Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

自動翻譯
  • Hello.

    你好啊

  • My name is Emma and in today's video I am going to teach you some very important conversational English.

    我的名字是艾瑪,在今天的視頻中,我要去 教你一些非常重要的英語會話。

  • I'm going to teach you some expressions we use a lot, and all of these expressions have

    我教你一些我們的表達方式。 用得多,這些表達式都有

  • one thing in common: They all use the word "go".

    有一個共同點:他們 都用 "去 "字。

  • So, "go" is one of the first words you probably will learn in English.

    所以,"走 "是第一個字。 你可能會用英語學習。

  • We use it when we talk about going to a different place, so for example: I go to school or I

    當我們說到要去不同的 的地方,所以比如說。我去學校或者我

  • go to the park.

    去公園。

  • So, we have "go" and it has that meaning, but it also can have a lot of other meanings

    所以,我們有 "去",它就有這個意思,但是。 寓意深遠

  • in English, and those are the ones we're going to look at today.

    在英語中,這些是那些 我們今天要看的。

  • So, again, we use it a lot in conversation.

    所以,我們再次使用它 很多在交談中。

  • So let's get started with some of the most basic ways we use "go" in conversation.

    那麼,讓我們先從一些最 我們在對話中使用 "去 "的基本方式。

  • So I have here the question.

    所以我這裡有一個問題。

  • One of the first questions you ask a person when you meet them or when you see them, and

    你問一個人的第一個問題是 當你遇到他們或當你看到他們時,以及。

  • that is: "How are you?"

    那就是"你好嗎?"

  • We often use "go" in a way that means the same thing as this, so we often say: "How's

    我們經常用 "走 "的方式來表示。 與此相同,所以我們常說。"怎麼了

  • it going?"

    它是怎麼回事?"

  • "How's it going?"

    "怎麼樣了?"

  • means the same thing as: "How are you?"

    異曲同工 作為。"你好嗎?"

  • Notice that there is an apostrophe and an "s".

    請注意,有一個 撇號和 "s"。

  • This actually is: "How is it going?" but we like to use a contraction in conversation.

    這其實是。"怎麼樣了?"但我們 喜歡在談話中使用縮略語。

  • It's a little bit more informal, so we would probably use this with maybe our friends or

    這是一個更非正式的一點,所以我們會。 可能用這個也許我們的朋友或

  • our family, or you know, somebody we meet but maybe not in a job interview.

    我們的家庭,或者你知道,有人我們 見面,但也許不是在求職面試中。

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • So we use this a lot: "How's it going?"

    所以我們經常用這個。 "怎麼樣了?"

  • If you are in Australia, you might see: "How you going?"

    如果你在澳洲,你 可能會看到。"你怎麼樣了?"

  • We would not say this in North America, I don't think we say this in England, but in

    在北美我們不會這麼說,我。 我想在英國我們不會這麼說,但在...

  • Australia you will often hear people say: "How you going?" and that means the same thing

    澳洲你會經常聽到人們說"怎麼 你要去嗎?"而這也是同樣的意思。

  • as: "How are you?"

    作為。"你好嗎?"

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • I was very confused when I went to Australia.

    我很困惑,當 我去了澳洲。

  • I thought that, you know, people were making grammar mistakes, but it turns out that this

    我想,你知道,人們正在做的 語法錯誤,但原來這個

  • is actually a very common way in Australia to say: "How are you?"

    其實是一種很常見的方式,在 澳洲說。"你好嗎?"

  • Another thing we can use with "go" is if we want to find out how something specific, you

    另一個我們可以用 "去 "的東西是,如果我們 想知道具體的東西如何,你

  • know, how is something.

    知道嗎,怎麼是東西。

  • So, for example, maybe your friend has just started taking some new classes, you might

    所以,舉例來說,也許你的朋友剛剛... 開始參加一些新的課程,你可能

  • say to them: "How are your classes going?" or "How is your job going?", "How...?"

    對他們說:"你們的課上得怎麼樣?"你的課上得怎麼樣了?" 或 "你的工作怎麼樣?"、"你......?"

  • You know, if you're talking about the past: "How did the interview go?"

    你知道,如果你說的是什麼? 過去。"面試怎麼樣?"

