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  • I have had the distinct pleasure

    譯者: Manlai YOU 審譯者: Chun-wen Chen

  • of living inside two biospheres.

    我十分榮幸地

  • Of course we all here in this room live in Biosphere 1.

    住過兩個生態圈。

  • I've also lived in Biosphere 2.

    當然,這房間裡的每個人,都住在生態圈一號裡。

  • And the wonderful thing about that is that I get to compare biospheres.

    我還曾在生態圈二號裡住過。

  • And hopefully from that I get to learn something.

    妙的是,我可以比較這兩個生態圈。

  • So what did I learn? Well,

    希望藉此能學到一些東西。

  • here I am inside Biosphere 2, making a pizza.

    那麼,我學到了什麼呢?嗯,

  • So I am harvesting the wheat, in order to make the dough.

    這是我在生態圈二號裡做披薩。

  • And then of course I have to milk the goats

    我正在收割小麥,用來做麵糰。

  • and feed the goats in order to make the cheese.

    然後,當然我也必須去擠羊奶

  • It took me four months in Biosphere 2 to make a pizza.

    以及餵山羊,這樣才能做出乳酪。

  • Here in Biosphere 1, well it takes me about two minutes,

    在生態圈二號裡,我花了四個月才做出披薩。

  • because I pick up the phone and I call and say,

    在生態圈一號裡,這只要大約兩分鐘。

  • "Hey, can you deliver the pizza?"

    因為我只用打個電話,說,

  • So Biosphere 2

    “嘿,你能送個披薩過來嗎?“

  • was essentially a three-acre,

    生態圈二號

  • entirely sealed, miniature world

    基本上是一個佔地三英畝,

  • that I lived in for two years and 20 minutes.

    完全封閉的小型世界

  • (Laughter)

    我在那裡住了二年又20分鐘。

  • Over the top it was sealed with steel and glass,

    (笑聲)

  • underneath it was sealed with a pan of steel --

    頂端是由鋼骨和玻璃封起來的。

  • essentially entirely sealed.

    底部也是由一塊大鐵盤封閉的。

  • So we had our own miniature rainforest,

    基本上,這是完全封閉的。

  • a private beach with a coral reef.

    因此,我們有自己的迷你雨林,

  • We had a savanna, a marsh, a desert.

    私人海灘帶有珊瑚礁。

  • We had our own half-acre farm that we had to grow everything.

    我們有熱帶草原、沼澤、沙漠。

  • And of course we had our human habitat, where we lived.

    我們有半英畝的農場,用來養植任何東西。

  • Back in the mid-'80s when we were designing Biosphere 2,

    當然,我們也有人類住處,供我們居住。

  • we had to ask ourselves some pretty basic questions.

    1980年代中期,當我們設計生態圈二號的時候

  • I mean, what is a biosphere?

    我們必須問自己一些很基本的問題。

  • Back then, yes, I guess we all know now

    例如說,什麼是生態圈?

  • that it is essentially the sphere of life around the Earth, right?

    在那個時候,是的,我想現在我們都知道了

  • Well, you have to get a little more specific than that if you're going to build one.

    基本上那是一個供生命存活的圍繞著地球的圈子,對吧?

  • And so we decided that what it really is

    嗯,如果你要造一個的話,就必須比那個定義更明確一點。

  • is that it is entirely materially closed --

    因此,我們決定,它最必要的就是

  • that is, nothing goes in or out at all, no material --

    它在物質上必須完全封閉,

  • and energetically open,

    也就是說,沒有任何材料的進出,

  • which is essentially what planet Earth is.

    而能量是開放的。

  • This is a chamber that was 1/400th the size of Biosphere 2

    基本上地球就是這樣。

  • that we called our Test Module.

    這是一個只有生態圈二號1/400大小的密室。

  • And the very first day that this fellow, John Allen,

    我們稱它為測試模組。

  • walked in, to spend a couple of days in there

    就在第一天,這位伙伴 John Allen,

  • with all the plants and animals and bacteria that we'd put in there

    走了進去,在那花了幾天,

  • to hopefully keep him alive,

    和我們放進去的植物、動物、細菌一起

  • the doctors were incredibly concerned

    希望他能活著。

  • that he was going to succumb to some dreadful toxin,

    醫生十分擔心

  • or that his lungs were going to get choked with bacteria or something, fungus.

    他會感染上一些十分致命的病毒,

  • But of course none of that happened.

    或者他的肺會嗆到細菌或別的東西,如菌類。

  • And over the ensuing few years,

    但是,當然這些都沒發生。

  • there were great sagas about designing Biosphere 2.

    在接下來的幾年裡,

  • But by 1991

    有著不少關於生態圈二號設計的傳奇。

  • we finally had this thing built.

