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  • I want to share with you

    譯者: katherine yu 審譯者: Zhu Jie

  • some ideas about the secret power of time,

    我想和大家分享

  • in a very short time.

    關於時光魅力的秘密,

  • Video: All right, start the clock please. 30 seconds studio.

    而我只有很短的時間.

  • Keep it quiet please. Settle down.

    視頻:準備好了,開始計時,三十秒倒計時.

  • It's about time. End sequence. Take one.

    保持安靜.一切就緒.

  • 15 seconds studio.

    時間快到了.到了.再來一次.

  • 10, nine, eight, seven,

    15秒到計時.

  • six, five, four, three, two ...

    10,9,8,7,

  • Philip Zimbardo: Let's tune into the conversation

    6,5,4,3,2......

  • of the principals in Adam's temptation.

    菲利浦津巴多:現來看看這段對話

  • "Come on Adam, don't be so wishy-washy. Take a bite." "I did."

    是"亞當的誘惑".

  • "One bite, Adam. Don't abandon Eve."

    嘿,亞當,別磨蹭了. 咬一口吧.我可是咬過了.

  • "I don't know, guys.

    就一口,亞當.不要忘了伊娃喔.

  • I don't want to get in trouble."

    不行呀,夥計們.

  • "Okay. One bite. What the hell?"

    我可不愿惹麻煩.

  • (Laughter)

    好吧,就一口.有什麼了不起呀!

  • Life is temptation. It's all about yielding, resisting,

    (笑聲)

  • yes, no, now, later, impulsive, reflective,

    生活中到處是誘惑.屈服,抵抗,

  • present focus and future focus.

    是, 否,現在,以後,衝動,沉穩,

  • Promised virtues fall prey to the passions of the moment.

    關注現在和展望未來.

  • Of teenage girls who pledged sexual abstinence and virginity until marriage --

    迅間的激情會打敗道德觀念.

  • thank you George Bush --

    那些曾宣誓要在婚前確保貞操的少女

  • the majority, 60 percent, yielded to sexual temptations within one year.

    這一點要感謝小布施-

  • And most of them did so without using birth control.

    大多數,約有60%,會在一年內違背自己的諾言.

  • So much for promises.

    而他們中的大多數都沒有採取防範措施.

  • Now lets tempt four-year-olds, giving them a treat.

    多美好的承諾啊.

  • They can have one marshmallow now. But if they wait

    現在來試試四歲的小孩,給他們吃得好了.

  • until the experimenter comes back, they can have two.

    他們現在有一顆棉花糖.但是如果他們願意等

  • Of course it pays, if you like marshmallows, to wait.

    到試驗員回來再吃的話,他們會有兩顆.

  • What happens is two-thirds of the kids give in to temptation.

    當然是要付出代價,你想要棉花糖的話,就得等.

  • They cannot wait. The others, of course, wait.

    結果是2/3的孩子經不住誘惑.

  • They resist the temptation. They delay the now for later.

    他們不能等.而另一些孩子,卻等到了.

  • Walter Mischel, my colleague at Stanford,

    等的孩子抵住了誘惑.明白付出是為了得到.

  • went back 14 years later,

    沃爾特.米舍爾,我斯丹福大學的同事,

  • to try to discover what was different about those kids.

    在十四年後

  • There were enormous differences between kids who resisted

    對這些孩子的不同進行追蹤調查.

  • and kids who yielded, in many ways.

    這差別可大了. 經得住抵抗的孩子

  • The kids who resisted scored 250 points higher on the SAT.

    與妥協的孩子在很多方面都不同.

  • That's enormous. That's like a whole set of different IQ points.

    經受住誘惑的孩子SAT的成績平均要高出250分.

  • They didn't get in as much trouble. They were better students.

    這太可觀了. 差不多是一整套不同水平的智商測試.

  • They were self-confident and determined. And the key for me today,

    這些學生不會去惹麻煩.他們都是好學生.

  • the key for you,

    他們自信,堅強. 而對我的啟發

  • is, they were future-focused rather than present-focused.

    也是對你們大家的啟發是

  • So what is time perspective? That's what I'm going to talk about today.

    他們能夠將"現實"轉化為 "未來".

  • Time perspective is the study of how individuals,

    因此,如何看待時間呢?這就是我今天要講的話題.