  • So we often use "how" with, you know, some event or situation, and "going" to ask how

    所以,我們經常用 "如何 "與,你知道,一些。 事件或情況,並 "去 "問如何。

  • did it...

    做了...

  • Like, you know, how...

    就像,你知道,如何...

  • How it was.

    它是如何。

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • And you'll see this a lot.

    而且你會經常看到這個。

  • Okay, so these are some of the ways we use "go" when we're talking about how someone

    好的,這些是我們使用的一些方法,包括 "去",當我們在談論某人如何

  • is, and we will come back to this one, but let's talk about some of the responses first.

    是,我們會回到這個問題上,但。 先說說一些對策吧。

  • When somebody says: "How are you?"

    當有人說, "你好嗎?"

  • you often respond with: "I'm fine."

    你經常回應 與。"我很好"

  • So it's the same thing with when somebody asks you: "How's it going?"

    所以,這與當 有人問你,"怎麼樣了?"

  • You can say: "I'm fine", but you can also use "go" in your response, so you can say:

    你可以說:"我很好",但你也可以說:"我很好",但你也可以... 用 "去 "來回答,所以你可以說。

  • -"How's it going?"

    -"怎麼樣了?"

  • -"It's going well."

    -"進展順利。"

  • or "It's going good."

    或 "進展順利"

  • I know that's not, you know, great grammar, but we do use "good" a lot when people ask

    我知道這不是,你知道,偉大的文法。 但當人們問及 "好 "的時候,我們確實經常使用 "好"。

  • us how we're doing, like, in conversational English, not in written English.

    我們是如何做的,喜歡,在對話中的 英語,而不是書面英語。

  • But yeah: "It's going well", "It's going good", "It's going amazing", "It's going terrible".

    不過是:"進展順利"、"進展良好"。 "進展驚人","進展糟糕"。

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • So you can use different adjectives here to describe how you're feeling or how your day

    所以,你可以在這裡使用不同的形容詞,以 形容你的感覺或你的一天是如何度過的

  • is going.

    是去。

  • You know, you can also just talk generally.

    你知道,你也可以 只是泛泛而談。

  • You can say: "It's" or you can also say: "Everything" or "Things".

    你可以說:"是 "或者你也可以說 說,"一切 "或 "事物"。"一切 "或 "事物"。

  • There are many variations of this.

    有很多 的變化。

  • You might say: -"How's it going?"

    你可能會說: -"怎麼樣了?"

  • -"Everything is going amazing."

    -"一切都很順利"

  • or: "Things are great.", "Things are going good."

    或。"事情很好", "事情進展順利"

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • So there's a lot of variation.

    所以有很多的變化。

  • If somebody asks you how, you know: "How are your classes going?" or "How is...?

    如果有人問你如何,你知道。"怎麼 你的課上得怎麼樣了?"或者 "怎麼樣......?

  • How is work going?"

    工作進展如何?"

  • your answer could also be: "My classes are going great.", "Work is going great."

    你的答案也可以是:"我的班級是 進展順利。","工作進展順利。"

  • You know: "School is going amazing."

    你知道的"學校 是去驚人。"

  • Or maybe, you know: "School's going terrible."

    或者,也許,你知道, "學校的情況很糟糕"

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • So you can use this in a lot of different ways.

    所以你可以在 很多不同的方式。

  • We also have this question which people sometimes ask when, you know, they see you and, you

    我們也有這樣的問題,人們有時 問什麼時候,你知道,他們看到你,你,你

  • know, maybe it's your friend and they're meeting you, they might say: "Hey.

    知道,也許是你的朋友,他們是 見你,他們可能會說,"嘿

  • What's going on?"

    怎麼了?"

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • So: "What's going on?"

    那就好"這是怎麼回事?"

  • This one you've got to be careful with, because: "What's going on?" can have multiple meanings,

    這個你要小心,因為。 "這是怎麼回事?"可以有多種含義。

  • and it all depends on the way you say it.

    而這一切都取決於 你說的方式。

  • So, when you say: "What's going on?" it's very similar to: "How are you?"

    所以,當你說,"這是怎麼回事?" 它非常類似於,"你好嗎?"

