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  • How many Creationists do we have in the room?

    譯者: Wang Qian 審譯者: Wenjer Leuschel

  • Probably none. I think we're all Darwinians.

    我們這兒有多少神創論者?

  • And yet many Darwinians are anxious, a little uneasy --

    可能沒有。估計在座都是達爾文主義者。

  • would like to see some limits on just how far the Darwinism goes.

    不過,許多達爾文主義者都有點急切不安,

  • It's all right.

    想看看達爾文主義的極限,看它到底能走多遠。

  • You know spiderwebs? Sure, they are products of evolution.

    這沒有問題。

  • The World Wide Web? Not so sure.

    你們知道蜘蛛網嗎?當然了,這是進化來的。

  • Beaver dams, yes. Hoover Dam, no.

    全球資訊網呢?不太確定。

  • What do they think it is that prevents the products of human ingenuity

    水獺壩,是。 胡佛大壩,不是。

  • from being themselves, fruits of the tree of life,

    到底是什麼讓人認為人類的機靈智巧

  • and hence, in some sense, obeying evolutionary rules?

    不會是生命樹上長出來的果實

  • And yet people are interestingly resistant

    因此在某種意義上並不遵守進化的法則呢?

  • to the idea of applying evolutionary thinking to thinking -- to our thinking.

    然而有趣的是,人們抵制這樣的想法:

  • And so I'm going to talk a little bit about that,

    抵制把進化論應用到思維上—應用到我們的思維上。

  • keeping in mind that we have a lot on the program here.

    我將對此發表一些看法,

  • So you're out in the woods, or you're out in the pasture,

    同時提醒自己,節目上還有許多其他的東西。

  • and you see this ant crawling up this blade of grass.

    你到森林裏或到田園中,

  • It climbs up to the top, and it falls,

    你看見一隻螞蟻爬上一片草葉。

  • and it climbs, and it falls, and it climbs --

    它爬到頂上,又落下來,

  • trying to stay at the very top of the blade of grass.

    然後又爬到頂,又落下來,然後又再爬—

  • What is this ant doing? What is this in aid of?

    總想停留在草葉的最尖端

  • What goals is this ant trying to achieve by climbing this blade of grass?

    它在幹嘛?它想做什麼?

  • What's in it for the ant?

    試圖爬到草葉尖端,它想達到什麼目的?

  • And the answer is: nothing. There's nothing in it for the ant.

    這對它有什麼好處呢?

  • Well then, why is it doing this?

    答案是:沒有。對它而言,什麼好處也沒有。

  • Is it just a fluke?

    那為什麼要這樣做呢?

  • Yeah, it's just a fluke. It's a lancet fluke.

    那只是碰巧嗎?

  • It's a little brain worm.

    沒錯,正是碰巧,碰巧是枝雙腔吸蟲。

  • It's a parasitic brain worm that has to get into the stomach of a sheep or a cow

    在大腦裏的小蟲。

  • in order to continue its life cycle.

    這種大腦裏的蟲要鑽進羊或牛的肚子裏,

  • Salmon swim upstream to get to their spawning grounds,

    好繼續它的生命週期。

  • and lancet flukes commandeer a passing ant,

    三文魚逆流而上要到產卵場,

  • crawl into its brain, and drive it up a blade of grass like an all-terrain vehicle.

    枝雙腔吸蟲霸佔一隻路過的螞蟻,

  • So there's nothing in it for the ant.

    爬進它的大腦,像駕著越野車,使它爬上草葉頂端。

  • The ant's brain has been hijacked by a parasite that infects the brain,

    因此對螞蟻來說,什麼好處都沒有。

  • inducing suicidal behavior.

    這隻螞蟻的大腦被寄生蟲劫持了,

  • Pretty scary.

    導致它的自殺行為。

  • Well, does anything like that happen with human beings?

    相當可怕。

  • This is all on behalf of a cause other than one's own genetic fitness, of course.

    那麼,類似的事情會發生在人的身上嗎?

  • Well, it may already have occurred to you

    這種事情當然不會是順著人的基因特性而發生的。

  • that Islam means "surrender," or "submission of self-interest to the will of Allah."

    你可能已經想到

  • Well, it's ideas -- not worms -- that hijack our brains.

