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  • Hey, Vsauce. Michael here.

    嘿,Vsauce 觀眾們,我是 Michael

  • Why do humans wear clothing?

    人類為什麼要穿衣服?

  • Sure, we need it for protection from the elements and fashion, to show our personalities,

    當然,我們需要衣服的保護以免受物質的傷害,還有時尚以表現人格特質

  • but no other animal makes and wears clothing.

    但沒有其他動物會製作和穿著衣服

  • More importantly, why do we feel embarrassed to be naked around other people?

    更重要的是,為什麼在別人面前裸體會使我們感到難為情?

  • The word "embarrassed" comes from the Portuguese route,

    「embarrassed (窘迫)」這個字源自於葡萄牙語

  • "embaraça", which means to entangle or entwine.

    「embaraça」,意思是糾纏或纏繞

  • And feeling embarrassed often feels like being tied up or exposed.

    而難為情的感覺就像是被綑綁或暴露

  • But how can a healthy amount of embarrassment be a sign

    但適量的窘迫如何指示

  • that you are likeable, forgivable, and trustworthy.

    你是令人喜歡的、可寬恕的、並且值得信任的

  • This t-shirt and hoodie come from the YouTube Space LA,

    這件 T 恤和連帽外套來自洛杉磯 YouTube 空間

  • which opened in November of 2012.

    該店開張於 2012 年 11 月

  • But clothing has been around a lot longer than that,

    但是衣物存在時間比那長得多

  • for at least the last 100,000 years.

    至少存在於過去十萬年

  • Clothing protects us from the cold, from rain, from the Sun

    衣物保護我們免受風寒、避雨、遮陽

  • and it can also be an ornament.

    也可以是裝飾

  • A way of accentuating certain parts of our bodies or showing off wealth, status.

    一個突顯身體某部位的方式或炫耀財富、地位

  • It can even help us build our own identities.

    甚至可以幫助我們建立個人身分

  • But today I'm interested in another use of clothing, modesty.

    但今天我對衣服的另一項用途感興趣 — 羞怯

  • Why are humans afraid to be naked?

    為什麼人們害怕裸體?

  • Why are we ashamed of nudity?

    為什麼我們對於裸露感到羞愧?

  • Especially because animals pretty much walk around naked all the time.

    尤其是當動物幾乎總是光溜溜地走來走去

  • Why aren't animals embarrassed to be naked?

    為什麼動物不會為裸體感到難為情?

  • Well...

    嗯 ...

  • Let's take a closer look at "embarrassment."

    讓我們來細看「窘迫」

  • Embarrassment is a fascinating emotion and an extremely social one.

    窘迫是一種迷人且極為社會化的情緒

  • You don't really ever feel embarrassed alone, when no one's watching you or listening to you.

    你獨處時不會感覺到尷尬,沒有人在看你或聽你

  • So, embarrassment probably evolved because it is such a good influence on social cooperation.

    所以,窘迫有可能是因為對社交合作有好的影響而發展

  • We feel embarrassed when we violate little social rules of conduct

    當我們違反了一點社會行為規範,便會感到窘迫

  • and each of us individually hoping to avoid that,

    而我們每一個人都希望能避免那樣

  • to avoid embarrassment, has helped all of us live together better.

    避免窘迫,使我們所有人共同生活得更融洽

  • Healthy brains experience embarrassment.

    健康的大腦可感受到窘迫

  • Neurodegeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes can lead to less awareness of yourself.

    額葉和顳葉的神經變性

  • So a healthy amount of occasional embarrassment is a good thing.

    所以偶爾適量的窘迫是好事

  • It's a sign of a socially adept and normally functioning brain.

    這是擅長交際且運作正常的腦袋的象徵

  • A famous experiment involved participants watching an actor receive praise

    有一個有名的實驗讓參與者看一名演員

  • for achieving a very very high score on an exam.

    因考試得到極高分而受到稱讚

  • In some cases, the actor was told to feign pride in the achievement.

    在幾組中,演員被指示要為他的成就假裝驕傲

  • And in others, they acted embarrassed to have attention put on themselves.

    而其他組,他們因受到關注而表現得很不好意思

  • Later,

    接下來

  • the actors and the participants played games together

    演員和參與者一起玩遊戲

  • and the participants were more pro-social, friendly and cooperative with actors who earlier expressed embarrassment.

    而參與者對於先前表現出不好意思的演員更加親社會、友善且協調

  • It suggested that the actor was to be trusted, that they desired to fit in and work together.