  • You just also have to be careful about your tone.

    你只要也要 小心你的語氣。

  • So, for example: "What's going on?" is different than: "What's going on?"

    所以,比如說"這是怎麼回事?" 是不同的,"發生了什麼事?"

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • So you see how I changed my voice?

    所以你看我 改變了我的聲音?

  • So if you say this in a very friendly: "What's going on?"

    所以,如果你說這在一個非常 友好的:"怎麼了?"

  • way, then it means pretty much: "How are you doing?" or "How are you?"

    方式,那麼就意味著差不多。"怎麼 你在做什麼?"或 "你怎麼樣?"

  • And the response to this might be something like: "Oh, what's going on?

    而對此的迴應可能是 類似的東西,"哦,這是怎麼回事?

  • Nothing much.

    沒什麼。

  • Not much is happening.

    沒有什麼事情發生。

  • You know, I've just started classes, they're going good."

    你知道,我剛剛開始 班,他們的進展不錯。"

  • So, you know, you might answer in this way.

    所以,你知道,你可能 這樣回答。

  • There are many different ways to answer, but: "Nothing much" means: "Yeah, you know, my

    回答的方式有很多種,但是。 "沒什麼 "的意思是:"是的,你知道,我的...

  • life is pretty much the same."

    生活是差不多的。"

  • So these are all common at the very beginning of conversation.

    所以這些都是常見的在 談話的一開始。

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • And, again, be careful with formality.

    還有,再一次,要小心 與形式。

  • "How's it going?", "How you going?", "What's going on?"

    "怎麼樣了?"、"你怎麼樣? ","怎麼回事?"

  • These are informal, so you use them with your friends, you use them with people your age,

    這些都是非正式的,所以你用它們與你的。 朋友,你和同齡人一起用。

  • but you might not use them in maybe a business meeting or maybe a very serious situation.

    但你可能不會用它們,也許是在商業上 會議或可能是一個非常嚴重的情況。

  • All right, so now let's look at some other expressions where we use the word "go".

    好了,現在讓我們來看看其他的一些。 我們使用 "去 "字的表達方式。

  • Okay, so we talked a little bit about: "Hey, what's going on?" in terms of "go" expressions.

    好吧,所以我們談了一下。"嘿嘿。 怎麼了?"從 "走 "的表達方式來看。

  • Now I'm going to teach you another meaning of: "What's going on?"

    現在我再教你一個 的意思是:"這是怎麼回事?"

  • "What's going on" or "What's going on here?" can also mean that maybe you're confused about

    "這是怎麼回事 "或 "這是怎麼回事?" 也可能意味著,也許你對下列問題感到困惑

  • something, or you're actually asking: "What's happening?"

    什麼東西,或者你其實 問道:"發生了什麼事?"發生了什麼事?"

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • So: "What's going on?" can also mean: "What's happening?"

    所以。"這是怎麼回事?"可以 也是指。"發生了什麼?"

  • So imagine if you saw a car accident, you might go up to somebody and say: "What's going

    所以試想一下,如果你看到一場車禍,你可能會 上前對某人說,"這是怎麼回事

  • on here?

    在這裡?

  • What's happening?"

    發生什麼事了?"

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • So they have the same meaning.

    所以它們的意義是一樣的。

  • You know, also, like another way we use: "What's going on here?" is with parents and kids.

    你知道,也像我們使用的另一種方式。"什麼是 怎麼回事?"是與家長和孩子。

  • I remember when I was a kid, any time I was doing something bad, my mom wouldn't know

    我記得當我還是個孩子的時候,任何時候我都是 做了壞事,我媽也不會知道的。

  • what I was doing but she would somehow know I was doing something bad.

    我在做什麼,但她會以某種方式 知道我在做壞事。

  • So she didn't know what it was, but she knew...

    所以她不知道 是的,但她知道...

  • Maybe I had a guilty look on my face, she always knew.

    也許我有一個罪惡的表情 我的臉,她一直都知道。

  • So she would always say to me: "What's going on here?"

    所以她總是對我說 我。"這是怎麼回事?"

  • meaning, you know: "What are you doing?

    意思是,你知道的。 "你在做什麼?

  • I know you're doing something bad.

