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  • Clearly, we're living in a moment of crisis.

    譯者: Wen Chao 審譯者: Wang-Ju Tsai

  • Arguably the financial markets have failed us

    很顯然地,我們現在的生活處處充滿危機

  • and the aid system is failing us,

    我們不但對金融體系失去信心

  • and yet I stand firmly with the optimists

    連對援助系統也是。

  • who believe that there has probably never been a more exciting moment to be alive.

    即使如此,我還是樂觀地認為

  • Because of some of technologies we've been talking about.

    再也沒有比現在更令人興奮的時刻了。

  • Because of the resources, the skills,

    想想現在我們所談論的科技

  • and certainly the surge of talent we're seeing all around the world,

    想想我們有的這些資源,技能

  • with the mindset to create change.

    當然還有來自世界各地,不斷湧現的各式各樣的人才

  • And we've got a president who sees himself as a global citizen,

    和他們那顆勇於突破現狀的決心。

  • who recognizes that no longer is there a single superpower,

    我們還有個自許為世界公民的總統

  • but that we've got to engage in a different way with the world.

    他不只體認到單一強權的時代已不復存在

  • And by definition, every one of you who is in this room

    和世界溝通的方式也必須改變。

  • must consider yourself a global soul,

    因此,在此的每一個人

  • a global citizen.

    一定要把自己當做全球的一份子

  • You work on the front lines. And you've seen the best and the worst

    視自己為世界的公民。

  • that human beings can do for one another and to one another.

    你們都是第一線的工作者,看盡了人性中

  • And no matter what country you live or work in,

    最美好和最悲慘的事。

  • you've also seen the extraordinary things that individuals are capable of,

    不論你們在哪一個國家工作或是生活

  • even in their most ordinariness.

    你們都應該見識過,即使在最平凡的人身上

  • Today there is a raging debate

    也有成就不平凡事業的可能。

  • as to how best we lift people out of poverty,

    今時今日一個關於如何消弭貧窮的議題

  • how best we release their energies.

    正被激烈的討論著

  • On the one hand, we have people that say

    究竟我們該如何幫助窮人發揮他們的潛能。

  • the aid system is so broken we need to throw it out.

    一方面,有人認為

  • And on the other we have people who say

    援助系統瀕臨崩潰,應該要放棄。

  • the problem is that we need more aid.

    另一方面,也有人認為

  • And what I want to talk about is something that compliments both systems.

    還需要更多的援助。

  • We call it patient capital.

    在這裡我想談的是一種能讓雙方都接受的方法

  • The critics point to the 500 billion dollars spent

    我們稱之為"耐心資本"。

  • in Africa since 1970

    有批評指出,從1970年開始,

  • and say, and what do we have but environmental degradation

    算算已有5000億資金投入非洲

  • and incredible levels of poverty, rampant corruption?

    結果呢?只造成當地環境惡化

  • They use Mobutu as metaphor.

    令人難以置信的貧困,和貪汙腐敗嗎?

  • And their policy prescription is to

    他們拿蒙博托(剛果的獨裁者)做例子。

  • make government more accountable,

    認為增強政府公信力

  • focus on the capital markets,

    是最好的解決方法。

  • invest, don't give anything away.

    然後只把錢投資在資本市場

  • On the other side, as I said, there are those who say

    純粹投資,而不做任何捐助。

  • the problem is that we need more money.

    另一邊呢?像我之前提的,有人認為

  • That when it comes to the rich, we'll bail out

    問題在於我們投入援助的錢還不夠。

  • and we'll hand a lot of aid,

    當服務的對象是有錢人時,

  • but when it comes to our poor brethren,

    大家很樂意錦上添花,加碼提供贊助。

  • we want little to do with it.

    但當談到這些窮人時

  • They point to the successes of aid:

    願意雪中送炭的人就非常有限。

  • the eradication of smallpox,

    他們提到一個援助的成功案例:

  • and the distribution of tens of millions

    天花的消滅

  • of malaria bed nets and antiretrovirals.

