Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

    讓我們回到1964年

  • We're going to begin in 1964.

    23歲的巴布·狄倫 (Bob Dylan)

  • Bob Dylan is 23 years old, and his career

    他的事業正如日中天

  • is just reaching its pinnacle.

    他作為當代文化的代言人

  • He's been christened the voice of a generation,

    用難以置信的速度

  • and he's churning out classic songs

    譜出一首又一首的經典佳作

  • at a seemingly impossible rate,

    但少數異議人士指責

  • but there's a small minority of dissenters, and they claim

    巴布·狄倫剽竊他人的作品

  • that Bob Dylan is stealing other people's songs.

    2004年 Brian Burton,即 Danger Mouse

  • 2004. Brian Burton, aka Danger Mouse,

    將披頭四 (Beatles) 的 "白色專輯" (White Album)

  • takes the Beatles' "White Album,"

    搭上 Jay-Z 的 "黑色專輯" (The Black Album)

  • combines it with Jay-Z's "The Black Album"

    創作出 "灰色專輯" (The Gray Album)

  • to create "The Grey Album."

    "灰色專輯" 在網路一炮而紅

  • "The Grey Album" becomes an immediate sensation online,

    卻收到唱片公司雪片般飛來的

  • and the Beatles' record company sends out countless

    禁制令 (cease-and-desist letters),稱其為

  • cease-and-desist letters for "unfair competition

    "對我方資產的不當競爭及耗損"

  • and dilution of our valuable property."

    "灰色專輯" 是一種混搭

  • Now, "The Grey Album" is a remix.

    借鏡舊素材,創造新作品

  • It is new media created from old media.

    混搭用到下面三種技巧:

  • It was made using these three techniques:

    借用、轉化和重組

  • copy, transform and combine.

    做法如下。找幾首現成歌曲

  • It's how you remix. You take existing songs,

    分割成小段並稍作改換

  • you chop them up, you transform the pieces,

    全部拼湊起來之後

  • you combine them back together again,

    成為一首新曲,這樣的曲子

  • and you've got a new song, but that new song

    很明顯是從現有歌曲重組而成

  • is clearly comprised of old songs.

    這些要素並非混搭所獨有

  • But I think these aren't just the components of remixing.

    我認為這是構成所有創意的基礎

  • I think these are the basic elements of all creativity.

    一切都是混搭

  • I think everything is a remix,

    我認為混搭更適合用來理解創意的本質

  • and I think this is a better way to conceive of creativity.

    回到1964年,我們將聽到幾首

  • All right, let's head back to 1964, and let's hear

    狄倫早期作品的來源

  • where some of Dylan's early songs came from.

    我會將兩者並列比較

  • We'll do some side-by-side comparisons here.

    第一首歌是

  • All right, this first song you're going to hear

    "Nottamun Town",一首傳統民謠

  • is "Nottamun Town." It's a traditional folk tune.

    接著是狄倫的 "Masters of War"

  • After that, you'll hear Dylan's "Masters of War."

    Jean Ritchie: ♫ In Nottamun Town, not a soul would look out, ♫

  • Jean Ritchie: ♫ In Nottamun Town, not a soul would look out, ♫

    ♫ not a soul would look up, not a soul would look down. ♫

  • not a soul would look up, not a soul would look down. ♫

    巴布·狄倫: ♫ Come you masters of war, ♫

  • Bob Dylan: ♫ Come you masters of war, ♫

    ♫ you that build the big guns, you that build the death planes, ♫

  • you that build the big guns, you that build the death planes, ♫

    ♫ You that build all the bombs. ♫

  • You that build all the bombs. ♫

    Kirby Ferguson: 兩者有相同的基本旋律

  • Kirby Ferguson: Okay, so that's the same basic melody

    和整體架構。下一首是 "The Patriot Game"

  • and overall structure. This next one is "The Patriot Game,"

    歌手是 Dominic Behan,對比

  • by Dominic Behan. Alongside that,

    狄倫的 "With God on Our Side"

  • you're going to hear "With God on Our Side," by Dylan.