    「伊斯蘭」即是「服從」,或是說「為服從真主的意志而放棄自我利益」。

  • Now, am I saying that a sizable minority of the world's population

    劫持我們大腦的是思想,不是蟲子。

  • has had their brain hijacked by parasitic ideas?

    那我是不是在說,世界人口的一小部分

  • No, it's worse than that.

    大腦已經被寄生思想劫持了呢?

  • Most people have.

    不是,比這還糟糕呢。

  • (Laughter)

    大部分的人都已經被劫持了。

  • There are a lot of ideas to die for.

    (笑聲)

  • Freedom, if you're from New Hampshire.

    有許多思想會教人獻身。

  • (Laughter)

    比方說自由—如果你來自新罕布夏的話。

  • Justice. Truth. Communism.

    (笑聲)

  • Many people have laid down their lives for communism,

    正義、真理、共產主義。

  • and many have laid down their lives for capitalism.

    許多人為共產主義捐軀,

  • And many for Catholicism. And many for Islam.

    也有許多人為資本主義捐軀。

  • These are just a few of the ideas that are to die for.

    許多人為天主教獻身,也有許多為伊斯蘭。

  • They're infectious.

    這些只是一小部分會教人獻身的思想。

  • Yesterday, Amory Lovins spoke about "infectious repititis."

    它們都具有傳染性。

  • It was a term of abuse, in effect.

    昨天,阿莫銳•陸文斯提到「傳染性的複製品」。

  • This is unthinking engineering.

    那其實是個貶義詞。

  • Well, most of the cultural spread that goes on

    是未經思考的工程設計。

  • is not brilliant, new, out-of-the-box thinking.

    瞧,大部分文化的傳播

  • It's "infectious repetitis,"

    並非什麼了不得、嶄新、開箱即用的思想。

  • and we might as well try to have a theory of what's going on when that happens

    都只是傳染性的複製品。

  • so that we can understand the conditions of infection.

    也許可以找出一套解釋發生這種現象的理論,

  • Hosts work hard to spread these ideas to others.

    讓人能理解傳染性所需的條件。

  • I myself am a philosopher, and one of our occupational hazards

    寄主努力傳播那些思想給他人。

  • is that people ask us what the meaning of life is.

    我自己是個哲學家,我們這行的公害之一

  • And you have to have a bumper sticker,

    即是總有人要問我們生命的意義是什麼。

  • you know. You have to have a statement.

    大家知道,你得在防撞桿上貼一張貼紙,

  • So, this is mine.

    你得貼上某種宣言式的東西。

  • The secret of happiness is: Find something more important than you are

    好,我的是這個。

  • and dedicate your life to it.

    幸福的秘密在於:尋找某種比你更重要的東西,

  • Most of us -- now that the "Me Decade" is well in the past --

    並將生命投入其中。

  • now we actually do this.

    我們之中的大多數—「我」的時代已經過去了—

  • One set of ideas or another

    都確實身體力行。

  • have simply replaced our biological imperatives in our own lives.

    這一套或那一套理論

  • This is what our summum bonum is.

    取代了我們生命中的生物性使命。

  • It's not maximizing the number of grandchildren we have.

    這是我們存在的最高價值。

  • Now, this is a profound biological effect.

    不在於金玉滿堂。

  • It's the subordination of genetic interest to other interests.

    請注意,這是意義深刻的生物性效應。

  • And no other species does anything at all like it.

    這是基因利益對其他利益的屈服。

  • Well, how are we going to think about this?

    沒有任何其他物種會這麼做。

  • It is, on the one hand, a biological effect, and a very large one.

    那我們對此該作何感想?

  • Unmistakable.

    這一方面是生物性的效應,影響很大。

  • Now, what theories do we want to use to look at this?

    毫無疑問。

  • Well, many theories. But how could something tie them together?

    我們用什麼理論來探查它呢?

  • The idea of replicating ideas;

    嗯,不少呢。但如何一言以蔽之呢?

  • ideas that replicate by passing from brain to brain.

    那就是「複制思想」的概念,

  • Richard Dawkins, whom you'll be hearing later in the day, invented the term "memes,"

    即傳遞於大腦之間而得到複製的那些思想。

  • and put forward the first really clear and vivid version of this idea

    你們今天稍後會聽到理查•道金斯的演講,他發明「模因」這個詞,

  • in his book "The Selfish Gene."