    還有透過運送數以千萬的

  • Both sides are right.

    蚊帳及藥物才得到根除的瘧疾。

  • And the problem is that neither side is listening to the other.

    雙方說法都對

  • Even more problematic, they're not listening to

    但問題在於雙方都各持己見

  • poor people themselves.

    更糟的是,根本沒人去了解

  • After 25 years of working on issues of

    窮人的心聲。

  • poverty and innovation,

    25年來我一直專注於

  • it's true that there are probably no more market-oriented

    貧窮和創新的問題上

  • individuals on the planet

    這是個事實:沒有任何人

  • than low-income people.

    會比低收入的窮人

  • They must navigate markets daily,

    更受市場影響。

  • making micro-decisions, dozens and dozens,

    他們每天被迫跟著市場環境

  • to move their way through society,

    為生活中的細節,做出一個又一個的決定

  • and yet if a single catastrophic health problem

    好讓日子能過下去。

  • impacts their family,

    如果出現一個災難性的健康問題

  • they could be put back into poverty, sometimes for generations.

    降臨到他們的家庭

  • And so we need both the market

    可能令好幾世代就此又陷入貧窮。

  • and we need aid.

    所以我們需要資本市場

  • Patient capital works between,

    援助系統也不能少。

  • and tries to take the best of both.

    耐心資本剛好在中間

  • It's money that's invested in entrepreneurs who know their communities

    企圖擷取兩邊的優點。

  • and are building solutions

    這資本用來投資熟知當地環境的創業家,

  • to healthcare, water, housing, alternative energy,

    使他們進而提出解決方案

  • thinking of low income people not as passive recipients of charity,

    致力於改善醫療品質,提昇水質及住房環境,以及能源替代方案等

  • but as individual customers, consumers, clients,

    我們不該把窮人想成是只會被動地接受援助

  • people who want to make decisions in their own lives.

    而是和一般獨立個體,消費者及客戶一樣

  • Patient capital requires that we have

    該是掌控自己的命運的人。

  • incredible tolerance for risk,

    耐心資本需要的是

  • a long time horizon in terms of allowing those

    能高度承受風險

  • entrepreneurs time to experiment,

    並且給這些創業家們足夠的時間

  • to use the market as the best listening device that we have,

    實踐他們的計劃

  • and the expectation of below-market returns,

    而且願意傾聽市場的聲音

  • but outsized social impact.

    期待的並非是高額的投資回報

  • It recognizes that the market has its limitation,

    而是擴大對社會的影響。

  • and so patient capital also works

    意識到市場的侷限性,

  • with smart subsidy to extend the benefits of a global economy

    所以耐心資本也藉由更有效的補貼方案

  • to include all people.

    擴大對全球經濟的效益

  • Now, entrepreneurs need patient capital

    影響層面將擴及所有的人。

  • for three reasons.

    基於三個原因

  • First, they tend to work in markets

    創業家需要耐心資本。

  • where people make one, two, three dollars a day

    第一,他們所運作的市場

  • and they are making all of their decisions within that income level.

    人們每天收入不到3美元

  • Second, the geographies in which they work

    所有生活中的決定受限於這微薄收入。

  • have terrible infrastructure --

    第二,他們所在的地理環境

  • no roads to speak of, sporadic electricity

    基礎建設嚴重缺乏

  • and high levels of corruption.

    沒有可辨認的道路,也稱不上有電力系統

  • Third, they are often creating markets.

    貪汙腐敗更是猖獗。

  • Even if you're bringing clean water

    第三,那是個待創造開發的市場

  • for the first time into rural villages, it is something new.

