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  • When you spend all day in English and everything around you is words, you know,

    當你整天在英語中度過,周圍的一切都是單詞,你知道。

  • I imagine it's like being a podiatrist where like the whole world

    我想這就像一個足科醫生 在那裡像整個世界一樣

  • is feet.

    是腳。

  • My name is Kory Stamper.

    我叫Kory Stamper

  • I'm an associate editor at Merriam Webster, where I write dictionary definitions,

    我是梅里亞姆韋伯斯特公司的副編輯,我在那裡編寫字典定義。

  • and my new book is calledWord by Word: The Secret Life of Dictionaries.”

    而我的新書叫做 "字字珠璣字典的祕密生活"

  • For a while, people would ask what I did and I would just say I work in publishing, because

    有一段時間,人們會問我是做什麼的,我就會說我在出版業工作,因為。

  • the minute I said, “Oh, I write dictionaries,” the first two things out of their mouth were,

    我一說 "哦,我是寫字典的",他們首先說的兩件事是:

  • "Oh that's so cool," and, "Oh my God, I better watch what I say around you."

    "哦,那太酷了","哦,我的上帝,我最好注意我在你身邊說的話。"

  • Which was so sad to me because that's not my job.

    這讓我很傷心,因為這不是我的工作。

  • My job isn't to police what people say, or how people talk, or things that people

    我的工作不是去管別人說什麼,管別人怎麼說話,管別人做什麼事

  • write even.

    甚至寫。

  • My job is to record the language and not impose some sort of order on it.

    我的工作是記錄語言,而不是強加某種秩序。

  • I kept my practice defining slips.

    我保持著我的實踐定義單。

  • So, every definer, you practice writing dictionary definitions.

    所以,每個定義者,你都要練習寫字典定義。

  • There is one in here that I kept because it was the only definition the director of defining

    這裡面有一個我保留了下來,因為它是唯一的定義,導演的定義。

  • said, “Oh, that's pretty good,” and didn't mark up.

    說:"哦,這挺好的。"並沒有加價。

  • And that isbird strike”, which I defined as a collision in which a bird or flock of

    而這就是 "鳥擊",我將其定義為:鳥類或鳥群的碰撞。

  • birds hits the engine of an aircraft.

    鳥類撞上飛機的發動機。

  • The editorial floor is incredibly quiet.

    編輯部裡安靜得不可思議。

  • Not just really quiet, but sort of sepulchrally quiet.

    不僅僅是真正的安靜,而是那種幽幽的安靜。

  • And you also know that when people are looking up, if you happen to be walking by someone's

    你也知道,當人們在抬頭看的時候,如果你恰好走過別人的。

  • cubicle and they're looking up and staring at nothing, you know that you absolutely should

    小隔間裡,他們抬頭看,盯著什麼,你知道,你絕對應該。

  • not interrupt them.

    不打斷他們。

  • So there's two different processes that go behind it.

    所以背後有兩個不同的過程。

  • The first is a daily thing, and that's called reading and marking.

    第一個是日常的事情,這叫閱讀和標記。

  • And that's where editors spend some time every day basically reading sources.

    而這也是小編每天基本都會花一些時間閱讀資料的地方。

  • And you're reading sources to find new or interesting vocabulary.

    而你正在閱讀來源,尋找新的或有趣的詞彙。

  • The second part is defining.

    第二部分是定義。

  • So when we revise a dictionary, we go through it A to Z,

    所以我們在修訂字典的時候,要從A到Z地去修訂。

  • and you take all the instances for the word you're looking up.You're matching up the

    然後你把所有的實例作為你要查找的單詞。

  • word and its contextual use with the existing dictionary definition.

    詞及其與現有字典定義的上下文用法。

  • Sprachgefühl is a German word that we borrowed into English.

    Sprachgefühl是一個德語單詞,我們把它借用到英語中。

  • It's a word that refers to the feeling for language.

    這是個詞,指的是對語言的感受。

  • You have to be able to look at a sentence and know that "planting out the lettuce" is

    你要能看一句話,就知道 "種出生菜 "就是

  • different from "planting information."

    與 "種植資訊 "不同。

  • It's really sort of where you can look at the warp and weft of language and read it.

    這真的算是你能看懂語言的經緯,讀懂語言。

  • So for a word to get into the dictionary, it needs to meet three basic criteria.

    所以一個詞要想進入字典,需要滿足三個基本標準。

  • The first criteria is widespread use.

    第一個標準是廣泛使用。

  • If something's used in the Wall Street Journal and Vibe, then you figure that's pretty

    如果某些東西被華爾街日報和Vibe使用,那麼你就會覺得那是相當的

  • widespread use.