    但是到了1991年

  • And it was time for us to go in

    我們終於建了這個東西。

  • and give it a go.

    同時也到了我們進入的時間

  • We needed to know,

    去實測一下。

  • is life this malleable?

    我們需要知道,

  • Can you take this biosphere,

    生命具有適應能力嗎?

  • that has evolved on a planetary scale,

    你能把這個生態圈

  • and jam it into a little bottle,

    從星球規模推演而來的,

  • and will it survive?

    將它壓縮成小瓶子,

  • Big questions.

    而還能存活嗎?

  • And we wanted to know this both for being able to go somewhere else

    都是大問題。

  • in the universe -- if we were going to go to Mars, for instance,

    我們想知道,一方面為了能夠到宇宙他處,

  • would we take a biosphere with us, to live in it?

    例如說,我們要去火星,

  • We also wanted to know so we can understand more about

    我們要否帶個生態圈,住進去?

  • the Earth that we all live in.

    我們也想知道,以便我們能更了解

  • Well, in 1991 it was finally time for us to go in

    我們賴以生存的地球。

  • and try out this baby.

    1991年,終於到了我們入住的時候

  • Let's take it on a maiden voyage.

    試驗一下我們的心血結晶。

  • Will it work? Or will something happen

    讓我們來一趟處女航吧。

  • that we can't understand and we can't fix,

    它會成功嗎?會不會有

  • thereby negating the concept of man-made biospheres?

    我們不了解或應付不了的事發生?

  • So eight of us went in: four men and four women.

    從而否定了人造生態圈的概念?

  • More on that later.

    我們進去了八個人,四男四女。

  • (Laughter)

    以後會更多。

  • And this is the world that we lived in.

    (笑聲)

  • So, on the top, we had

    這就是我們生活的世界。

  • these beautiful rainforests and an ocean,

    在上層,我們有

  • and underneath we had all this technosphere, we called it,

    美麗的雨林和海洋。

  • which is where all the pumps and the valves

    下面,有我們所稱的科技空間。

  • and the water tanks and the air handlers, and all of that.

    那裡有所有的幫浦和閥門

  • One of the Biospherians called it "garden of Eden

    儲水槽和空氣處理裝置,以及其他設備。

  • on top of an aircraft carrier."

    一位圈中人稱它為:“航空母艦上的伊甸園"。

  • And then also we had the human habitat of course,

    一位圈中人稱它為:“航空母艦上的伊甸園"。

  • with the laboratories, and all of that.

    當然,我們也有人類居住處,

  • This is the agriculture.

    有實驗室,諸如此類。

  • It was essentially an organic farm.

    這是農業空間。

  • The day I walked into Biosphere 2,

    它基本上是個有機農場。

  • I was, for the first time,

    我走進生態圈二號的那天,

  • breathing a completely different atmosphere

    我第一次

  • than everybody else in the world,

    呼吸著和世界所有人

  • except seven other people.

    都不一樣的大氣。

  • At that moment I became part of that biosphere.

    除了另外和我同行的七人。

  • And I don't mean that in an abstract sense;

    那一刻開始, 我成了那個生態圈的一部分。

  • I mean it rather literally.

    我這可不是抽象地說說而已。

  • When I breathed out, my CO2

    而是有十分具體的意思。

  • fed the sweet potatoes that I was growing.

    當我呼出空氣時,二氧化碳

  • And we ate an awful lot of the sweet potatoes.

    供養著我種植的紅薯。

  • (Laughter)

    而我們吃了無數的紅薯。

  • And those sweet potatoes

    (笑聲)

  • became part of me.

    而這些紅薯

  • In fact, we ate so many sweet potatoes

    又變成了我身體的一部分。

  • I became orange with sweet potato.

    實際上,我們吃了那麼多的紅薯,

  • I literally was eating the same carbon over and over again.

    因著紅薯, 我變成橙色的。

  • I was eating myself in some strange sort of bizarre way.

    我實際上一次次吃著同樣的碳化物。

  • When it came to our atmosphere, however,

    說得奇怪點,我不停地吃我自己。

  • it wasn't that much of a joke over the long term,

    然而, 當提到我們的大氣圈時,

  • because it turned out that we were losing oxygen, quite a lot of oxygen.

    從長遠來看, 這可不僅僅是個笑話。

  • And we knew that we were losing CO2.

    因為它顯示出,我們在失去氧氣,數量可觀的氧氣。

  • And so we were working to sequester carbon.

    而且我們也知道,我們在失去二氧化碳。

  • Good lord -- we know that term now.

    所以我們努力固碳。

  • We were growing plants like crazy.

    感謝上帝,我們現在知道了這個術語。

  • We were taking their biomass, storing them in the basement,

    我們像瘋了一樣地種著植物。

  • growing plants, going around, around, around,

    我們把那些生物質移到地下室儲存,

  • trying to take all of that carbon out of the atmosphere.

