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  • "Jó napot, pacák" Which, as somebody here must surely know,

    譯者: Eric Hsieh 審譯者: Zhu Jie

  • means "What's up, guys?" in Magyar,

    "Yo napot, pacak!" 在座一定有人知道,

  • that peculiar non-Indo-European language spoken by Hungarians

    在匈牙利語是"大家好"的意思

  • for which, given the fact that cognitive diversity is

    這種罕見的非印歐語系的語言來自匈牙利

  • at least as threatened as biodiversity on this planet,

    事實上認知多樣性與生物多樣性

  • few would have imagined much of a future even a century or two ago.

    在這地球上受到同樣的威脅

  • But there it is: "Jó napot, pacák"

    一兩世紀以前很少人會想像未來是如何的

  • I said somebody here must surely know, because

    但我們還是可以聽到"大家好"

  • despite the fact that there aren't that many Hungarians to begin with,

    我剛剛說在座一定有人知道,因為

  • and the further fact that, so far as I know, there's not a drop

    事實上匈牙利不是一個人口眾多得民族

  • of Hungarian blood in my veins, at every critical juncture of my life

    而且就我所知,我完全沒有匈牙利的血统,

  • there has been a Hungarian friend or mentor there beside me.

    但在我生命中重要的時候

  • I even have dreams that take place in landscapes

    都會有一位匈牙利朋友和導師,在我後面支持我。

  • I recognize as the landscapes of Hungarian films,

    我甚至會夢到匈牙利的風景

  • especially the early movies of Miklos Jancso.

    我在匈牙利電影中得景象,

  • So, how do I explain this mysterious affinity?

    特别是那些Miklos Jancso早期的電影。

  • Maybe it's because my native state of South Carolina,

    我要如何和解釋這些神奇得關係呢?

  • which is not much smaller than present-day Hungary,

    也許這是我來是南卡羅來納州,

  • once imagined a future for itself as an independent country.

    他的面積與現在匈牙利相當,

  • And as a consequence of that presumption,

    我曾經想像未來他會成為一個獨立的國家

  • my hometown was burned to the ground by an invading army,

    跟這樣得結果推測,

  • an experience that has befallen many a Hungarian town and village

    我的家鄉被軍人夷為平地

  • throughout its long and troubled history.

    許多匈牙利的城鎮香村,在漫長得歷史上,也受過外敵入侵,

  • Or maybe it's because when I was a teenager back in the '50s,

    也有過這樣糟糕的經驗。

  • my uncle Henry -- having denounced the Ku Klux Klan

    或又在那五十年代,當我還是十幾來歲時,

  • and been bombed for his trouble and had crosses burned in his yard,

    我的叔叔亨利,曾被3K黨譴折過

  • living under death threat -- took his wife and children to Massachusetts for safety

    和受到攻擊及在他的後院燃燒十字架,

  • and went back to South Carolina to face down the Klan alone.

    在生活中充滿死亡的威脅,為了安全的考量帶著他的妻子和小孩到麻州

  • That was a very Hungarian thing to do,

    之後一個人回到南卡羅納州對抗3K黨。

  • as anyone will attest who remembers 1956.

    那是ㄧ種很匈牙利的行為,

  • And of course, from time to time Hungarians

    任何記的1956年的人都可以證明。

  • have invented their own equivalent of the Klan.

    當然,匈牙利人有時候

  • Well, it seems to me that this Hungarian presence in my life

    也組成相當於3K黨的組織

  • is difficult to account for, but ultimately I ascribe it to an admiration

    這對我來說匈牙利人一直都存在我得生命中

  • for people with a complex moral awareness,

    這很難去計算的,最終我把他

  • with a heritage of guilt and defeat matched by defiance and bravado.

    歸為複雜的道德意識的欽佩

  • It's not a typical mindset for most Americans,

    他們繼承內就與失敗,卻同時戴著藐視及勇氣。

  • but it is perforce typical of virtually all Hungarians.

    這不是大部分美國人心態

  • So, "Jó napot, pacák!"

    但這卻是匈牙利典型的心態。

  • I went back to South Carolina after some 15 years amid the alien corn

    所以,"Yo napot, pacak!"