    廣泛使用。

  • The second one is it needs to have a shelf life.

    第二個是它需要有保質期。

  • Once words get into the dictionary, they tend to stay in dictionaries.

    詞語一旦進入字典,往往就會留在字典裡。

  • The shelf life of a word really depends.

    一個詞的保質期真的要看。

  • There are other words that have very very little use for a lot of time and then suddenly

    還有一些詞,在很多時間裡都沒有什麼用處,然後突然

  • have tons of use.

    有大量的使用。

  • The indian word korma is a great example.

    印度語中的korma就是一個很好的例子。

  • It first was used in English back in the 1830s or 1840s, and it had very very very little

    它最早是在19世紀30年代或19世紀40年代在英語中使用,它有非常非常少的。

  • use, really until the 1990s when people started eating lots of Indian food.

    使用,真正直到20世紀90年代,人們開始吃大量的印度食品。

  • So korma's a more recent addition to the dictionary, even though it's almost 200

    所以korma是最近才出現在字典裡的,雖然已經快200年了

  • years old at this point.

    歲,在這一點上。

  • The third criteria is a word has to have meaningful usewhich means it has to have a meaning.

    第三個標準是一個詞要有意義的用途--也就是說它要有意義。

  • The example I trot out is antidisestablishmentarianism

    我舉出的例子是反建制主義------。

  • Freddy, can you spell antidisestablishmentarianism?”

    "弗萊迪,你能拼出反建制主義嗎?"

  • Uh...no.”

    "呃......沒有。"

  • which most people know as a long word, but it doesn't get used much in print.

    - 大多數人都知道這是一個很長的詞,但它在印刷品中使用的不多。

  • It gets used as an example of a long word.

    它被用來作為一個長字的例子。

  • Antidisestablishmentarianism.”

    "反建制主義"

  • [Laughter from crowd] You want to make sure that the word has a

    [人群中的笑聲]你要確保這個詞有一個。

  • meaning and is not just an example of letters smushed together.

    意義,而不僅僅是一個字母砸在一起的例子。

  • People think of English as something that needs to be defended.

    人們認為英語是需要捍衛的東西。

  • It's this beautiful pristine tower...actually it's much more like a child.

    就是這個美麗的原始塔......其實它更像一個孩子。

  • It's an organic, living thing.

    這是一個有機的、有生命的東西。

  • You bring English into being, and then the minute that it gains gross motor skills, it

    你把英語帶入到它的生命中,然後在它獲得粗大運動技能的那一刻,它就會

  • goes right where you don't want it to go.

    去你不想去的地方。

  • So there are two main approaches to language.

    所以語言的方法主要有兩種。

  • One is prescriptivism, one is descriptivism.

    一個是規定主義,一個是描述主義。

  • Prescriptivism essentially promotes the best practices of English.

    規定主義本質上是提倡英語的最佳實踐。

  • Prescriptivism is, by its nature, exclusionary.

    規定主義在本質上是排他性的。

  • Descriptivism on the other hand, as an approach to language, it follows where language goes.

    另一方面,描述主義作為一種語言方法,它遵循語言的走向。

  • Dictionaries exist on more of the descriptivist end of the spectrum.

    字典的存在更多的是描述性的一端。

  • Dictionaries record language as it is used, not as you think it should be used.

    字典記錄的是語言的使用情況,而不是你認為應該使用的情況。

  • Irregardless.”

    "無所謂。"

  • Not a word.”

    "一個字也不說。"

  • Well, irregardless of that.”

    "好吧,不計較這些。"

  • Irregardless is a word that people have a specific and vehement hatred for.

    無視是人們對這個詞有一種特殊的、強烈的仇恨。

  • Irregardless, really for about 150, 175 years has been pegged as being uneducated, hickish,

    不管怎麼說,真的在150年左右,175年一直被寄予厚望,是沒有文化的,鄉巴佬。

  • representative of people who don't speak English very well.

    代表著英語說得不好的人。

  • It's also entered into dictionaries, which just infuriates people.

    還被錄入了字典,真是氣死人了。

  • It does me no good as a lexicographer to enter irregardless into the dictionary if I don't

    作為一個詞典編纂者,如果我不在詞典中輸入無視,對我沒有任何好處。

  • tell you that when you use it, people are going to think you're a moron.

    告訴你,當你使用它,人們會認為你是一個白痴。

  • So all dictionaries are descriptivist and prescriptivist.

    所以,所有的字典都是描述性的和規定性的。

  • It's too dangerous.”