  • all of us, divide the flow of your human experience

    看待時間是研究個體,

  • into time zones or time categories.

    我們大家,將所有的人生經歷劃分為

  • And you do it automatically and non-consciously.

    不同的時間區域或時間類別.

  • They vary between cultures, between nations,

    並且是在自動和無意識下做得.

  • between individuals, between social classes,

    劃分方式的不同會從文化,國家,

  • between education levels.

    個人,社會階層,

  • And the problem is that they can become biased,

    教育水平等來決定.

  • because you learn to over-use some of them and under-use the others.

    但問題是不同因素會產生偏見.

  • What determines any decision you make?

    因為你在某方面會使用過頭,而另方面卻沒有充分利用.

  • You make a decision on which you're going to base an action.

    是什麼促使你做決定呢?

  • For some people it's only about what is in the immediate situation,

    一旦做出決定,就要行動了.

  • what other people are doing and what you're feeling.

    某些人,只看到當時的情景,

  • And those people, when they make their decisions in that format --

    別人現在做的事,和自己現在的感受.

  • we're going to call them "present-oriented,"

    這些人做決定時,會按那樣的模式--

  • because their focus is what is now.

    我們稱這些人為"現實主義".

  • For others, the present is irrelevant.

    因為他們關注的是現在.

  • It's always about "What is this situation like that I've experienced in the past?"

    對另一些人,現在並不重要.

  • So that their decisions are based on past memories.

    重要的是 "我在過去是否有過類似的經歷?"

  • And we're going to call those people "past-oriented," because they focus on what was.

    因此他們的決定會依據過去的經驗.

  • For others it's not the past, it's not the present,

    我們稱這些人為 "懷舊主義". 因為他們關注的是過去.

  • it's only about the future.

    而對另一部分人,過去和現在都不重要.

  • Their focus is always about anticipated consequences.

    重要的是將來.

  • Cost-benefit analysis.

    他們專注於所期待的結果.

  • We're going to call them "future-oriented." Their focus is on what will be.

    彷彿如成本效益分析.

  • So, time paradox, I want to argue,

    我們稱他們為 "理想主義". 他們關注的是未來.

  • the paradox of time perspective,

    因此,時間悖論,這裡我要討論的是

  • is something that influences every decision you make,

    時間觀念上的悖論

  • you're totally unaware of.

    是否會影響你做出的每一個決定,

  • Namely, the extent to which you have one of these

    而你渾然不知.

  • biased time perspectives.

    那麼你其實已附有這樣的一個

  • Well there is actually six of them. There are two ways to be present-oriented.

    帶有偏見的時間悖論了.

  • There is two ways to be past-oriented, two ways to be future.

    實際上,時間悖論有六種解釋. 其中兩個屬於"現實主義".

  • You can focus on past-positive, or past-negative.

    兩個屬於 "懷舊主義", 兩個屬於 "理想主義".

  • You can be present-hedonistic,

    你可以是"正面懷舊" 或 "負面懷舊".

  • namely you focus on the joys of life, or present-fatalist --

    也可以是"享受主義者".

  • it doesn't matter, your life is controlled.

    專注於享受生活,或自甘墮落成"宿命論者".

  • You can be future-oriented, setting goals.

    這並不重要.重要的是你要有所掌控.

  • Or you can be transcendental future:

    你可以是"理想主義",從而設定目標.

  • namely, life begins after death.

    也可以是"先知覺者".

  • Developing the mental flexibility to shift time perspectives fluidly

    宣揚生命起始于安息之後.

  • depending on the demands of the situation,

    從發展思維的靈活性到透視時光的易變性

  • that's what you've got to learn to do.

    要根據局勢的變化

  • So, very quickly, what is the optimal time profile?

    這便是你要學的內容.

  • High on past-positive. Moderately high on future.

    好了,咱們快速總結一下,什麼是理想的時光概念呢?

  • And moderate on present-hedonism.

    高度 "正面懷舊",適度 "理想主義"

  • And always low on past-negative

    節制 "及時行樂".

  • and present-fatalism.

    永遠放低 "負面懷舊"

  • So the optimal temporal mix is what you get from the past --

    及 "宿命論"

  • past-positive gives you roots. You connect your family, identity and your self.