    像乾淨的水這麽平凡的東西

  • And so many low-income people

    在偏僻村落,都還是前所未見的商品。

  • have seen so many failed promises broken

    這些人

  • and seen so many quacks and sporadic medicines offered to them

    經歷過很多次"狼來了"

  • that building trust takes a lot of time,

    也接受過許多庸醫的治療和零星藥品的援助

  • takes a lot of patience.

    所以要取得他們的信任需要很長的時間

  • It also requires being connected to a lot of management assistance.

    很多的耐心。

  • Not only to build the systems,

    後續的支援管理也很重要。

  • the business models that allow us

    不是只有初期的系統架構

  • to reach low income people in a sustainable way,

    建立能深入窮人生活

  • but to connect those business

    和長久持續的商業模式,

  • to other markets, to governments, to corporations --

    還要進一步幫他們創造

  • real partnerships if we want to get to scale.

    能與其他市場,政府機關,公司團體相互連結的環境

  • I want to share one story

    唯有如此,才能達到我們預期的目標。

  • about an innovation called drip irrigation.

    在這,我想和大家分享一個案例

  • In 2002 I met this incredible entrepreneur

    關於一個"滴水灌概"的創新計劃。

  • named Amitabha Sadangi from India,

    2002時我遇見這個了不起的創業家

  • who'd been working for 20 years with some of the poorest farmers on the planet.

    Amitabha Sadangi, 印度人

  • And he was expressing his frustration

    20年來他一直致力於幫助世界上最貧困的農民

  • that the aid market had bypassed low-income farmers altogether,

    他不斷向我表達他的沮喪

  • despite the fact that 200 million farmers

    因為援助系統早已忘了這群窮苦的人

  • alone in India make under a dollar a day.

    事實上,光在印度就有2億的農民

  • They were creating subsidies

    每天只靠1美元過活。

  • either for large farms,

    有一些補助金額

  • or they were giving inputs to the farmers

    除了給大的農場使用

  • that they thought they should use, rather than

    也直接給這些農民們

  • that the farmers wanted to use.

    並規定這些農民該如何使用補助款

  • At the same time Amitabha was

    而沒有詢問農民們想怎麽用。

  • obsessed with this drip irrigation technology

    同時Amitabha

  • that had been invented in Israel.

    對來自以色列的"滴水灌溉"技術

  • It was a way of bringing small amounts of water

    相當感興趣。

  • directly to the stalk of the plant.

    它將少量的水

  • And it could transform

    直接灌溉在植物的根莖部

  • swaths of desert land into fields of emerald green.

    而且它可以

  • But the market also had bypassed low income farmers,

    把連綿的沙漠荒地變成滿地翠綠。

  • because these systems were both too expensive,

    但這技術仍舊幫不上貧苦農夫的忙。

  • and they were constructed for fields that were too large.

    因為相關設施非常昂貴

  • The average small village farmer

    土地面積要達到相當的規模才適用。

  • works on two acres or less.

    而這些村落的農夫

  • And so, Amitabha decided that he would take that innovation

    所耕種的土地面積也不過就一二畝罷了。

  • and he would redesign it from the perspective

    所以Amitabha決定

  • of the poor farmers themselves,

    改造這個創新技術

  • because he spent so many years listening to what they needed

    重新設計一個符合這些農夫需求的灌溉系統。

  • not what he thought that they should have.

    他花了很多年,了解他們真正所需

  • And he used three fundamental principles.

    而非憑自己一廂情願的想法

  • The first one was miniaturization.

    同時設定三個基本原則

  • The drip irrigation system

    第一,小型化

  • had to be small enough that a farmer only had

    縮小滴水灌溉系統

  • to risk a quarter acre,

    要小到讓這些農民只需

  • even if he had two,

    使用1/4畝的土地去試

  • because it was too frightening, given all that he had at stake.

    即使他有二畝地

  • Second, it had to be extremely affordable.

    如果必須使用所有的地,對農民來說風險太大了。

  • In other words, that risk on the quarter acre

    第二,要農民負擔得起

  • needed to be repaid in a single harvest,

    也就是說,如果不幸失敗

  • or else they wouldn't take the risk.

