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  • (laid-back electronic music)

    (背景音樂)

  • - Hello, everyone, and welcome back to English with Lucy.

    哈囉,歡迎大家回到"English with Lucy"。

  • Today, I've got a video that I've never really done before.

    今天這隻影片的主題我從未真的拍攝過

  • I've never really spoken about writing, as far as I know.

    在我記憶中,我沒有真的教過寫作的技巧

  • So, this one has been highly requested.

    所以這個主題一直被高度要求

  • I know a lot of you are doing your IELTS exams,

    我知道你們很多人都在做雅思考試

  • so I have got seven top tips

    所以我有七個最重要的技巧

  • that are going to help you improve your writing.

    可以幫助提升你們的寫作

  • Quickly, before we get started, I'd just like to thank

    快速一提 在我開始前 我要感謝

  • the sponsor of today's video, Lingoda.

    今天影片的贊助商,Lingoda。

  • Lingoda is an amazing online language academy.

    Lingoda是一個很棒的線上語言學校

  • They don't just teach English;

    他們不只教英文

  • they also teach Spanish, German, and French.

    還教西班牙語,德語,和法語

  • You can subscribe to Lingoda on a monthly package basis,

    你可以訂閱Lingoda每月的事物

  • and you will gain access to a combination

    然後你會得到

  • of both group and private video lessons

    團體和個別的影片課程

  • with real, qualified, native teachers.

    是真實,合格,本地的老師受教

  • It's actually highly relevant to this video,

    實際上這跟這部影片有很大的關係

  • because you really, ideally want somebody

    因為你真的想要有人

  • to check through your writing.

    幫你看過你的文章

  • So, in your private lessons on Lingoda,

    所以在你Lingoda的個人課程裡

  • you can mention that you'd like them

    你可以說你想要他們

  • to look at your writing,

    幫你看過你的文章

  • and that's what you can focus on for that lesson.

    然後你可以專注在那個課程上面

  • Lingoda has given all English with Lucy subscribers

    Lingoda有給所有"English with Lucy"的訂閱者

  • a special discount; you can get $50 or €50

    一個特別的優惠,第一個月你可以減少$50 或50歐元

  • off your first month at Lingoda.

    在Lingoda

  • All you have to do is click on the link

    你只要點擊連結

  • in the description box and apply this code at checkout.

    在資訊欄裡 然後在checkout裡打上這個序號

  • Let's get started with the lesson.

    我們來開始這個課程吧

  • So, my first tip for improving your writing

    所以 我的第一個提升寫作的技巧是

  • is keep it simple.

    保持簡單

  • Now, I know this seems really, really obvious,

    現在 我知道這個看起來非常非常明確

  • but I always say to my students simple done accurately

    但是我一直跟我的學生說精確又簡單的文章

  • is better than complicated done inaccurately.

    勝過複雜卻不精準的

  • In other words, it's better to keep things simple

    換句話說 最好是讓所有事情弄的很簡單

  • and do it well, rather than over-complicate everything

    且做得好 勝過太過於複雜的事情

  • and do it badly.

    然後弄的很糟

  • So, in English writing exams,

    所以 在英文寫作考試裡

  • you want to show off your English,

    你想要表現你的英文程度

  • but you want to show off your accurate English,

    但是你想要表現你的精準度

  • not all this English that you don't know

    不是所有你不知道的

  • or haven't learnt yet.

    或沒學的

  • Now, that leads me on to point number two.

    現在 這帶我們到第二點

  • In order to avoid making mistakes in your writing,

    為了避免發生錯誤在寫作上

  • it's a really, really good idea

    好主意是

  • to have a collection of set phrases and keywords

    收集好以系列的片語和關鍵詞

  • that you can use in that exam.

    是可以用在你的考試上的

  • So, my tip number two is prepare key phrases.

    所以 我的第二點是準備好重要片語

  • Now, you do have to be careful with this.

    現在 你需要很小心地使用

  • You don't want to rehearse what you're going to write,

    你不想要演練你要寫的東西

  • but you do want to have a nice selection of things

    但是你要準備一些好的選集

  • that you could possible say if the time arises.