    而且是在他的《自私的基因》這本書裏第一個清晰生動地

  • Now here am I talking about his idea.

    闡釋這個概念的人。

  • Well, you see, it's not his. Yes -- he started it.

    我在這裏說他的思想。

  • But it's everybody's idea now.

    當然也知道這已經不是他的了。沒錯—他是思想的創始人。

  • And he's not responsible for what I say about memes.

    但這個思想現在已經是所有人的。

  • I'm responsible for what I say about memes.

    他不必為我所說的模因負責。

  • Actually, I think we're all responsible

    我所說的模因由我自己負責。

  • for not just the intended effects of our ideas,

    事實上,我認為我們都要負責,

  • but for their likely misuses.

    不僅要為我們的思想所要達到的效果負責,

  • So it is important, I think, to Richard, and to me,

    也要為它們可能會被誤用而負責。

  • that these ideas not be abused and misused.

    所以我想,對我和理查(道金斯)重要的是,

  • They're very easy to misuse. That's why they're dangerous.

    確保這些想法不會被濫用或被誤用。

  • And it's just about a full-time job

    它們很容易被誤用。這也是它們的危險之處。

  • trying to prevent people who are scared of these ideas

    這幾乎是一份全職的工作:

  • from caricaturing them and then running off to one dire purpose or another.

    要防止害怕這些想法的人

  • So we have to keep plugging away,

    醜化這些思想,然後嚇跑了,去做出一件又一件可怕的事。

  • trying to correct the misapprehensions

    所以我們必須堅持不懈,

  • so that only the benign and useful variants of our ideas continue to spread.

    不斷試圖矯正各種誤解,

  • But it is a problem.

    確保只有在我們思想中有用的、無害的部分得到傳播。

  • We don't have much time, and I'm going to go over just a little bit of this and cut out,

    但這是個問題。

  • because there's a lot of other things that are going to be said.

    我們的時間不多了,所以我只說一點就打住,

  • So let me just point out: memes are like viruses.

    因為我還有許多其他的東西要說。

  • That's what Richard said, back in '93.

    那麼讓我指出:模因如同病毒。

  • And you might think, "Well, how can that be?

    這是理查93年就說過的。

  • I mean, a virus is -- you know, it's stuff! What's a meme made of?"

    你可能會想:這怎麼可能?

  • Yesterday, Negroponte was talking about viral telecommunications

    我是說大家都知道,病毒是「物質」!模因是什麼構成的呢?

  • but -- what's a virus?

    昨天,尼葛洛龐帝提到病毒電子通訊,

  • A virus is a string of nucleic acid with attitude.

    可是—病毒是什麼?

  • (Laughter)

    病毒是一串具有態度的核酸。

  • That is, there is something about it

    (笑聲)

  • that tends to make it replicate better than the competition does.

    也就是說, 它具有某種東西,

  • And that's what a meme is. It's an information packet with attitude.

    這東西使它在複製的競賽中脫穎而出。

  • What's a meme made of? What are bits made of, Mom?

    這也就是模因,它是一包有態度的資訊。

  • Not silicon.

    模因是什麼構成的呢?「媽,比特是什麼構成的呢?」

  • They're made of information, and can be carried in any physical medium.

    反正不是矽。

  • What's a word made of?

    它們是資訊構成的,載體可以是任何物理媒介。

  • Sometimes when people say, "Do memes exist?"

    單詞是什麼構成的呢?

  • I say, "Well, do words exist? Are they in your ontology?"

    有時會有人問:「模因存在嗎?」

  • If they are, words are memes that can be pronounced.

    我說:「單詞存在嗎?它們存在於你的存有論中嗎?」

  • Then there's all the other memes that can't be pronounced.

    若是存在,那麼單詞就是可以被發出聲音的模因。

  • There are different species of memes.

    那麼也有其他不能被發出聲音的模因。

  • Remember the Shakers? Gift to be simple?

    它們是模因中的不同物種。

  • Simple, beautiful furniture?

    還記得震教徒嗎?天賦簡樸?

  • And, of course, they're basically extinct now.

    簡單而漂亮的傢俱?