  • at the tail end of the 1960s,

    我在約15年後從異鄉返回到南卡邏萊納州,

  • with the reckless condescension of that era

    那是在60年代後期,

  • thinking I would save my people.

    懷抱著那個年代的魯莽和自以爲是,

  • Never mind the fact that they were slow to acknowledge they needed saving.

    心想我會拯救自己的同胞,

  • I labored in that vineyard for a quarter century before

    也不管他們很遲才會承認他們需要被拯救。

  • making my way to a little kingdom of the just in upstate South Carolina,

    我在那個葡萄園勞作過四分之一個世紀,

  • a Methodist-affiliated institution of higher learning called Wofford College.

    前往南卡羅萊納州北部的一個小王國,

  • I knew nothing about Wofford

    壹所名爲Wofford College的衛理公會附屬高等教育機構。

  • and even less about Methodism,

    我對Wofford壹無所知,

  • but I was reassured on the first day that I taught at Wofford College

    對衛理公會更是毫無概念,

  • to find, among the auditors in my classroom,

    但是在我任教Wofford College的第一天,我就感到放心,

  • a 90-year-old Hungarian, surrounded by a bevy of middle-aged European women

    我在教室裏的旁聽者中發現,

  • who seemed to function as an entourage of Rhinemaidens.

    一位90高齡的匈牙利人,被一群中年歐洲婦女圍繞,

  • His name was Sandor Teszler.

    她們就像一群隨從的萊茵河少女。

  • He was a puckish widower whose wife and children were dead

    他名叫Sandor Teszler。

  • and whose grandchildren lived far away.

    他是個淘氣的人,他的妻兒都已離世了

  • In appearance, he resembled Mahatma Gandhi,

    而他的孫子又住得很遠的地方。

  • minus the loincloth, plus orthopedic boots.

    他的外表看起來就像甘地...

  • He had been born in 1903 in the provinces

    只是少了遮羞布,和多了矯形靴子。

  • of the old Austro-Hungarian Empire,

    他出生在1903年的奧匈帝國,

  • in what later would become Yugoslavia.

    他出生的省份,

  • He was ostracized as a child, not because he was a Jew --

    後來會成爲南斯拉夫。

  • his parents weren't very religious anyhow --

    他自小就被排斥,而那不是因為他是猶太人...

  • but because he had been born with two club feet,

    不管怎麽說他的父母也不是虔誠的猶太教徒...

  • a condition which, in those days, required institutionalization

    他被排斥是因爲他天生雙足畸形,

  • and a succession of painful operations between the ages of one and 11.

    在那個年代,像他這樣的小孩必須送進治療院,

  • He went to the commercial business high school as a young man

    必須在1歲到11歲接受痛苦的治療。

  • in Budapest, and there he was as smart as he was modest

    他年輕時到布達佩斯上商業專科學校,

  • and he enjoyed a considerable success. And after graduation

    他是個聰明謙虛的學生,

  • when he went into textile engineering, the success continued.

    在學校裏相當的成功,畢業以後,

  • He built one plant after another.

    他進入紡織行業,同樣獲得了成功。

  • He married and had two sons. He had friends in high places who

    他蓋了一家又一家的工廠,

  • assured him that he was of great value to the economy.

    結了婚,生了兩個小孩。他有身居高位的朋友,

  • Once, as he had left instructions to have done,

    使他確信自己對經濟有很大的價值貢獻。

  • he was summoned in the middle of the night by the night watchman at one of his plants.

    有一次,順著他的指示,

  • The night watchman had caught an employee who was stealing socks --

    他壹間工廠的夜間看守人在半夜把他召去。

  • it was a hosiery mill, and he simply backed a truck up to the loading dock

    那個夜間看守人逮到了一個偷襪子的工人...

  • and was shoveling in mountains of socks.

    那是個針織廠,那個工人把卡車退到裝卸口

  • Mr. Teszler went down to the plant and confronted the thief and said,

    在那裏鏟起堆積成山的襪子。

  • "But why do you steal from me? If you need money you have only to ask."

    Mr. Teszler 走下工場面對小偷說,

  • The night watchman, seeing how things were going and waxing indignant,

    為什麼妳要偷我的東西呢?如果妳需要錢的話

  • said, "Well, we're going to call the police, aren't we?"