    "太危險了。"

  • What is the drama with decimate?

    癸丑是什麼戲?

  • With the soul sword activated, Valentine could decimate the entire downworld.”

    "魂劍啟動後,瓦倫丁可以斬殺整個下界。"

  • It is a favorite of people called etymological fallicists, who believe that modern words

    它是被稱為詞源學謬誤論者的最愛,他們認為,現代詞的

  • should only mean what they meant in their origin language.

    只應是其原語的意思。

  • Decimate comes from a Latin verb that means to select and kill one tenth of.

    Decimate來自拉丁語動詞,意思是選擇並殺死十分之一。

  • You just don't really need a word that refers to selecting and killing one tenth of all

    你只是不需要一個詞,指的是挑選和殺死十分之一的人。

  • that often.

    那經常。

  • So decimate gained what's called an extended sense, which means that people began using

    所以decimate獲得了所謂的擴展意義,也就是說,人們開始使用

  • it to refer to widespread devastation, or killing of a bunch of people.

    它指的是大範圍的破壞,或殺了一群人。

  • They also will ignore things, like that the word stew used to mean whorehouse.

    他們也會忽略一些事情,比如燉這個字以前是指妓院。

  • Nobody says, “I hate that we call this chunky soup stew, stew should only be used to refer

    沒有人說:"我討厭我們把這塊湯叫燉湯,燉湯只能用於指

  • to a whorehouse.”

    妓院。"

  • They want English to be pure.

    他們希望英語是純正的。

  • And in their minds, purity means that you stick to the root word as closely as you can.

    而在他們的心目中,純潔的意思是,你要儘可能地貼近根字。

  • And that's fine, except that's just not how English works.

    這很好,只是這不是英語的工作方式。

  • People think of English as this monolithic thing, but it's really not, it's much more

    人們認為英語是這種單一的東西,但其實不是,它更多的是一種

  • like a river.

    像一條河。

  • Every dialect of English is its own current.

    英語的每一種方言都是自己的電流。

  • And all of these currents come together to make this fairly cohesive looking ribbon of

    所有這些電流聚集在一起 形成了這條看起來相當有凝聚力的絲帶

  • water.

    水,

  • But every one of those is integral to the direction of English.

    但每一個人都是英語方向不可或缺的。

  • Controlling water's pretty difficult.

    控制水是相當困難的。

  • If you say, well, you know, “Youth slang really is stupid, and there's no point in

    如果你說,好吧,你知道,"年輕人的俚語真的很愚蠢,沒有必要在

  • paying attention to it,” you're actually stopping this really vital way that new words

    注意它,"你實際上是在阻止這種真正重要的方式,新詞

  • come into English.

    進入英語。

  • If you say business jargon is ugly and stupid, and no one should ever use business jargon,

    如果你說商業術語又醜又笨,沒有人應該用商業術語。

  • I might agree with you, but that's also another important part of how words come into

    我可能會同意你的觀點,但這也是另一個重要的部分,即文字如何進入

  • English, and that's an important way that words are created.

    英語,這也是單詞創作的重要方式。

  • This idea of English being a river really sort of celebrates that every single part

    英語是一條河的想法真的有點慶祝每一個部分

  • of the language is important for the whole.

    的語言是重要的,對整個。

  • It's all part of the same thing, you need all of it for it to survive.

    這都是同一個東西的一部分,你需要所有的東西,它才能生存。

  • I am so happy to explain what those dots in the middle of the words are.

    我很樂意為大家解釋文字中間的那些點是什麼。

  • Those dots in the middle of the words are not marking syllables.

    詞中間的那些點不是標記音節。

  • What they are is for people who have to break a word.

    他們是什麼人,是給那些必須要打破一個字的人。

  • So the whole word won't fit on a line, so they have to find a place to put the hyphen

    所以,整個單詞在一行上放不下,所以他們必須找一個地方放上連字元。

  • and put the rest of the word.

    並把剩下的字。

  • If you walk away and that's all you remember of this, you will make every dictionary editor

    如果你走了,你就只記住了這一點,你會讓每一個字典編輯

  • the happiest person in the world.

    世界上最幸福的人。

When you spend all day in English and everything around you is words, you know,

當你整天在英語中度過,周圍的一切都是單詞,你知道。

字幕與單字
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影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

A2 初級 中文 美國腔 Vox 字典 英語 定義 語言 主義

一個字典作者怎麼定義英文?(How a dictionary writer defines English)

  • 162 15
    Samuel 發佈於 2018 年 01 月 12 日
影片單字