    那是你可能在時間到的時候說的

  • Now, especially on the IELTS exam,

    現在 特別是在雅思考試上

  • and I know a lot of you are studying for this

    我知道你們很多人都在準備這個考試

  • but this really goes for any academic writing exam,

    但是這可以用在各個學術寫作考試上

  • you want to have linking words and key phrases prepared.

    你想要有一些準備好的連接詞和重要片語

  • Now I'm going to give you a list

    現在我要給你們一個清單

  • with two examples for each point.

    各包含兩個例子

  • It doesn't cover everything that you need to know,

    這不包含所以你們該知道的

  • but if you study everything in the list,

    但是如果你們讀所有出現在清單上的東西

  • you will be much, much more prepared

    你會比原本更加準備

  • for your English writing exam.

    你的英文寫作考試

  • So, pay attention, and if there's any point that you think,

    所以 注意 如果有任何你們覺得

  • "I really could expand on that,"

    我可以發展的詞

  • go and do your research, and prepare yourself.

    去查詢 然後自己做準備

  • You want to make sure that you have a variety

    你想要確認你有很多樣的

  • of different ways to ...

    方式去

  • compare: "in the same way," "at the same time,"

    比較:”“in the same way", "at the same time,"

  • contrast: "on the contrary," "however,"

    對比:"on the contrary","however"

  • give examples: "for instance," "to illustrate,"

    舉裡:"for instance","to illustrate",

  • give your opinion: "from my perspective,"

    提出自己看法:"from my perspective",

  • "from my point of view,"

    "from my point of view",

  • generalise: "overall," "all things considered,"

    歸納:"overall","all things considered",

  • to express certainty: "undoubtedly," "of course,"

    表示確定:"undoubtedly","of course",

  • to express partial agreement: "in a way," "to some extent,"

    表示部份贊同:"in a way","to some extent"

  • to show cause: "owing to," "due to,"

    表示原因:"owing to ","due to"

  • to show effect: "for this reason," "consequently,"

    表示結果:"for this reason","consequently"

  • to mark time: "to begin with," "following this,"

    標記時間:"to begin with","following this"

  • to add information: "furthermore," "moreover,"

    補充資料:"furthermore","moreover"

  • to express condition: "unless," "provided that,"

    表示條件:"Unless","provided"

  • and to conclude: "in summary," "in short."

    然後做結論:"in summary","in short"

  • So that's just a very brief list

    這是一個簡單的清單

  • showing you exactly what you need to study

    確切地告訴你們什麼是你們需要讀的

  • to be fully prepared for any English writing exam.

    來準備好任何英文寫作考試

  • Now, point number three, and definitely,

    第三點

  • definitely, definitely for academic writing,

    給學術寫作

  • i.e. English tests or university pieces,

    例如 英文考試或大學作品

  • do not use contractions.

    不要用縮寫

  • Or is that don't use contractions?

    還是甭要縮寫?

  • So, cannot to can't,

    用cannot代替can't

  • do not to don't,

    do not 代替don't

  • shall not to shan't,

    shall not 代替shan't

  • I am to I'm, these are all examples of contractions,

    I am 代替 I'm,這些都是縮寫的例子

  • and in your writing exams you want to avoid these.

    在寫作裡要避免這些

  • I know that you guys really, really, really

    我知道你們真的

  • want to keep your word count down

    想要減少字數

  • because you are restricted,

    因為有被限制

  • and you want to show off as much as you possibly can,

    然後你想表現你最多能寫的

  • but I've got lots of tips for reducing your word count

    我有很多技巧讓你們減少字數

  • coming up, so make sure that you do not feel tempted

    所以確定你們不要用縮寫

  • to include contractions in your academic writing.

    來減少字數在你的寫作上

  • So, tip number four, reduce your word count.

    第四點 減少你的字數

  • Use as few words as possible.

    越少越好

  • Completely contradictory, because I've just told you

    相當矛盾 因為我告訴過你們

  • that you should not use contractions.

    不要是用縮寫

  • But I've got some really, really good mini tips

    但是我有很好的技巧

  • within this big tip to help you keep your word count down

    來幫助你們減少字數

  • and your English level up.

    然後提升你們的英文程度

  • The first one is avoid these dead weight words

    第一 避免適用沒有價值的字

  • like "very," "so," "a lot," "really."

    像是 "like", "so", "a lot", "really"

  • I have mentioned this before in a video,

    我在這影片裡有提及過

  • but if you want to show off your English,

    如果你們想要表現你們的英文程度

  • avoid these; they're pointless.