    只需一季收成就能回補損失

  • And third, it had to be what Amitabha calls

    否則沒人會願意冒險的。

  • infinitely expandable.

    第三,Amitabha認為

  • What I mean is with the profits from the first quarter acre,

    要能無限擴展

  • the farmers could buy a second

    意思是由第一個1/4畝地所賺到的利潤

  • and a third and a fourth.

    能夠再買第二套設備

  • As of today, IDE India, Amitabha's organization,

    甚至第三套,第四套....

  • has sold over 300,000 farmers these systems

    直至今日,Amitabha成立的組織IDE

  • and has seen their yields and incomes

    已售出30萬套這種系統

  • double or triple on average,

    而且這些農民的收益報酬

  • but this didn't happen overnight.

    都達以往的2倍,甚至3倍。

  • In fact, when you go back to the beginning,

    當然,這些成功並非一夕之間發生

  • there were no private investors

    事實上,一開始時

  • who would be willing to take a risk on building a new technology

    沒有任何一個私人投資者

  • for a market class that made under a dollar a day,

    願意冒風險投資在

  • that were known to be some of the most risk-averse people on the planet

    日收入只有一美元的市場

  • and that were working in one of the riskiest sectors, agriculture.

    而且這市場充斥著對風險亳無招架之力的一群人

  • And so we needed grants. And he used significant grants

    更何況農業投資的風險本身已很高。

  • to research, to experiment, to fail,

    所以我們需要資金,讓他可以利用大量資金

  • to innovate and try again.

    從事研究,做實驗,歷經失敗

  • And when he had a prototype

    並且再接再厲。

  • and had a better understanding of how to market to farmers,

    一旦具體計劃成形

  • that's when patient capital could come in.

    對於如何將系統賣給農民有好的方法時

  • And we helped him build a company, for profit,

    也就是耐心資本投入的時點

  • that would build on IDE's knowledge,

    這時我們幫助他成立公司,不但以獲利為目標

  • and start looking at sales and exports,

    也藉由IDE的專業

  • and be able to tap into other kinds of capital.

    尋求擴大營業規摸並增加產品出口的機會

  • Secondarily, we wanted to see if we could export

    進而引進其他資金管道。

  • this drip irrigation and bring it into other countries.

    第二,我們也計劃

  • And so we met Dr. Sono Khangharani in Pakistan.

    將滴水灌溉系統出口至其他國家。

  • And while, again, you needed patience

    所以我們也拜訪了巴基斯坦的Sono Khangharani 博士

  • to move a technology for the poor

    一段時間後,同樣地,藉由耐心資本投入

  • in India into Pakistan,

    我們有機會將這新技術

  • just to get the permits,

    由印度引進巴基斯坦

  • over time we were able to start a company

    只要取得許可

  • with Dr. Sono, who runs a large

    經過一段時間規劃

  • community development organization in the Thar Desert,

    我們得以和在塔爾沙漠

  • which is one of the remote and poorest areas of the country.

    這個印度最偏僻最貧困的地區之一

  • And though that company has just started,

    擁有大型社區發展組織的Sono博士共同成立公司。

  • our assumption is that there too

    雖然公司才剛成立

  • we'll see the impact on millions.

    但我們預測

  • But drip irrigation isn't the only innovation.

    它能影響千萬的窮苦人民。

  • We're starting to see these happening all around the world.

    滴水灌溉並非唯一的創新發明

  • In Arusha, Tanzania, A to Z Textile Manufacturing

    後續效應不斷在全世界被擴散蔓延。

  • has worked in partnership with us,

    在坦桑尼亞的阿魯沙,A to Z 紡織廠

  • with UNICEF, with the Global Fund,

    也和我們一起

  • to create a factory that now employs 7,000 people, mostly women.