    這意味著演員受到信任,他們渴望融入並合作

  • Now, the fact that embarrassment displays our knowledge of others and our desire to be liked may explain

    窘迫顯示了我們對他人的了解以及被喜歡的渴望,這或許可以解釋

  • why evoking embarrassment in others, whether it be flirtation or playful teasing, is so common

    為何當我們有點喜歡某人時,常常引起他人尷尬

  • when we kind of like the other person.

    不論是挑逗或是鬧著玩的戲弄

  • "Shame" is a stronger emotion. And shame, when it comes to our private parts,

    「羞恥」是更強烈的情緒。當論及我們的私處

  • the kind nearly every society - western or not - shares to some degree is related to the root of our question today: modesty.

    幾乎所有社會 - 西方或其他 - 在一定程度上與我們的今日問題根源有關 : 羞怯

  • Havelock Ellis' writing on the evolution of modesty is a bit antiquated when it comes to vocabulary,

    Havelock Ellis 有關羞怯演化的著作在詞彙上有點過時

  • but he discusses quite well.

    但他闡述得滿好的

  • Two possible reasons for our fear of nakedness,

    兩個我們懼怕赤裸的可能原因

  • both of which predate clothing and are not unique to humans.

    兩者都早於衣物而且非人類所獨有

  • The first is the vital phenomenon of "refusal."

    第一個是「拒絕」的重要現象

  • Before mating, many animals play a game of chase,

    在交配前,許多動物都會玩遊戲

  • hard to get,

    追不到

  • a game of acceptance and then flight,

    一場接受然後逃跑的遊戲

  • forcing the pursuer to keep up

    促使追求者加把勁

  • and prove their determination before being chosen as a desirable mate.

    並且在被選為理想伴侶前證明牠們的決心

  • So, when it comes to humans, we can think of clothing, paradoxically, as both a means of drawing attention to one's body

    那麼,至於人類,自相矛盾地,我們可以把衣物認為是引人注意你身體的方式

  • and simultaneously as a way to cover the body modestly,

    同時也是羞怯地遮掩身體的一種方式

  • making us less available to every and any potential mate, rendering, breeding more selective.

    使我們較不易遇上任何潛在交配對象,表現和繁衍方面都更有選擇

  • Ellis also mentions the fear of evoking disgust.

    Ellis 也提到了害怕引起厭惡

  • And it's easy to see why individuals of a species, who avoid things we consider disgusting, would survive better.

    這是很顯而易見的,一個物種中的個體,若能避免被厭惡的行為,便更適合生存

  • Fecal material, waste, rubbish, other bodily secretions can spread disease.

    排泄物、廢物、垃圾和其他身體分泌物可以傳播疾病

  • For instance,

    舉例來說

  • animals whose poop likely contains dangerous parasites avoid grazing around or hanging out around their waste.

    糞便可能含危險寄生蟲的動物會避免在牠們的糞便周圍吃草或閒逛

  • Habits like that lead to more sanitary conditions

    像那樣的習慣可使環境較為衛生

  • and a species more likely to survive.

    而且物種較容易存活

  • It's a satisfying piece of evidence as to why clothing once invented was so quickly used to cover private areas.

    這充分證明了為什麼衣物一被發明就被用來遮蓋私部

  • In 2009, the BBC investigated another influential factor - raising children.

    2009 年,BBC 調查了另一項影響因素 - 撫養小孩

  • In species where the young are born pretty much ready for life,

    在幼畜一出生便已對生命準備好的物種

  • it makes more sense to spend your time making babies,

    較為合理的是把時間花在製造小孩

  • as opposed to sitting around raising them. They don't need it.

    而非坐在一旁照顧他們。他們不需要

  • Super precocial animals, like the megapode, hatch with full flight feathers

    超級早熟的動物,像是塚雉,孵化時已長好羽毛

  • and can fly on their own within hours of hatching.

    而且在孵化後幾小時內就可以自己飛

  • Human babies, on the other hand, are pretty darn altricial.

    然而,人類嬰兒卻相當晚成

  • We are born barely able to do much besides swallow food put directly into our mouths.

    我們一出生幾乎什麼都不會,除了吞下直接送入我們口中的食物

  • Newborns can't walk or talk or cook meals for themselves or drive themselves to work.

    新生兒不會走路、說話或煮飯給自己吃,也不會開車去上班

  • It's ridiculous.

    太荒謬了

  • Why are human babies born so unready for life?

    為什麼人類小孩在尚未準備好的時候就出生了?