  • And one of the reasons is that among the creed of Shaker-dom

    當然了,他們基本上已經滅絕了。

  • is that one should be celibate.

    其中一個原因是,他們的信條之中

  • Not just the priests. Everybody.

    有一條要求獨身。

  • Well, it's not so surprising that they've gone extinct. (Laughter)

    不光是牧師,所有的人都要。

  • But in fact that's not why they went extinct.

    嗯,難怪他們滅絕了(笑聲)

  • They survived as long as they did

    事實上,這不是他們消失的原因。

  • at a time when the social safety nets weren't there.

    他們維持了很久。

  • And there were lots of widows and orphans,

    那時候還沒有社會保障制度,

  • people like that, who needed a foster home.

    有許多鰥夫寡婦和孤兒,

  • And so they had a ready supply of converts.

    像這樣需要被收容的人。

  • And they could keep it going.

    因此他們有一個皈依信徒的供應鏈。

  • And, in principle, it could've gone on forever,

    所以他們能夠繼續存在。

  • with perfect celibacy on the part of the hosts.

    理論上可以直到永遠。

  • The idea being passed on through proselytizing,

    儘管寄主們都是獨身的,

  • instead of through the gene line.

    思想經由皈依得到傳遞,

  • So the ideas can live on in spite of the fact

    不是經由基因遺傳,

  • that they're not being passed on genetically.

    因此思想可以一直傳播下去,

  • A meme can flourish in spite of having a negative impact on genetic fitness.

    儘管並不經由遺傳。

  • After all, the meme for Shaker-dom was essentially a sterilizing parasite.

    即使模因對基因的適應性有負面影響,還是能夠繁衍;

  • There are other parasites that do this -- which render the host sterile.

    畢竟震教徒們的模因,本質上是令人絕育的寄生蟲。

  • It's part of their plan.

    還有許多這種讓寄主不育的寄生蟲。

  • They don't have to have minds to have a plan.

    它們的計畫就是如此。

  • I'm just going to draw your attention to just one

    它們不需要心靈來做計畫。

  • of the many implications of the memetic perspective, which I recommend.

    從觀察模因的角度來看,在其眾多的意涵中,

  • I've not time to go into more of it.

    我只指出一個我認為必須留意的意涵。

  • In Jared Diamond's wonderful book, "Guns, Germs and Steel,"

    我沒有時間多說。

  • he talks about how it was germs, more than guns and steel,

    在賈雷德•戴蒙德《槍炮,細菌和鋼鐵》這本奇書中,

  • that conquered the new hemisphere -- the Western hemisphere --

    他談到為什麼是細菌,而非槍炮和鋼鐵

  • that conquered the rest of the world.

    征服了新半球—也就是西半球—

  • When European explorers and travelers spread out,

    然後西半球又征服了世界的其他部分。

  • they brought with them the germs

    當歐洲的探險家和旅行者們分散出去,

  • that they had become essentially immune to,

    他們隨身帶去

  • that they had learned how to tolerate over

    他們已經形成免疫力的細菌;

  • hundreds and hundreds of years, thousands of years,

    好幾百、上千年來,他們已經學會了

  • of living with domesticated animals who were the sources of those pathogens.

    和那些細菌相安無事;

  • And they just wiped out -- these pathogens just wiped out the native people,

    他們和帶有病原體的馴養動物一起生活,

  • who had no immunity to them at all.

    然後它們—那些病原體—徹底摧毀了原住民

  • And we're doing it again.

    因為原住民對它們毫無免疫力

  • We're doing it this time with toxic ideas.

    現在我們又在做同樣的事

  • Yesterday, a number of people -- Nicholas Negroponte and others --

    這次我們用的是有毒的思想。

  • spoke about all the wonderful things

    昨天,尼古拉斯•尼葛洛龐帝等人

  • that are happening when our ideas get spread out,

    說到這些奇妙的事情,

  • thanks to all the new technology all over the world.

    這些在思想傳播出去時會發生的事情。

  • And I agree. It is largely wonderful. Largely wonderful.

    這要歸功於整個世界的新科學技術。

  • But among all those ideas that inevitably flow out into the whole world

    這點我同意;絕大部分都是美妙的—絕大部分。

  • thanks to our technology, are a lot of toxic ideas.

    可是,當它們無可避免地傳遍全世界時,

  • Now, this has been realized for some time.

