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  • In October 2015, The World Health Organization released a report,

    2015 年 10 月,世界衛生組織發表的報告

  • classifying red meat and processed meats as cancer risks.

    將紅肉及加工肉品列為致癌物

  • Although the link between processed meat consumption and cancer has been documented before,

    雖然早有文獻指出食用加工肉品會引發癌症

  • this marks the first time it has been listed alongside tobacco and asbestos as carcinogenic.

    但這是首次與菸草、石棉並列為致癌物

  • The reclassification goes against the American meat industry's

    這個新的分類法抵觸了美國肉品業

  • long history of promoting legislation to alter dietary guidelines in their favor.

    長期推動的立法,想修改飲食指南以圖利自身產業

  • So we wanted to know, just how powerful is the meat industry?

    這就令人好奇了,究竟肉品業的勢力有多龐大?

  • Well, overall, meat has been estimated to contribute nearly a trillion dollars to the US economy,

    整體來說,美國的經濟估計光是肉品的消費就貢獻了一兆美元

  • roughly 6% of the GDP.

    大約占據國內生產總值的 6%

  • Worldwide, livestock used for meat are actually responsible for more greenhouse emissions than even cars.

    全球被拿來當作肉品的家畜,所排放的溫室氣體更是超過汽車的總排放

  • But despite this, the massive flood of cash and jobs has made the meat lobby

    儘管如此,大量的金流與工作機會讓肉品業的說客

  • one of the most influential legislative groups in Washington.

    成為華盛頓中最具影響力的立法團體

  • In 2014, they spent more than 4 million dollars lobbying Congress.

    2014 年,肉品業為了向國會議員關說,砸下逾 400 萬美元

  • By comparison, gun control advocates spent less than half that amount.

    相較之下,支持槍枝管制的倡議者的經費不到他們的一半

  • The meat industry has also been closely tied to the US Department of Agriculture, which releases dietary guidelines for Americans.

    肉品業者跟美國農業部也是關係匪淺,而他們就是編制國人飲食指南的機構

  • Understandably, the relationship between meat manufacturers and the US government

    不難理解地,肉品製造商與美國政府的關係

  • has many questioning whether those guidelines are actually in Americans' best interests.

    讓很多人懷疑,飲食指南的設計是否真的是為了大眾的健康著想

  • Especially considering that the USDA even runs programs which are intended to fund advertising for meat and dairy.

    尤其因為美國農業部甚至有方案,專門補助肉品及乳品的廣告宣傳活動

  • The Atlantic reports that at least since 1977,

    大西洋雜誌曾報導過,至少從 1977 年開始

  • efforts by the USDA to suggest decreasing meat consumption have been repeatedly derailed.

    美國農業部為倡導減少肉品消費所做的努力被一再地破壞

  • Due to pressure from the meat industry, instead of telling consumers to eat less,

    由於肉品業者的施壓,政府並沒有勸導消費者少吃肉

  • they have been told to eat moreleanmeats.

    反而轉為鼓勵多購買瘦肉

  • But the overall recommended amount of meat has been kept relatively steady over the past few years.

    然而過去幾年來,政府對肉類的建議攝取量,整體來說差異不大 

  • This, despite the fact that Americans on average actually consume considerably more protein than they need.

    即便美國人平均攝取的蛋白質已超出所需

  • Eating less meat overall would lower both fat and protein consumption,

    少吃肉對民眾而言,是少攝取了點脂肪和蛋白質

  • but for the meat industry, that might be their worst nightmare.

    但對於肉品產業而言,這可是天大的噩耗

  • And that's not because Americans themselves follow USDA guidelines all that strictly.

    這不是因為美國人嚴守美國農業部的飲食指南

  • American meat consumption has already been dropping over the past two decades.

    過去 20 年來,民眾對肉品的需求已逐漸下滑

  • Rather, these guidelines are most utilized by federal feeding programs,

    確切的原因是,飲食指南主要運用在聯邦政府的公共飲食規劃

  • like those used in schools and prisons.

    像是學校及監獄的膳食

  • A lower recommended amount of meat would translate to a massive financial loss for suppliers.

    因此建議較低的肉品量,會直接導致業者損失龐大的利潤

  • But the meat industry hasn't just influenced the USDA to keep meat amounts the same.

    業者不只施壓美國農業部使其維持穩定的肉品需求

  • It has also intervened in food safety.

    甚至還介入食品安全的政策

  • In the 1990s, attempts to start testing for salmonella in ground beef were opposed by the meat industry.

    1990 年代,政府試圖查驗牛絞肉中的沙門氏菌,卻被肉品業反對阻饒

  • A congressman with financial ties to the meat industry called for more hearings and delays

    一位與肉品業者有利益掛勾的議員,訴請召開多場聽證會與延期

  • against new food safety guidelines.

    以阻撓新的食品安全管理法

  • Similarly, despite heavy support from environmental groups as well as the public,

    同樣的情形,儘管受環保團體及民眾的大力支持

  • the USDA has refused to incorporate sustainability goals into their projected dietary guidelines.

    美國農業部拒絕把生態永續性列入飲食指南的規劃內

  • Luckily, the USDA's 2015 dietary guidelines are expected to actually impose some limits on meat consumption.

    值得慶幸的是,美國農業部 2015 年官方的飲食指南,傳出將部分限制肉品的攝取

  • In addition to advising against red and processed meat, they will also downplay the supposed health benefits of lean meats.

    除了會宣導少吃紅肉及加工肉品,也不再強調「瘦肉對健康有益」

  • However, final guidelines have not yet been released, and will no doubt be further influenced by the meat industry.

    然而最終的飲食指南目前尚未公佈,而且毫無疑問地,肉品業者將會持續干預

  • Bacon is included among the list of meats with cancer risks,

    培根此次也被列入致癌的名單中

  • and for a long time, it's been a staple of American culture.

    長期以來,培根一直是美國飲食文化中的主食

  • To find out more about the history of bacon, check out this video by Secret Daily.

    想了解更多培根的歷史,來看看 Secret Daily 的這支影片

  • It did take a hit around the 1980s and 90s, when the low fat diet became popular.

    在 1980 與 90 年代時低脂飲食盛行,培根的確有受到影響

  • But it did not end America's bacon passion.

    但這並沒有澆熄美國對於培根的熱愛

  • Around this time, the Atkins diet and low carb high protein movement started to gain popularity.

    在這段時間,阿金減肥法與低碳高蛋白飲食的提倡開始流行

  • So there was yet another shift in how Americans perceived bacon.

    所以美國對於培根的看法又有另一波變化

  • Thanks for watching TestTube News!

    謝謝您觀賞 TestTube News!

  • Make sure to like and subscribe for new videos everyday.

    記得要按讚並訂閱,收看我們每日的新影片

In October 2015, The World Health Organization released a report,

2015 年 10 月,世界衛生組織發表的報告

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肉品業的勢力有多大? (How Powerful Is The Meat Industry?)

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    羊奶 發佈於 2018 年 02 月 14 日
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