    避免這些字 他們沒有意義

  • They are empty calories in English.

    在英文裡面他們很沒有重量

  • Replace them, instead, with a strong word.

    用強而有力的字代替他們

  • So instead of saying "really happy,"

    所以用來代替”‘really happy"

  • I would say, "I am elated."

    我會說 “I am elated"

  • Instead of saying "so scared," I would say "terrified."

    代替"so scared" 我會說“terrified"

  • Okay?

    可以嗎?

  • So, by using strong words and avoiding these boring words,

    用強而有力的詞然後避免這些無聊的詞

  • you can reduce your word count by a fair bit.

    你可以減少一些字數

  • Now, another way to really reduce your word count

    另一種方式來減少字數

  • but really improve the quality of your writing

    且大大提升你的寫作品質

  • is avoiding "there is" and "there are."

    是避免"there is" 和 "there are"

  • We want everything to be as clear as possible,

    我們想要越清楚越好

  • and sometimes "there is" and "there are"

    有時候"there is" 和 "there are"

  • can act as fillers; they add extra words to our sentences.

    像是濫竽充數 他們是多餘的字在句子裡

  • So, I'm going to give you an example

    我要來給你們一個例子

  • so you can see this and bear it in mind

    你就可以看見 然後下次就會記在腦海裡

  • next time you're doing an academic piece of writing.

    當你在寫作的時候

  • Sentence one: there are many problems that we may encounter.

    第一句:there are many problems that we may encounter.

  • There are many problems that we may encounter.

    There are many problems that we may encounter.

  • Sentence two: We may encounter many problems.

    第二句:We may encounter many problems.

  • We may encounter many problems.

    We may encounter many problems.

  • The first sentence has eight words.

    第一句有八個字

  • The second sentence has five words.

    第二句有五個字

  • You have reduced your word count, and you have increased

    你有減少字數 然後提升了

  • the quality and the clarity of your writing.

    你寫作的質量和明確性

  • So, make sure you apply this in your next exam.

    所以確認你有試用這個技巧在你下一次寫作時

  • Number five, read ...

    第五 讀

  • the right documents.

    對的文件

  • Read the right pieces of writing.

    讀對的寫作文章

  • I know many of you like to read in your spare time,

    我知道你們很多人都喜歡在休閒時間看書

  • you like to do it for fun,

    你們用來娛樂

  • and a lot of you will read books in English,

    很多人會讀英文的書

  • which is amazing for improving you spelling

    是個很棒的方式來提升拼字

  • and improving your vocabulary as well.

    和單字

  • But if you're trying to get a good score

    但是如果你們是要得到好的分數

  • in an academic writing exam,

    在學術寫作的考試上

  • you might not be reading the right kind of thing.

    你可能不是在讀對的東西

  • Look at the potential pieces of writing

    看那些寫作文章

  • that they're going to ask you to do.

    是你要寫得

  • Are they asking you to write article, reports, essays?

    你是要寫文章 報導 還是短文?

  • Maybe they're asking you to write all three.

    可能他要你寫這三種的全部

  • If they are, read all three.

    如果他們是 那就讀這三種得全部

  • You need to go online or go to your library

    你需要上網或去圖書館

  • and read articles, read reports,

    然後讀文章 讀報導

  • read essays, read reviews.

    看短文 讀評論

  • Do everything you can to familiarise yourselves

    做所有你可以讓自己熟悉

  • with all the styles of writing.

    各類的寫作樣式

  • Number six is one that you will have heard in school

    第六點是你在學校會常常聽到的

  • so many times; but, I've worked as a teacher

    但是 我在學校當老師

  • for many, many years, and I get so frustrated

    好多好多年了 然後很困擾因為

  • with silly, stupid mistakes

    很多很愚蠢的錯誤

  • that I know that my students know.

    我知道我的學生知道

  • They don't make these mistakes when they're speaking,

    他們不會再說話的時候犯錯

  • so why do they make them when they're writing?

    但是為什麼他們寫作的時候會犯錯

  • So many times I've gone and I've prepared a lesson

    所以我有準備課程好幾次

  • because I've seen that there were some very clear mistakes

    因為我有看到很清楚的錯誤

  • in my students' writing.

