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  • Death by drug overdose has been on the rise in the US, with a 2.2-fold increase from 2002

    由濫用藥物而造成死亡的案件數一直在上升 在美國,從2002年至2015年

  • to 2015.


  • But what is the most dangerous drug in the world? [Illustrated by Kurzgesagt.]


  • If we're simply talking about the most lethal substances, scientists use something called


  • themedian lethal doseor LD50 which measures how much of a substance is required

    “半數致死劑量”或LD50的標準 其方法是測量需要多少物質

  • to kill half the members of a tested population.


  • So something like coffee requires around 13g to kill a 70kg person, while the venom of

    因此,咖啡需要大約13克來 殺死70公斤的人,

  • an Inland Taipan snake requires much less, with only 0.00175g.

    而內陸大班蛇的毒液需要的更少, 只需0.00175克。

  • Using this method, the most deadly substance on Earth?

    依照這種測量標準, 在地球上最致命的物質是...

  • Botulinum Toxin...or Botox.


  • Oral ingestion would require only 0.00000007g to kill a 70kg person.

    僅需口服0.00000007克來 殺死70公斤的人。

  • However, 'most dangerous' doesn't always mean 'most lethal'.

    然而,最危險的物質並不是 最致命的。

  • In the UK, a group of experts decided to look at how muchharmthe most common recreational

    在英國,一個專家小組決定尋找 最常見的娛樂性藥物能造成多少傷害

  • drugs cause using 16 parameters, including types of physical, psychological and social harm.

    研究進程包括了16個參數,包含了 生理傷害,心理傷害和社會危害。

  • For example, a drug may cause physical damage but not be lethal, it could cause you to become

    例如,毒品可以引起的物理損傷 但並非是致命的,它可能會導致你

  • completely dependent, it can be more likely to cause loss of relationships, or decreased

    對藥物的完全依賴,它可以更容易 造成人際關係的損失或減少

  • mental functioning; and these are all forms of 'harm'.


  • Using these criteria, they concluded that the most dangerous drug to an individual is heroin.

    使用這些標準,他們的結論是 對個人最危險的藥物是海洛因。

  • Heroin can be injected, snorted, or smoked, and enters the brain rapidly, particularly

    海洛因可以透過注射、鼻吸入或煙霧, 來迅速地進入大腦,

  • when injected into the bloodstream.


  • Here, it attaches to opioid receptors, creating a surge of pleasurable sensations.

    在這裡,它附在阿片樣肽受體, 來產生了愉快的感覺。

  • It's also highly addictive, with intense withdrawal symptoms that begin within hours

    海洛因非常容易使人上癮, 激烈戒斷症狀幾小時內即開始

  • of a hit, including insomnia, cold flashes, muscle and bone pain, nausea and vomiting.

    包括失眠,感冒閃爍, 肌肉和骨骼疼痛,噁心和嘔吐。

  • Receptors in the brainstem are also affected, impacting important physiological processes

    腦幹受體也會受到影響, 造成重要生理過程被打亂

  • such as breathing and blood pressure.


  • Which is why overdosing causes breathing to slow or stop entirely, leading to the accumulation

    這就是為什麼濫用海洛因導致呼吸 減緩或完全停止,導致二氧化碳積累

  • of CO2 in the blood and ultimately death.


  • And since heroin is unregulated, it is especially difficult for users to know the strength of

    而由於海洛因是不受管制的, 所以用戶很難知道它的劑量,

  • the dose, making the risk of OD-ing high.


  • Additionally, the drug can be mixed with other compounds, like Fentanyl, making it even more

    另外,該藥物可以與其它 化合物,如芬太尼混合在一起,這使得海洛英

  • dangerous.


  • Fentanyl, like heroin, is an opiate but is 50-100 times as strong because it is very

    芬太尼跟海洛因一樣,是一種毒品,但 比海洛因強50-100倍,因為它具有

  • lipophilic - meaning it penetrates our fatty brain more easily.

    非常高的親脂性 - 這意味著它 能更容易穿透我們大腦的脂肪。

  • And in terms of lethality alone, it is much more dangerous than heroin to users.


  • It was initially used as a prescription pain reliever but because of its addictiveness,

    最初,它是作為緩解止痛的處方 但由於它很容易上癮,

  • it was mostly used in end of life cases.


  • It has since emerged as a recreational drug, where the number of reported fentanyl related

    它已經成為一個娛樂性藥物, 其中,在美國相關報導

  • overdoses has increased 7X from 2012 to 2014 in the US, and continues to see more widespread


  • use worldwide.


  • But there is an even more dangerous drug!


  • Though crack cocaine and methamphetamine top the list of harm to an individual just after

    雖然古柯鹼和甲基安非他命,是緊接在海洛因之後, 對個人最大危害的排行榜前幾名

  • heroin, finding the most dangerous drug overall involved studying 20 different popular drugs,

    然而要衡量世界上最危險的藥物 需要研究20種不同的流行藥物,

  • and also looking at the harm they place on others.


  • This includes the physical and psychological harm, crime, degradation to families and communities,

    這包括生理和心理 傷害,犯罪,家庭和社區的破碎,

  • and economic costs - and in the end it turns out the most dangerous drug in the world is

    和經濟成本 - 而最終證實 世界上最危險的藥物為...

  • alcohol.


  • To ensure this wasn't simply a UK phenomenon, a European group attempted the same process

    為了確保這不是英國的現象, 歐盟嘗試了同樣的研究

  • putting more emphasis on individual harm and less on economic harm.

    更加注重對個人的傷害和 減少對經濟危害的注重性。

  • And even with the different weightings the two groups found largely the same result.

    雖然對標準的不同 兩組發現大致相同的結果。

  • A large contributor to the danger of alcohol is its wide use.


  • The majority of the world does drink (61.7%), and drink a lot, with an average of 17 litres

    世界上大多數的人喝酒(61.7%), 而且也喝了很多,平均每人每年消耗

  • of pure alcohol consumed per person per year.


  • The World Health Organization found 3.3 million deaths worldwide were caused by dangerous

    世界衛生組織發現在世界各地330萬的 死亡案件是由過量的飲酒而引起的

  • alcohol consumption in 2012, meaning alcohol kills 1 person every 10 seconds.

    這意味著在2012年,酒精在每10秒就 殺死一個人。

  • But experts don't recommend a prohibition stance on alcohol.


  • By all accounts, the war on drugs has been deemed a failure, and nations who have stepped


  • away from hardline policies and implemented decriminalization, harm reduction and education,

    遠離強硬政策和實施 合法化、減少傷害政策和教育的國家,

  • have seen significant declines of drug abuse.


  • If you'd like to learn more about the failure of the war on drugs, check out In A Nutshell's

    如果您想瞭解更多關於對毒品的戰爭失敗, 請看看In a Nutshell的影片

  • video, who so brilliantly helped us animate this video!

    他們也同時出色地幫助我們 完成這部影片的動畫!

  • A huge thanks to them for helping out, and continuing to inspire us with their intelligent

    感謝他們的幫忙,和繼續以 智慧與精心設計的影片激勵我們

  • and well designed videos.

    您還可以看看我們的藥物系列, 如果您想瞭解更多關於

  • You can also check out our drug series, if you'd like to learn more about the impact

    具體的藥物對你的大腦的影響, 如大麻,古柯鹼,和LSD。

  • of specific drugs, like marijuana, cocaine, and lsd, on your brain!


  • And subscribe for more weekly science videos!

Death by drug overdose has been on the rise in the US, with a 2.2-fold increase from 2002

由濫用藥物而造成死亡的案件數一直在上升 在美國,從2002年至2015年


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