    我知道你在做 糟糕的事情。

  • What's going on here?"

    這到底是怎麼回事?"

  • And so that's why using your tone is very important for this, because: "What's going...?"

    所以,這就是為什麼使用你的語氣是非常的 對這個很重要,因為。"這是怎麼回事..."?

  • Or: "Hey, what's going on?" is different than: "What's going on?"

    或者說:"喂,這是怎麼回事?"是 不同於。"這是怎麼回事?"

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • So be very careful about the tone you're using because it's not the words that change the

    所以要非常注意你使用的語氣。 因為這不是語言的改變。

  • meaning, it's the way you say it that changes the meaning for: "What's going on?"

    意思是說,你說的是什麼意思? 改變了意思為。"這是怎麼回事?"

  • Okay, we also have, you know: "Something is going on."

    好吧,我們也有,你知道, "有些事情是怎麼回事。"

  • Or, you know...

    或者,你知道...

  • This is similar to this, but: "Something is going on here", I'm not using it as a question.

    這與此類似,但。"有些東西... 這裡的 "怎麼回事",我不是把它當做一個問題。

  • I put a lot of question marks to show something is going on, means you're confused, you know

    我打了很多問號來表示一些東西。 是怎麼回事,意味著你的困惑,你知道嗎?

  • something is happening but you don't know what is happening.

    有事不登三寶殿 不知道發生了什麼。

  • So, sometimes, you know, for example, maybe you have two friends and, you know, they're

    所以,有時候,你知道,例如,也許... ... 你有兩個朋友,而且,你知道,他們是。

  • your friends and suddenly they're starting to act a bit funny around each other, and

    你的朋友,突然他們開始 彼此之間表現得有點滑稽,並且

  • you're thinking: "Hmm, these guys are acting kind of strange but I don't know why."

    你在想,"嗯,這些傢伙在演戲 有點奇怪,但我不知道為什麼。"

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • Maybe they're secretly in love, maybe they've been dating for the past five months and,

    也許他們在暗戀,也許他們已經。 過去五個月一直在約會,並。

  • you know, you just had no idea.

    你知道,你只是不知道。

  • So when you see something and you know that something is happening, but you don't know

    所以當你看到一些東西,你知道 心有餘而力不足

  • what exactly is happening, you can say: "Hmm, something is going on.

    到底發生了什麼,你可以 說道。"嗯,有事發生了。

  • I don't know what's going on, but something is going on."

    我不知道發生了什麼。 但有些事情要發生。"

  • And I'm blocking these because it's not a question, it's a statement, but this...

    我把這些都擋住了,因為這不是一個。 問題,這是一個聲明,但這... ...

  • It's pretty much, you know, in your mind you're thinking: "What's...

    這是相當多的,你知道,在你的。 腦海中你在想。"什麼是...

  • What's happening?

    發生什麼事了?

  • Something is going on.

    有事情發生了。

  • I wonder what it is."

    不知道是什麼東西。"

  • Okay, we can also use "go" when we're talking about change.

    好吧,我們也可以在以下情況下使用 "去"。 我們正在談論改變。

  • Things changing, things becoming different, and a lot of the times we use "go" when we're

    事物的變化,事物變得不同。 很多時候我們用 "走 "的時候

  • talking about what some people would say are bad changes.

    說的是 會說是不好的變化。

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • So, for example: "go crazy".

    所以,比如說。"發瘋"。

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • So, like, you know, somebody is going crazy right now.

    所以,像,你知道,有人 正在瘋狂的現在。

  • Their girlfriend just broke up with them, they're really upset, they're going crazy.

    他們的女朋友剛和他們分手。 他們真的很不高興,他們要瘋了。

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • So there's a change there, there's a change in their behaviour.

    所以,有一個變化,有 改變他們的行為;

  • And some people would say it's a negative change, or you know: "going mad".

    而有些人會說這是一個負面的 改變,或者你知道,"發瘋"。

  • We can also say, you know: "That guy's going mad", meaning crazy.

    我們也可以說,你知道,"那個... 人要瘋了",意思是瘋了。

  • Not angry.

    不是生氣。

  • You know, in this case these two have the same meaning.