    Dominic Behan: ♫ Come all ye young rebels, ♫

  • Dominic Behan: ♫ Come all ye young rebels, ♫

    ♫ and list while I sing, ♫

  • and list while I sing, ♫

    ♫ for the love of one's land is a terrible thing. ♫

  • for the love of one's land is a terrible thing. ♫

    狄倫: ♫ Oh my name it is nothin', ♫

  • BD: ♫ Oh my name it is nothin', ♫

    ♫ my age it means less, ♫

  • my age it means less, ♫

    ♫ the country I come from is called the Midwest. ♫

  • the country I come from is called the Midwest. ♫

    KF: 在這個例子中,狄倫也承認

  • KF: Okay, so in this case, Dylan admits

    自己可能聽過 "The Patriot Game" 卻忘了

  • he must have heard "The Patriot Game," he forgot about it,

    於是當曲調再次在腦海浮現

  • then when the song kind of bubbled back up

    便以為是自己的創作

  • in his brain, he just thought it was his song.

    最後一組, "Who's Going To Buy You Ribbons"

  • Last one, this is "Who's Going To Buy You Ribbons,"

    另一首傳統民謠

  • another traditional folk tune.

    對比 "Don't Think Twice, It's All Right"

  • Alongside that is "Don't Think Twice, It's All Right."

    這次主要是歌詞上的相似

  • This one's more about the lyric.

    Paul Clayton: ♫ It ain't no use to sit and sigh now, ♫

  • Paul Clayton: ♫ It ain't no use to sit and sigh now, ♫

    ♫ darlin', and it ain't no use to sit and cry now. ♫

  • darlin', and it ain't no use to sit and cry now. ♫

    狄倫: ♫ It ain’t no use to sit and wonder why, babe, ♫

  • BD: ♫ It ain't no use to sit and wonder why, babe, ♫

    ♫ if you don't know by now, ♫

  • if you don't know by now, ♫

    ♫ and it ain't no use to sit and wonder why, babe, ♫

  • and it ain't no use to sit and wonder why, babe, ♫

    ♫ it'll never do somehow. ♫

  • it'll never do somehow. ♫

    KF: 類似的例子還有很多

  • KF: Okay, now, there's a lot of these.

    據估計狄倫的早期作品裡,三分之二的旋律

  • It's been estimated that two thirds of the melodies

    是從別處借用的

  • Dylan used in his early songs were borrowed.

    這個情況在民謠歌手界相當常見

  • This is pretty typical among folk singers.

    狄倫的偶像,伍迪·蓋瑟瑞 (Woody Guthrie) 曾說

  • Here's the advice of Dylan's idol, Woody Guthrie.

    「重點在歌詞」

  • "The worlds are the important thing.

    「別擔心曲子,找一段旋律」

  • Don't worry about tunes. Take a tune,

    「把該唱高的地方唱低」

  • sing high when they sing low,

    「該唱慢的地方唱快,就有新曲了」

  • sing fast when they sing slow, and you've got a new tune."

    (笑聲) (掌聲)

  • (Laughter) (Applause)

    蓋瑟瑞就是這樣做的

  • And that's, that's what Guthrie did right here,

    而大家也都耳熟能詳

  • and I'm sure you all recognize the results.

    (音樂)

  • (Music)

    似曾相識?大家都聽過?

  • We know this tune, right? We know it?

    其實不然

  • Actually you don't.

    它出自 "When the World's on Fire",非常老的曲調

  • That is "When the World's on Fire," a very old melody,

    在這裡是由卡特家族 (Carter Family) 演奏

  • in this case performed by the Carter Family.

    蓋瑟瑞將它改編成 "This Land Is Your Land"

  • Guthrie adapted it into "This Land Is Your Land."

    因此,跟所有民謠歌手一樣 巴布·狄倫借用現有的曲調

  • So, Bob Dylan, like all folk singers, he copied melodies,

    稍作改變,再加入新的歌詞

  • he transformed them, he combined them with new lyrics

    而不同歌手的作法不盡相同

  • which were frequently their own concoction

    各具特色

  • of previous stuff.

    今日,美國的智財及專利法案反其道而行

  • Now, American copyright and patent laws run counter

    反對藉前人基礎發展創作的理念

  • to this notion that we build on the work of others.

    這些遍及全球的法律

  • Instead, these laws and laws around the world

    (將創意)用彆扭的產權觀念來類比

  • use the rather awkward analogy of property.

    或許創作在某些面向類似財產

  • Now, creative works may indeed be kind of like property,

    但同時也是後人賴以創造的基石

  • but it's property that we're all building on,

    創新能量的發展茁壯

  • and creations can only take root and grow

    仰賴於基礎的完善

  • once that ground has been prepared.

    亨利·福特曾說 「我從未發明新事物」

  • Henry Ford once said, "I invented nothing new.

