soil type.

    每一點都代表不同的物種,

  • And those little gray lines are the connections that connect them together.

    支流,或是土壤種類。

  • They are the connections that actually make nature resilient.

    圖中的灰色細線則將它們全部串連起來。

  • And the structure of this is what makes nature work,

    因為這些連結而讓大自然變得更有適應力。

  • seen with all its parts.

    而其結構正是使自然運作的力量,

  • We call these Muir Webs after the Scottish-American naturalist

    由此便可一目了然。

  • John Muir, who said, "When we try to pick out anything by itself,

    命名Muir Webs是為紀念蘇格蘭裔美國自然學家John Muir

  • we find that it's bound fast by a thousand invisible cords

    他曾說過,"當我們試著辨識某些事物時,

  • that cannot be broken, to everything in the universe."

    便會發現在其背後,有數以千計無形

  • So then we took the Muir webs and we took them back to the maps.

    且密不可分的線索牽動著它,且和宇宙的一切連結。"

  • So if we wanted to go between 85th and 86th,

    所以我們將Muir webs運用到地圖上。

  • and Lex and Third,

    假設我們到了第85和86街,

  • maybe there was a stream in that block.

    以及Lexinton大道和第三大道之間,

  • And these would be the kind