  • Why is so much development time still needed after human kids are born?

    為什麼人類小孩出生後仍需這麼多時間發育?

  • Well, one explanation is that it's because we are so brilliant.

    一種解釋是因為我們太聰明了

  • Brain size is correlated with the body size. Bigger bodies require bigger brains.

    腦部大小與體型相關,愈大的身體需要愈大的腦袋

  • The shrew has a smaller brain than a human, but us humans have smaller brains than whales.

    鼩鼱的腦袋比人類的小,但我們人類的腦袋比鯨魚的小

  • Of course, a bigger brain is not indicative of intelligence.

    當然,較大的腦袋並不代表智力

  • For one thing, larger animals literally just have more cells they need to worry about and control.

    一個原因是,大動物就只是有更多需要操心和控制的細胞

  • What matters more when it comes to intelligence is the proportion of brain size to body size.

    關於智力更重要的是腦與身體大小的比例

  • Compared to the size of our bodies,

    相較於我們的身體

  • our brains are gigantic, they're outliers, they're off the charts.

    我們的腦很巨大,它們是異類,超越了正常值

  • It's crazy. And a consequence of this is that in order to to have a brain as big as ours,

    太瘋狂了。而這個的一個後果是,為了要讓我們這麼大的腦

  • come out of a mother as small as a human,

    從人類這麼小的媽媽身體出來

  • we have to come out with brains that aren't fully formed. Brains and heads

    我們必須在大腦未完全形成時出生。腦和頭

  • that aren't as big as they will eventually grow to be.

    不會像它們終將長成的那樣大

  • And this is why human babies require so much care and so much time to develop

    而這就是為什麼人類嬰兒需要這麼多關照和這麼長的時間去發育

  • before their brains are ready for them to go off on their own.

    直到大腦準備好讓他們自立

  • Under this theory, being naked and mating all of the time might be a little bit less of a priority for humans.

    在這個理論下,時時刻刻裸體交配對人類來說可能不是個優先選項

  • Humans and societies that privilege modesty would have more time and resources to put toward raising children

    人類和重視羞怯的社會把更多時間和資源放在撫養小孩

  • and avoiding extra mates, instead of just conceiving more kids,

    並且避免額外的伴侶,讓孩子適當地發育並繁衍後代

  • allowing kids to develop properly and reproduce themselves.

    而不是只是懷有更多小孩

  • Clothing serves this purpose quite well.

    衣物將這個目的發揮得滿好的

  • It conceals the privates and allows more time to be spent on other things.

    遮擋私處讓我們有更多時間花在其他事情上

  • Clothes,

    衣物

  • clothing,

    服裝

  • may, in a way, actually be a consequence of our unique intelligence.

    可能,以某種方式,其實是我們獨特智力的結果

  • So the next time you put on clothes,

    所以下一次你穿衣服的時候

  • keep in mind that one of the reasons you're not running out into the world butt-naked is because you have such a big brain.

    記住你不光著屁股跑出去的其中一個原因,是因為你有如此大的腦袋

  • No matter how dumb the clothing is that you're putting on,

    不論你穿的衣服有多愚蠢

  • it's a reminder that we are smart.

    都是在提醒我們是有智慧的

  • And as always, thanks for watching.

    老樣子,感謝收看

  • Kevin, thank you for joining me. Thanks for having me.

    Kevin,謝謝你加入我。謝謝你的邀請

  • I hear that there is an insect wing that can naturally shred bacteria.

    我聽說有一種昆蟲的翅膀可以自然地切碎細菌

  • That's right. I talk all about that and other mind-blowing things over on Vsauce2 in the new episode of Mind Blow.

    沒錯。我會在 Vsauce2 的 Mind Blow 節目最新一集中談論這個以及其他令人驚奇的事情

  • Alright, well, let's go over there and watch it. In fact, you guys can come with us too.

    好,我們去那裡看吧。事實上,你們大家也可以跟我們一起來

  • Click this annotation or the link at the top of the description for Mind Blow number 60.

    點擊這個註解或是說明處最頂端的連結,到 Mind Blow 60 號

  • I hope to see you there. Let's go.

    期待在那兒見到你。走吧!

Hey, Vsauce. Michael here.

嘿,Vsauce 觀眾們,我是 Michael

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 衣物 人類 腦袋 衣服 動物 身體

為什麼人類要穿衣服? (Why Do We Wear Clothes?)

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    Jenny 發佈於 2018 年 07 月 07 日
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