    你知道,在這種情況下,這些 兩者意義相同。

  • Or, you know, I personally like grey hair, but some people when their hair changes to

    或者,你知道,我個人喜歡白頭髮。 但有些人當他們的頭髮改變到

  • grey, some people see it as a bad thing.

    灰色,有些人認為 它是一件壞事。

  • I don't see it as a bad thing, but some people get upset about it, and so for those people

    我不認為這是一件壞事,但有些人。 為之心煩,所以對於這些人來說。

  • who think, you know, grey hair is a bad thing, when their hair changes from brown to grey,

    誰認為,你知道,白髮是一件壞事。 當他們的頭髮從棕色變成灰色時。

  • maybe they say: "Oh, you know, his hair went grey." or "His hair is going grey."

    也許他們會說:"哦,你知道,他的頭髮"哦,你知道,他的頭髮 去灰色。"或 "他的頭髮去灰色。"

  • So we use "go" with the colour, and again, "grey" means your hair colour.

    所以,我們用 "去 "與顏色,和 同樣,"灰色 "是指你的頭髮顏色。

  • Or, you know, I like people who are bald, but some people might see, like, losing your

    或者,你知道,我喜歡的人誰是禿頭,但。 有些人可能會看到,像,失去你的

  • hair as, like, a negative thing.

    頭髮作為,喜歡,一個負面的東西。

  • I don't, you know.

    我不知道,你知道的。

  • My brother is actually bald, but some people would see it as a negative thing, and so they

    我弟弟其實是禿頭,但有些人... 會認為這是一件消極的事情,所以他們。

  • would say: "go bald", you know: "My brother went bald."

    會說:"去禿頭",你 知道了。 - "我哥哥禿頂了。"我的哥哥變成了禿頭。"

  • So it's a change from having hair to having no hair, and again, this...

    所以,這是從有頭髮到 沒有頭髮,再次,這... ...

  • I'm going to say it again: I don't think it's bad necessarily, some people might say it's

    我再說一遍我不認為這是 不一定是壞事,有人會說這是

  • bad, but you know, it's all opinion-based.

    壞,但你知道,這是 都是以意見為主。

  • Now, this is different from...

    現在,這不同於...

  • We have other changes that happen, we have: "old", "tired", "ill", these are also things

    我們還有其他變化的發生,我們有。 "老","累","病",這些也是事情。

  • people see as negative changes, but we don't use "go" with these things.

    在人們看來是負面的變化,但 我們不使用 "去 "與這些東西。

  • We actually use the word "get", so you get old, you get tired, you get ill.

    其實我們用的是 "得到 "這個詞,所以你... ... 老了,你會累,你會生病。

  • So, it really is, you know, sometimes we use "go", sometimes we use "get" when we're talking

    所以,它真的是,你知道,有時我們用的是 "去",有時我們說話時用 "得"。

  • about negative changes.

    關於消極變化。

  • You just need to, like, learn the word and figure out: Is it with "go" or is it with

    你只需要,喜歡,學習這個詞,並。 弄清楚。是用 "走 "還是用...

  • "get"?

    "得到"?

  • But again, this is another way we use "go".

    但是,這又是 我們使用 "走 "的另一種方式。

  • So now let's look at some other examples of "go".

    那麼現在讓我們來看看一些 其他 "走 "的例子。

  • Okay, so another way that we use "go"...

    好吧,所以另一種方式 我們用 "走"...

  • So as you can see, there are many different ways we use "go" instead of just: "go to the

    所以你可以看到,有許多不同的。 我們使用 "去 "的方式,而不僅僅是。"去...

  • park".

    公園"。

  • We use it in many different expressions.

    我們在很多方面都使用它 不同的表達方式。

  • Another expression is: "There you go" or "Here you go".

    另一種說法是:"有 你走吧 "或 "給你"。

  • Now, this is one we use a lot in conversation.

    現在,這是一個我們使用 在談話中,很多。

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • So we don't really use it in writing, but in conversation you will hear it a lot.

    所以我們在寫作中並沒有真正的使用它,但是。 在談話中,你會經常聽到它。

  • And so what does it mean?

    那麼這意味著什麼呢?

  • Well, usually we use: "There you go" or "Here you go" when we're giving something to somebody.