    所以最佳時光透視是由過去開始的-

  • What you get from the future is wings

    過去積極的一面會給你動力。將你與家人,地位和身份聯繫在一起.

  • to soar to new destinations, new challenges.

    而將來卻是一付翅膀

  • What you get from the present hedonism

    助你飛向新的方向,迎接新的挑戰.

  • is the energy, the energy to explore yourself,

    當然你也會從現實享樂主義

  • places, people, sensuality.

    獲得能量,讓你開拓自己.

  • Any time perspective in excess has more negatives than positives.

    尋找合適的地點和人,及時行樂.

  • What do futures sacrifice for success?

    任何過度的時光審視就會負面大於正面.

  • They sacrifice family time. They sacrifice friend time.

    成功要付出多少呢?

  • They sacrifice fun time. They sacrifice personal indulgence.

    要犧牲家庭時間;犧牲朋友聚會;

  • They sacrifice hobbies. And they sacrifice sleep. So it affects their health.

    犧牲快樂時光;犧牲個人嗜好;

  • And they live for work, achievement and control.

    犧牲業餘愛好;犧牲睡眠.從而也會影響身體健康.

  • I'm sure that resonates with some of the TEDsters.

    這些人生活中只有工作,成功,和控制慾.

  • (Laughter)

    相信一些TED的工作人員會有所共鳴吧.

  • And it resonated for me. I grew up as a poor kid in the South Bronx ghetto,

    (笑聲)

  • a Sicilian family -- everyone lived in the past and present.

    我也有所共鳴.我是一個窮小子,出生于南布朗克斯平民窟,

  • I'm here as a future-oriented person

    西西里島的家庭.那裏的人只知道過去和現在.

  • who went over the top, who did all these sacrifices

    而我卻是一個朝前看的人

  • because teachers intervened, and made me future oriented.

    我之所以能成功,能在必要時做出犧牲

  • Told me don't eat that marshmallow,

    皆拜賜于我的老師們,是他們使我成為一個有理想的人.

  • because if you wait you're going to get two of them,

    是他們告訴我不要吃那顆棉花糖,

  • until I learned to balance out.

    因為只要等就可吃到兩顆了,

  • I've added present-hedonism, I've added a focus on the past-positive,

    我就是這樣一路走來,學會了如何取捨的.

  • so, at 76 years old, I am more energetic than ever, more productive,

    現在的我學會了"享樂主義",也會 "正面壞舊".

  • and I'm happier than I have ever been.

    因此,我現在76嵗了,卻比從前更有精力,更有動力.

  • I just want to say that we are applying this to many world problems:

    比從前更有樂趣.

  • changing the drop-out rates of school kids,

    我只想說該原理已用在解決世界很多問題上了,

  • combating addictions, enhancing teen health,

    例如降低輟學率,

  • curing vets' PTSD with time metaphors -- getting miracle cures --

    打擊毒品,增強青少年健康,

  • promoting sustainability and conservation,

    用時間隱喻法治療戰後老兵的心理障礙-創造醫學奇蹟-

  • reducing physical rehabilitation where there is a 50-percent drop out rate,

    促進可持續性發展和保護,

  • altering appeals to suicidal terrorists,

    減少身體康復費用,此項目有高達50%的退出率,

  • and modifying family conflicts as time-zone clashes.

    改變自殺式恐怖份子的念頭,

  • So I want to end by saying:

    修正家庭關係,就如修正時間區域衝突般.

  • many of life's puzzles can be solved

    好了,我要結束演講了,

  • by understanding your time perspective and that of others.

    生活中許多解決不開的難題都會迎刃而解

  • And the idea is so simple, so obvious,

    但必須理解自身和其他人的時間觀念.

  • but I think the consequences are really profound.

    道理如此簡單,且顯而易見,

  • Thank you so much.

    可結果卻又那麼深遠.

  • (Applause)

    謝謝大家.

I want to share with you

譯者: katherine yu 審譯者: Zhu Jie

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 懷舊 主義 誘惑 悖論 時光

【TED】菲利普-津巴多:時間心理學(Philip Zimbardo: The psychology of time)。 (【TED】Philip Zimbardo: The psychology of time (Philip Zimbardo: The psychology of time))

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    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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