Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • Hello, everyone.


  • Today, I will tell you about such metal as zirconium.


  • Zirconium is a transition metal, which is located in the 4th group in the periodic table of chemical elements.


  • Externally, zirconium looks very similar to titanium, but what makes it different to it is zirconium's slightly different properties.


  • The density of zirconium is 30% higher than that of titanium.

    鋯的密度相較於鈦高出了 30%。

  • This metal is relatively soft and is easy to forge.


  • And from a chemical point of view, zirconium is very stable.


  • It does not react with most acids, such as the concentrated hydrochloric acid or the concentrated nitric acids.


  • Even if you pass an electric current through the acid and connect zirconium to the anode, the metal will still not dissolve in acid.


  • The only acids in which zirconium can dissolve is the concentrated hydrofluoric acid, which I don't have for safety reasons, and the sulfuric acid.

    少數可以讓鋯溶解其中的酸是濃氫氟酸 (因為安全考量,我沒有這種酸)和硫酸。

  • And even then, zirconium still dissolves very slowly in sulfuric acid and only under strong heating.


  • If you heat a piece of zirconium with a burner to make it really red, zirconium will cover itself in a dense film of zirconium dioxide, after which this metal becomes fearless (like Hulk), because the oxide film protects it from any further oxidation.


  • Zirconium has an interesting propertypyrophoricity.


  • That is, if you rub it on a file, all those small zirconium particles will light up in air, forming bright sparks.


  • Also, zirconium powder does burn very brightly in air, making it to the first place of metals with the highest combustion temperatures having one of about 4650 °C.

    另外,粉末狀的鋯在空氣中燃燒時會發出強光。它的沸點最高可以到攝氏 4650 度,是金屬中沸點最高的。

  • At this temperature, the product of combustion of zirconium in air, zirconium dioxide, emits a significant amount of light that is used very widely in pyrotechnics and the old lamps for photography.

    在這個溫度之下,鋯在空氣中燃燒的產物 (二氧化鋯) 會散發出強光,因而廣泛使用於煙火業和舊時攝影用的燈具中。

  • However, zirconium also has disadvantages.


  • Due to its inability to absorb slow neutrons and its high melting temperature, zirconium is used for the construction of nuclear reactors.


  • In an emergency situation, when the reactor overheating, zirconium may begin to react with water in the reactor, releasing explosive hydrogen, which is exactly what happened at Fukushima in 2011.

    在反應器過熱這種緊急狀況發生時,鋯可能會開始跟反應器中的水反應,繼而釋放氫氣。這就是 2011 年時福島發生的情況。

  • The released hydrogen caused the explosion of the building with the reactor.


  • Also, pure zirconium is used as a gas absorber or a getter in vacuum tubes and as a component of alloys for medical equipment.


  • Zirconium dioxide is used for the creation of heat-resistant ceramics, ceramic knives and dental fillings.


  • Some time ago a lot of people were promoting zirconium bracelets practically as a universal cure for any sickness.


  • However, studies have shown that the positive effects from wearing the bracelet are only caused by the strong belief of the person wearing it that it would work, i.e. the placebo effect.


  • Biologically though zirconium doesn't affect human health.


  • Now you know a little bit more about one of the awesome metals, if you would like to support a continuous production of science videos like this one, please support channel on Patreon.

    現在你對這種令人讚嘆的金屬元素又更有了解了。如果你會想要支持一系列這樣的科學影片,請在 Patreon 上支持本頻道。

  • Link in the video description.


Hello, everyone.



單字即點即查 點擊單字可以查詢單字解釋