    連同聯合國兒童基金會以及全球基金

  • And they produce 20 million lifesaving bednets

    創造了一個僱用7000名員工的工廠,而且大多是女性員工

  • for Africans around the world.

    每年生產2千萬個防瘧疾的蚊帳

  • Lifespring Hospital

    給全世界的非洲人民。

  • is a joint venture between Acumen and the government of India

    源泉醫院

  • to bring quality, affordable maternal health care

    由Acumen基金和印度政府合資成立

  • to low-income women,

    目的是提供給低收入的產婦

  • and it's been so successful that it's currently building

    有品質,又能負擔得起的醫療照顧。

  • a new hospital every 35 days.

    這醫院做得非當成功

  • And 1298 Ambulances decided that it was going to

    平均每35天蓋一家新醫院。

  • reinvent a completely broken industry,

    "1298 救護車" 也計劃

  • building an ambulance service in Bombay

    在這個瀕臨破產的行業重新投入資金

  • that would use the technology of Google Earth,

    他們在孟買設立救護車服務

  • a sliding scale pricing system

    利用Google Earth技術

  • so that all people could have access,

    和彈性的訂價系統

  • and a severe and public decision

    使所有人都能使用這項服務

  • not to engage in any form of corruption.

    而且所有決策採嚴謹公開的過程

  • So that in the terrorist attacks of November

    杜絕任何貪瀆行為。

  • they were the first responder,

    所以在去年11月孟買發生恐佈攻擊時

  • and are now beginning to scale, because of partnership.

    "1298救護車"是最先抵達災難現場的

  • They've just won four government contracts to build off their 100 ambulances,

    之後隨著新伙伴加入,逐步擴大規模。

  • and are one of the largest and most effective ambulance companies

    他們才剛接受4個政府委託,建造100輛救護車的合約

  • in India.

    現在已然成為印度最具規模

  • This idea of scale is critical.

    最有效率的救護車公司之一。

  • Because we're starting to see these enterprises

    擴大規模的想法非常重要

  • reach hundreds of thousands of people. All of the ones I discussed

    這些公司都有

  • have reached at least a quarter million people.

    成千上百的員工,而我所提及的這些公司的員工總數

  • But that's obviously not enough.

    超過二十五萬人。

  • And it's where the idea of partnership

    但這顯然不夠

  • becomes so important.

    所以藉由合作,結合外界資源

  • Whether it's by finding those innovations

    變得十分重要。

  • that can access the capital markets,

    如果這些創新技術

  • government itself, or partner with major corporations,

    能由資本市場取得資金

  • there is unbelievable opportunity for innovation.

    或和政府,大企業合作

  • President Obama understands that.

    未來都能創造無限的可能。

  • He recently authorized the creation of a Social Innovation Fund

    歐巴馬總統明白這個道理

  • to focus on what works in this country,

    最近他授權創立了"社會創新基金"

  • and look at how we can scale it.

    除了著眼於增進人民福址

  • And I would submit that it's time to consider

    也追求世界福址。

  • a global innovation fund

    我認為現在是

  • that would find these entrepreneurs around the world

    推廣"全球創新基金"的好時機

  • who really have innovations, not only for their country,

    去資助這些散佈在全球的創業家

  • but ones that we can use in the developed world as well.

    擁有對自己國家有貢獻的創新科技

  • Invest financial assistance, but also management assistance.

    若能藉由財務支援,甚至提供管理系統協助

  • And then measure the returns,

    就能將這些創新科技推廣至世界各地

  • both from a financial perspective

    那麼不只在財務方面

  • and from a social impact perspective.

    甚至是社會影響力層面

  • When we think about new approaches to aid,

    都能獲得可觀報酬。

  • it's impossible not to talk about Pakistan.

    當我們談到新的援助方法時

  • We've had a rocky relationship with that country

    不可能不提到巴基斯坦。

  • and, in all fairness,

    巴基斯坦和美國關係一直不太穩定