    不停地種植,不停地種,

  • We were trying to stop carbon from going into the atmosphere.

    試圖吸收大氣圈裡多餘的碳。

  • We stopped irrigating our soil, as much as we could.

    我們也試圖阻止碳進入大氣圈。

  • We stopped tilling, so that we could prevent greenhouse gasses from going into the air.

    我們盡可能停止灌溉土壤。

  • But our oxygen was going down faster

    我們停止翻土,這樣我們可能避免溫室氣體進入空氣。

  • than our CO2 was going up, which was quite unexpected,

    但我們失去氧氣的速度更快,

  • because we had seen them going in tandem in the test module.

    比二氧化碳增加的速度還快,這是意料外的。

  • And it was like playing atomic hide-and-seek.

    因為在測試模組裡,我們同步檢驗過。

  • We had lost seven tons of oxygen.

    這就像玩原子的捉迷藏。

  • And we had no clue where it was.

    我們已經失去了七噸的氧氣。

  • And I tell you, when you lose a lot of oxygen --

    而我們絲毫不知它藏在哪裡。

  • and our oxygen went down quite far;

    我告訴你,當你失去了很多氧氣時 --

  • it went from 21 percent down to 14.2 percent --

    而我們失去的氧氣是很多的,

  • my goodness, do you feel dreadful.

    從21%降到到14.2% --

  • I mean we were dragging ourselves around the Biosphere.

    天哪,感覺是很恐怖的。

  • And we had sleep apnea at night.

    我指的是,我們在生態圈裡勉強度日。

  • So you'd wake up gasping with breath,

    睡覺時,我們會呼吸暫停。

  • because your blood chemistry has changed.

    因而你會醒過來緊急吸氣。

  • And that you literally do that. You stop breathing and then you -- (Gasps) --

    因為你的血液化學已經起了改變。

  • take a breath and it wakes you up. And it's very irritating.

    你真的會那樣。你會停止呼吸,然後你 -- (喘息) --

  • And everybody outside thought we were dying.

    吸一口氣,就會驚醒,這十分討厭。

  • I mean, the media was making it sound like were were dying.

    外面的人都以為我們快死了。

  • And I had to call up my mother every other day saying, "No, Mum, it's fine, fine.

    我是說,媒體讓這看起來,像是我們快死了。

  • We're not dead. We're fine. We're fine."

    我得每隔一天打電話給我媽, 說, “沒事,媽,沒問題。

  • And the doctor was, in fact, checking us

    我們沒有死,我們很好,我們很好。"

  • to make sure we were, in fact, fine.

    事實上, 醫生檢查著我們

  • But in fact he was the person who was most susceptible to the oxygen.

    來確定我們沒有事。

  • And one day he couldn't add up a line of figures.

    但實際上,他才是最容易缺氧的那個人。

  • And it was time for us to put oxygen in.

    有一天,他幾乎不能做簡單的算術。

  • And you might think, well,

    那也是我們該放氧氣進來的時候。

  • "Boy, your life support system

    你也許會在想,看吧,

  • was failing you. Wasn't that dreadful?"

    "天呀, 你們的生命支援系統

  • Yes. In a sense it was terrifying.

    正在殺你。那不可怕嗎?”

  • Except that I knew I could walk out the airlock door

    是的,某個觀點上,那很可怕。

  • at any time, if it really got bad,

    除了我知道,我可以走出那扇氣密門

  • though who was going to say, "I can't take it anymore!"?

    隨時都可以,如果事情變得很糟。

  • Not me, that was for sure.

    不過,誰會說 “我不行了!”?

  • But on the other hand, it was the scientific gold of the project,

    顯然不會是我。

  • because we could really crank this baby up,

    但是另一方面,這是科學研究計畫的黃金。

  • as a scientific tool,

    因為我們真的可能把這搞定,

  • and see if we could, in fact, find

    當成科學工具,

  • where those seven tons of oxygen had gone.

    看看我們能否真的找到

  • And we did indeed find it.

    那七噸氧氣到底去哪了。

  • And we found it in the concrete.

    我們的確找到了它。

  • Essentially it had done something very simple.

    我們是在水泥裡找到的。

  • We had put too much carbon in the soil in the form of compost.

    基本上, 那很簡單。

  • It broke down; it took oxygen out of the air;

    我們以堆肥方式在土壤裡存了太多的碳。

  • it put CO2 into the air; and it went into the concrete.

    它分解了,把空氣中的氧氣帶走了。

  • Pretty straightforward really.

    把二氧化碳放入空氣,然後它又跑進水泥裡。

  • So at the end of the two years

    其實十分直截了當。

  • when we came out, we were elated,

    所以在兩年後,