    好吧,通常我們用,"給你 "或 "給你 當我們要把東西送給某人時,"去"。

  • It's what we say as we give something to somebody.

    這是我們說的,因為我們給 某個人的東西。

  • So imagine I have this marker, I want to give you the marker, I will say: "There you go"

    所以想象一下,我有這個標記,我想給。 你的標記,我會說,"給你"

  • or "Here you go".

    或 "給你"。

  • A lot of students get very, like, worried about the difference between "there" and "here".

    很多學生都會非常,喜歡,擔心 "那裡 "和 "這裡 "的區別;

  • For these expressions usually it means pretty much the same thing, so don't worry about

    對於這些表達,通常是指漂亮 殊途同歸,所以不用擔心

  • it.

    它。

  • You know, if you say: "Here we go", or you know: "There you go", it sounds the same to

    你知道,如果你說:"我們來了",或者你 懂得。"給你",這聽起來是一樣的。

  • native speakers of English.

    以英語為母語的人。

  • So, don't worry so much about if you use "there" or "here".

    所以,不要擔心那麼多 如果你用 "那裡 "或 "這裡"。

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • You can use both.

    你可以同時使用這兩種方法。

  • So, my example is: -"Can I use your pen?"

    所以,我的例子是:"我可以用你的筆嗎? -"我可以用你的筆嗎?"

  • -"There you go" or -"Here you go".

    -"你去那裡 "或 -"給你"。

  • And so this also means: "Yes you can."

    所以這也 意思是:"是的,你可以。"

  • If somebody is asking you for something: -"Can I borrow, you know...?

    如果有人問你 什麼:"我可以借,你知道......?

  • Or can I have a piece of paper?"

    還是能給我一張紙?"

  • -"Yes, there you go."

    -"是的,給你。"

  • It means you're giving them permission and you're also handing them something.

    意思是你給了他們許可 而你也在給他們一些東西。

  • You can also say it if you do something for somebody.

    你也可以說,如果你 為某人做一些事情。

  • So, for example, maybe somebody wants you to give them a whole new hairstyle, so you

    所以,舉個例子,也許有人想讓你 給他們一個全新的髮型,所以你。

  • work on their hairstyle, you make their hair look really nice, and you might say: "There

    在他們的髮型上下功夫,你讓他們的頭髮。 看起來真的很不錯,你可能會說,"那裡...

  • you go", meaning, you know: "I've just done this for you."

    你去",意思是,你知道, "我只是為你做了這個。"

  • So we use this a lot in speech.

    所以我們在講話中經常用到這個。

  • Main one, though, is when you're giving something to somebody, you say: "There we go."

    但主要的是,當你在給 某人的東西,你說,"我們走吧"

  • Okay, we can also use: "There we go again" or "There you go again", you can change the

    好吧,我們也可以用。"我們又來了" 或 "你又來了",你可以改變。

  • subject here, depending on the situation.

    在這裡,取決於 關於情況。

  • You can use this when you want to show you are kind of annoyed or, you know, this is

    當你想展示你的作品時,你可以使用這個功能 是一種惱人的,或者,你知道,這是

  • an annoyed face.

    一臉惱怒。

  • It's not a happy face.

    這不是一個快樂的臉。

  • It's more of an angry face.

    更是一臉的憤怒。

  • So when you want to show you are frustrated about something.

    所以,當你想表明你是 沮喪的事情。

  • So, for example, I'll give you a good example of this: Imagine you have a friend who gets

    那麼,舉個例子,我給大家舉個好例子吧 的。想象一下,你有一個朋友誰得到

  • very mad or very angry, and he gets angry often.

    非常瘋狂或非常憤怒。 而且他經常生氣。

  • Okay?

    好嗎?

  • So imagine you want to go to a movie theatre, and your friend is supposed to come with you

    所以想象你想去電影院。 而你的朋友應該和你一起去

  • but, you know, his girlfriend and him had a fight, now he doesn't want to come, so maybe

    但是,你知道,他的女朋友和他有一個。 鬥,現在他不想來了,所以,也許

  • you're a little bit annoyed.

    你有點惱火。

  • You're not really happy about that.

    你不是真的 高興的是。

  • If this is something that happens often...<