    「我只是將別人的發現湊在一塊」

  • I simply assembled the discoveries of other men

    「而這些發現都是幾世紀以來進步的積累」

  • behind whom were centuries of work.

    「當所有要素齊聚一堂」

  • Progress happens when all the factors that make for it

    「進步必定會發生」

  • are ready and then it is inevitable."

    2007年,iPhone首次亮相

  • 2007. The iPhone makes it debut.

    無疑地 蘋果讓我們提早接觸到一項創新

  • Apple undoubtedly brings this innovation to us early,

    這項技術已趨成熟,因為它的核心科技

  • but its time was approaching because its core technology

    已經發展了十幾個年頭

  • had been evolving for decades.

    "多點觸控",只要觸摸螢幕

  • That's multi-touch, controlling a device

    就可以操作裝置

  • by touching its display.

    下面是史蒂夫·賈伯斯 (Steve Jobs) 介紹多點觸控

  • Here is Steve Jobs introducing multi-touch

    並開了個有前瞻的玩笑

  • and making a rather foreboding joke.

    史蒂夫·賈伯斯: 「我們發明了一種新技術」

  • Steve Jobs: And we have invented a new technology

    「叫做多點觸控」

  • called multi-touch.

    「你可以用多支手指來控制」

  • You can do multi-fingered gestures on it,

    「幸好專利已經在我們手上了! 」(笑聲)

  • and boy have we patented it. (Laughter)

    KF: 是阿。接著是多點觸控的實機展示

  • KF: Yes. And yet, here is multi-touch in action.

    一年前,在一場TED演講裡

  • This is at TED, actually, about a year earlier.

    影片上是 Jeff Han,這也是多點觸控

  • This is Jeff Han, and, I mean, that's multi-touch.

    至少是類似的東西

  • It's the same animal, at least.

    我們聽聽 Jeff Han 怎麼看待

  • Let's hear what Jeff Han has to say about this

    這個新奇的科技

  • newfangled technology.

    Jeff Han: 「多點觸控不是什麼驚人之舉」

  • Jeff Han: Multi-touch sensing isn't anything --

    「它不是全新的技術,你知道像Bill Buxton」

  • isn't completely new. I mean, people like Bill Buxton

    「在80年代已經玩過這個概念了」

  • have been playing around with it in the '80s.

    「這項技術本身不是最讓人興奮的」

  • The technology, you know, isn't the most exciting thing here

    「讓人期待的是應用方式的新發現」

  • right now other than probably its newfound accessibility.

    KF: 他很坦白地告訴你這不是新玩意兒

  • KF: So he's pretty frank about it not being new.

    這項技術整體來說並不能申請專利

  • So it's not multi-touch as a whole that's patented.

    而是技術的部分衍生

  • It's the small parts of it that are,

    從這些細節裡

  • and it's in these small details where

    可以看到專利權法案的矛盾之處:

  • we can clearly see patent law contradicting its intent:

    "推動技術的演進"

  • to promote the progress of useful arts.

    這是史無前例的滑動解鎖功能 (slide-to-unlock)

  • Here is the first ever slide-to-unlock.

    就這樣。蘋果為此申請了

  • That is all there is to it. Apple has patented this.

    28頁的軟體專利,讓我總結一下它的重點

  • It's a 28-page software patent, but I will summarize

    注意有雷: "要解鎖你的電話

  • what it covers. Spoiler alert: Unlocking your phone

    請用手指滑動此圖示" (笑聲)

  • by sliding an icon with your finger. (Laughter)

    我只是稍微誇張了點。這份專利涵蓋範圍很廣

  • I'm only exaggerating a little bit. It's a broad patent.

    問題來了,這個概念能不能被擁有?

  • Now, can someone own this idea?

    回到80年代,那時還沒有軟體專利

  • Now, back in the '80s, there were no software patents,

    全錄 (Xerox) 是圖形使用介面的先驅

  • and it was Xerox that pioneered the graphical user interface.

    若是全錄把彈出式選單 (pop-up menu)、

  • What if they had patented pop-up menus,

    捲軸條 (scroll bar)、桌面上文件夾和紙張的圖示

  • scrollbars, the desktop with icons that look like folders

    全都拿去申請專利?

  • and sheets of paper?

    當時年輕,缺乏經驗的蘋果

  • Would a young and inexperienced Apple

    會抵擋得住龐大而成熟的全錄

  • have survived the legal assault from a much larger

    組織的法律攻勢嗎?