    晚上值班的保全,憤怒的看了整件事情得經過,

  • But Mr. Teszler answered, "No, that will not be necessary.

    他說我們是否該叫警察來呢?

  • He will not steal from us again."

    但Mr. Teszler 說不了不需要。

  • Well, maybe he was too trusting, because he stayed where he was

    他不會偷我們的東西了。

  • long after the Nazi Anschluss in Austria

    也許他太相信他人了,因為,德國納粹住進奧地利一段時間

  • and even after the arrests and deportations began in Budapest.

    還留在奧地利不走,

  • He took the simple precaution of having cyanide capsules placed in lockets

    甚至有些Budapest的人民被拘留和流放。

  • that could be worn about the necks of himself and his family.

    Mr. Teszler 早已準備好氫氧化物在身邊。

  • And then one day, it happened: he and his family were arrested

    以被他合家人不實之需。

  • and they were taken to a death house on the Danube.

    然後,有一天事情真得發生了:他和他的家人被抓了,

  • In those early days of the Final Solution, it was handcrafted brutality;

    他們被帶到多瑙河旁的死亡之屋,

  • people were beaten to death and their bodies tossed into the river.

    幾天前這裡的情況是慘不人睹

  • But none who entered that death house had ever come out alive.

    人們被打死後,師體直接被丟到河裡面--

  • And in a twist you would not believe in a Steven Spielberg film --

    而進入死亡之屋的人們幾乎沒有一格人存活。

  • the Gauleiter who was overseeing this brutal beating was the very same thief

    而情況的轉折比電影還要戲劇化,

  • who had stolen socks from Mr. Teszler's hosiery mill.

    監督這頓毒打的(納粹德國)長官,竟然就是

  • It was a brutal beating. And midway through that brutality,

    當初Teszler先生針織廠裏的的那個偷襪賊.

  • one of Mr. Teszler's sons, Andrew, looked up and said,

    被慘忍得暴行酷刑, Mr. Teszler's 的一個兒子 Andrew看不下去,

  • "Is it time to take the capsule now, Papa?"

    Andrew看著父親說,

  • And the Gauleiter, who afterwards vanishes from this story,

    走的時間到了喔,父親?

  • leaned down and whispered into Mr. Teszler's ear,

    納粹黨就從這裡離開了,

  • "No, do not take the capsule. Help is on the way."

    那賊已躺在那小聲的對 Mr. Teszler說

  • And then resumed the beating.

    別走,救援馬上就到了,

  • But help was on the way, and shortly afterwards

    然後毒打繼續。

  • a car arrived from the Swiss Embassy.

    救援正在趕來的路上

  • They were spirited to safety. They were reclassified as Yugoslav citizens

    一台從瑞士的大使來了。

  • and they managed to stay one step ahead of their pursuers

    他把他們帶到一個安全的地方。他們重新的規劃南斯拉夫,

  • for the duration of the War, surviving burnings and bombings

    在這戰真時期,他們比追兵提早一步管理這裡

  • and, at the end of the War, arrest by the Soviets.

    的一些爆炸知後的生還者

  • Probably, Mr. Teszler had gotten some money into Swiss bank accounts

    在戰爭結束時,Mr. Teszler被俄軍逮捕了。

  • because he managed to take his family first to Great Britain,

    因該是他在瑞士有大筆的存款

  • then to Long Island and then to the center of the textile industry in the American South.

    因為他和他的家人都逃到英國去了,

  • Which, as chance would have it, was Spartanburg, South Carolina,

    之後到長島,然後到美國南部紡織廠

  • the location of Wofford College.

    非常巧合的是,他到的就是南卡羅那纳州的斯帕坦堡

  • And there, Mr. Teszler began all over again and once again achieved immense success,

    就是在 Wofford大學的所在處。

  • especially after he invented the process

    在這裡,Mr. Teszler 他又重新開始,並且有獲得了成功,

  • for manufacturing a new fabric called double-knit.

    特別的是他又發明了一項產品

  • And then in the late 1950s, in the aftermath of Brown v. Board of Education,

    叫做雙針織品

  • when the Klan was resurgent all over the South,

    在1950末,布朗教育委員會案的影響下,

  • Mr. Teszler said, "I have heard this talk before."