    也夾帶大量有毒的思想—同樣歸功於我們的科技。

  • Sayyid Qutb is one of the founding fathers of fanatical Islam,

    這已經發生一段時間了。

  • one of the ideologues that inspired Osama bin Laden.

    薩伊德•庫是狂熱伊斯蘭教的創始人之一,

  • "One has only to glance at its press films, fashion shows, beauty contests,

    也是奧薩馬•賓拉登的靈感源泉之一。

  • ballrooms, wine bars and broadcasting stations." Memes.

    「看看他們的新聞、電影、時裝表演、選美比賽、

  • These memes are spreading around the world

    舞會大廳、葡萄酒吧和廣播電臺」。這些是模因。

  • and they are wiping out whole cultures.

    模因正傳遍全世界,

  • They are wiping out languages.

    消滅整個整個的文化,

  • They are wiping out traditions and practices.

    消滅語言,

  • And it's not our fault, anymore than it's our fault when our germs lay waste

    消滅傳統和習俗。

  • to people that haven't developed the immunity.

    這不能怪我們,正如同我們的細菌摧毀原住民那樣,

  • We have an immunity to all of the junk that lies around the edges of our culture.

    也不是我們的錯。

  • We're a free society, so we let pornography and all these things -- we shrug them off.

    對我們自己文化邊緣的各種破銅爛鐵,我們都具有免疫力。

  • They're like a mild cold.

    我們是自由的社會,色情等等東西,我們不在乎。

  • They're not a big deal for us.

    那些東西像是輕微的感冒。

  • But we should recognize that for many people in the world,

    沒什麼大不了。

  • they are a big deal.

    但我們應當意識到,對世界上許多人而言,

  • And we should be very alert to this.

    這可是至關重要的。

  • As we spread our education and our technology,

    我們應該保持高度警惕,

  • one of the things that we are doing is we're the vectors of memes

    在我們傳播教育和科技時,

  • that are correctly viewed by the hosts of many other memes

    我們就成了模因的帶原媒介,

  • as a dire threat to their favorite memes --

    其他模因的寄主們當然要將我們視為敵人,

  • the memes that they are prepared to die for.

    嚴重威脅到他們所愛之模因的敵人—

  • Well now, how are we going to tell the good memes from the bad memes?

    那是他們願意為之捐軀獻身的模因。

  • That is not the job of the science of memetics.

    那麼,如何區分模因的好壞呢?

  • Memetics is morally neutral. And so it should be.

    這並不是模因學的工作。

  • This is not the place for hate and anger.

    模因學在道德上是中性的,而且理應如此。

  • If you've had a friend who's died of AIDS, then you hate HIV.

    這裏沒有喜怒愛憎。

  • But the way to deal with that is to do science,

    如果你有朋友死于愛滋,你會恨HIV。

  • and understand how it spreads and why in a morally neutral perspective.

    但對付病毒要用科學的方法,

  • Get the facts.

    從中立的角度,探究病毒為何、如何傳播,

  • Work out the implications.

    實事求是,

  • There's plenty of room for moral passion once we've got the facts

    探明意涵;

  • and can figure out the best thing to do.

    有了事實,道德情感自然有發揮的空間,

  • And, as with germs, the trick is not to try to annihilate them.

    然後再決定該做什麼。

  • You will never annihilate the germs.

    對於細菌,秘訣在於不要試圖消滅它們。

  • What you can do, however, is foster public health measures and the like

    你永遠消滅不了細菌。

  • that will encourage the evolution of avirulence.

    你能做的就是加強公共衛生之類的措施,

  • That will encourage the spread of relatively benign mutations

    那會激勵病毒毒性的演化。

  • of the most toxic varieties.

    那會激勵毒性最烈的病毒只散播出

  • That's all the time I have,

    毒性較弱的變種。

  • so thank you very much for your attention.

    我的時間就到此為止,

How many Creationists do we have in the room?

譯者: Wang Qian 審譯者: Wenjer Leuschel

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 思想 病毒 細菌 傳播 大腦

【TED】丹-丹尼特:危險的備忘錄(危險的備忘錄|丹-丹尼特)。 (【TED】Dan Dennett: Dangerous memes (Dangerous memes | Dan Dennett))

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    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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