  • and more mature company like Xerox?

    "一切都是混搭" 這個概念像是老生常談

  • Now, this idea that everything is a remix might sound

    但當你是被借用的一方時就沒那麼簡單了

  • like common sense until you're the one getting remixed.

    例如...

  • For example ...

    賈伯斯: 「畢卡索 (Picasso) 曾說過」

  • SJ: I mean, Picasso had a saying.

    「"優秀藝術家總是抄來抄去, 偉大藝術家直接拿來當自己的"」

  • He said, "Good artists copy. Great artists steal."

    「所以我們總是」

  • And we have, you know,

    「忝不知恥的剽竊好點子」

  • always been shameless about stealing great ideas.

    KF: OK,那是在96年,到了2010年

  • KF: Okay, so that's in '96. Here's in 2010.

    「我要毀了Android,因為它是抄來的產品」

  • "I'm going to destroy Android because it's a stolen product."

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    「就算引發第三次世界大戰也在所不惜」 (笑聲)

  • "I'm willing to go thermonuclear war on this." (Laughter)

    換句話說,偉大的藝術家...可別抄到我頭上

  • Okay, so in other words, great artists steal, but not from me.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    行為經濟學家會說這種行為是厭惡損失

  • Now, behavioral economists might refer to this sort of thing as loss aversion

    我們有強烈的防衛本能

  • We have a strong predisposition towards protecting

    以保護自己的東西

  • what we feel is ours.

    但我們倒是不怎麼介意借用

  • We have no such aversion towards copying

    別人的東西,因為抄襲隨處可見

  • what other people have, because we do that nonstop.

    看看如下的方程式

  • So here's the sort of equation we're looking at.

    我們有把創意視為財產的法律

  • We've got laws that fundamentally treat creative works as property,

    侵權官司裡大量的罰鍰與賠償

  • plus massive rewards or settlements

    各式各樣的規費

  • in infringement cases, plus huge legal fees

    用來保護你法庭上的權益

  • to protect yourself in court,

    再加上主觀認定受到侵害的損失

  • plus cognitive biases against perceived loss.

    結果看來像這樣

  • And the sum looks like this.

    這張圖表顯示過去四年來

  • That is the last four years of lawsuits

    智慧手機產業相關的訴訟案

  • in the realm of smartphones.

    這樣真的能促進技術的進展?

  • Is this promoting the progress of useful arts?

    1983年,巴布·狄倫42歲

  • 1983. Bob Dylan is 42 years old, and his time

    他的文化光環早已褪色許久

  • in the cultural spotlight is long since past.

    他錄製了一首歌叫 "Blind Willie McTell"

  • He records a song called "Blind Willie McTell,"

    曲名和那位知名藍調歌手相同

  • named after the blues singer, and the song

    歌曲本身是一段回溯過去的旅程,不堪回首

  • is a voyage through the past, through a much darker time,

    卻簡單直接,那時 Willie McTell 一類的音樂家

  • but a simpler one, a time when musicians like Willie McTell

    對自己作品的本質還瞭然於心

  • had few illusions about what they did.

    「我從其他作者汲取靈感」

  • "I jump 'em from other writers

    「但用自己的風格來組合」

  • but I arrange 'em my own way."

    我認為這才是常態

  • I think this is mostly what we do.

    創意應是來自外界的激發,而非閉門造車

  • Our creativity comes from without, not from within.

    沒有人是從零開始,我們都仰賴彼此的貢獻

  • We are not self-made. We are dependent on one another,

    承認這點並不代表我們會淪為

  • and admitting this to ourselves isn't an embrace

    平庸之輩、人云亦云

  • of mediocrity and derivativeness.

    而是將我們從迷思中解放出來

  • It's a liberation from our misconceptions,

    並激勵我們 --不對個人過度期待--

  • and it's an incentive to not expect so much from ourselves

    而是單純去嘗試創新

  • and to simply begin.

    謝謝大家。很榮幸能來這裡

  • Thank you so much. It was an honor to be here.

    謝謝 (掌聲)

  • Thank you. (Applause)

    謝謝,謝謝 (掌聲)

  • Thank you. Thank you. (Applause)

    謝謝 (掌聲)

  • Thank you. (Applause)

Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

讓我們回到1964年

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 混搭 專利 專輯 技術 歌手

TED】創意是一種混音|柯比-弗格森(Kirby Ferguson) (【TED】Creativity is a remix | Kirby Ferguson)

  • 367 25
    Fatlo 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字