    3K黨又在南邊復興了

  • And he called his top assistant to him and asked,

    Mr. Teszler說"我已經聽說了"

  • "Where would you say, in this region, racism is most virulent?"

    他問他的高級助理,

  • "Well, I don't rightly know, Mr. Teszler. I reckon that would be Kings Mountain."

    妳說哪裡是種族歧視最嚴重的地方?

  • "Good. Buy us some land in Kings Mountain

    恩...Mr.Teszler我不確定耶.有可能是Kings山

  • and announce we are going to build a major plant there."

    很好,到Kings山那買ㄧ些地,

  • The man did as he was told, and shortly afterwards,

    然後宣布我們要在那蓋大房子。

  • Mr. Teszler received a visit from the white mayor of Kings Mountain.

    住裡把事情都除裡好,沒多久

  • Now, you should know that at that time,

    Mr. Teszler就接受Kings山的白人市長邀請。

  • the textile industry in the South was notoriously segregated.

    妳知道那個年代

  • The white mayor visited Mr. Teszler and said,

    南部的紡織業種族歧視非常的嚴重

  • "Mr. Teszler, I trust you're going to be hiring a lot of white workers."

    那白人市長對 Mr. Teszler 說,

  • Mr. Teszler told him, "You bring me the best workers that you can find,

    我相信妳因該會雇用很多白種人當工人

  • and if they are good enough, I will hire them."

    Mr. Teszler 跟他說,妳把這裡最好的工人給我找來

  • He also received a visit from the leader of the black community,

    如果他們都很優秀,我會雇用他們,

  • a minister, who said, "Mr. Teszler, I sure hope you're going to

    Mr. Teszler 也受到了黑人社區領導人的邀請,

  • hire some black workers for this new plant of yours."

    有一個部長說Mr. Teszler我相信妳會

  • He got the same answer: "You bring the best workers that you can find,

    去雇用ㄧ些黑人工作者。

  • and if they are good enough, I will hire them."

    他跟他說,把妳這最好的工人給帶來,

  • As it happens, the black minister did his job better than the white mayor,

    如果他們都很優秀的話,我會雇用他們。

  • but that's neither here or there.

    事實上黑人部長比白人市長能幹,

  • Mr. Teszler hired 16 men: eight white, eight black.

    但他們勢均力敵。

  • They were to be his seed group, his future foremen.

    Mr.Teszler雇用了16個男人,8個白人,8個黑人。

  • He had installed the heavy equipment for his new process

    他們會成為以後的組長公司的核心。

  • in an abandoned store in the vicinity of Kings Mountain,

    他們引進了大型機器在

  • and for two months these 16 men would live and work together,

    在Kings山附近的廢棄工廠,

  • mastering the new process.

    接下來兩隔月我要這16個人一起工作一起生活,

  • He gathered them together after an initial tour of that facility

    熟悉這心得工作

  • and he asked if there were any questions.

    Mr.Teszler 把他們及合在一起

  • There was hemming and hawing and shuffling of feet,

    問他們有沒有什麼疑問。

  • and then one of the white workers stepped forward and said,

    這些工人欲言又止

  • "Well, yeah. We've looked at this place and there's only one place to sleep,

    終於有ㄧ位站出來說白人說

  • there's only one place to eat, there's only one bathroom,

    恩..我們被關在這個地方--睡覺的地方只有一個,

  • there's only one water fountain. Is this plant going to be integrated or what?"

    吃東西的地方和廁所也只有一個,

  • Mr. Teszler said, "You are being paid twice the wages of any other textile workers in this region

    也只有一個飲水的地方,這間工廠是要給我們隔離起來嗎?

  • and this is how we do business. Do you have any other questions?"

    Mr. Teszler 說你們在這已經拿了別人兩倍的薪水了

  • "No, I reckon I don't."

    我們就是這樣晚裡的,還有什麼問題呢?

  • And two months later when the main plant opened

    我覺得沒有了。

  • and hundreds of new workers, white and black,

    兩個月過後,開始營業

  • poured in to see the facility for the first time,

    有上百位的黑人白人的員工,

  • they were met by the 16 foremen, white and black, standing shoulder to shoulder.

    蜂擁而至這家工廠來參觀,