    在我學生的文章中

  • And I prepare a lesson to correct this mistake,

    然後我準備了課程去改正這個問題

  • and when I go to teach it they say,

    然後當我上這堂課的時候 他們說

  • "But teacher, we already know this; this is baby stuff."

    “但是老師 我們已經知道了 這是幼稚園的東西”

  • And it's because they don't check their work.

    這是因為他們都不檢查他們的文章

  • I have a clear example of this.

    我有一個很清楚的例子

  • I used to work as a proofreader.

    我曾經當過校對員

  • I used to check through documents

    我以前檢查文件

  • before they got sent off to publishers

    在送出出版社錢

  • to make sure that they were all correct,

    確認文章都是正確的

  • that there was no spelling mistakes,

    沒有拼錯字

  • there were no grammar mistakes,

    沒有文法上的錯誤

  • there was nothing, nothing wrong, they were all perfect.

    沒有任何錯誤 都是精確的

  • And I was amazing at doing this.

    我非常會做這件事

  • I could get every single mistake.

    我可以找出每一個錯誤

  • Just by looking at a document from a distance

    遠遠就能看出

  • I could pick out those errors.

    我可以挑出那些錯誤

  • However, if you follow me on Instagram,

    然而 如果你有在Instagram上追蹤我

  • you will see that I make spelling and grammar mistakes

    你會看到我有拼字和文法錯誤

  • all the time.

    每一次

  • Why?

    為什麼?

  • Because I don't check; I don't check my writing.

    因為我不檢查 我不檢查我的寫作

  • I am a native English speaker, and I make spelling mistakes.

    我是一個母語是英文的人 然後我會有拼字錯誤

  • Granted, many of them are due to auto-correct on my phone,

    同意!很多都是手機自動校正

  • which I am battling with.

    我在對抗中

  • But a lot of them are my fault.

    但是很多都是我的錯

  • And I don't check them, so I don't see them.

    我不檢查 所以我不會看見錯誤

  • I know when you finish an exam, you're like,

    我知道當你們做完一份考試 你會

  • "Ugh, I'm done; I want to move on to the next question,"

    “痾 我做完了 我要做下一題了”

  • but you can avoid so many point deductions

    但是你可以避面分數被扣

  • just by checking through your work,

    只要你檢查過你的工作

  • so please, please, please, make it your absolute priority.

    所以把這件事作為優先事項

  • I personally think it's much better if you write less

    我個人覺得你寫少點

  • and check more; fewer words, higher accuracy.

    然後多檢查比較好 少一點字 精準性高一點

  • And I know normally I promote fluency over accuracy,

    我知道我通常推廣流利勝過準確性

  • but not in writing exams.

    但是不適用於寫作考試

  • In writing exams, you want perfection.

    在寫作考試裡 你想要完美

  • Now, number seven is perhaps the most relevant

    第七點 最有關

  • and the most difficult of all, especially if you're in

    且最困難的 特別是你在

  • really remote parts of the world.

    很遙遠的地方

  • Number seven is write and get it checked.

    第七點是寫然後檢查

  • Write and get it checked.

    寫完然後檢查過

  • And unfortunately, the getting it checked thing

    很不幸的 這件事

  • is a lot harder than it seems.

    比看起來還難

  • You want to write as much as possible,

    你想要寫盡可能的寫很多

  • checking it, of course.

    當然要檢查

  • It used to really annoy me when my students

    這以前常常困擾我 當我的學生

  • would come in with five essays.

    會給我五個短文

  • I was so happy that they'd done that,

    我很開心他們能做到

  • but then I saw that they'd made loads and loads

    但是當我看到他們做了很多很多

  • of stupid mistakes, and I just thought,

    的愚蠢錯誤 然後我就會想

  • "Ugh, why didn't you check it?

    “痾 為什麼你不檢查呢?”

  • "I'm just correcting the same thing over and over again."

    我一而再 再而三的在改正一樣的東西

  • But write as much as you can, check it,

    盡可能地寫 檢查他

  • and then see if you can find somebody to correct it.

    然後看看有沒有人能幫你改正

  • Now, I'm not saying find a complete stranger.

    我不是指要找一個完全不熟的人

  • It's got to be in their interest to correct it as well.

    要是對方樂於檢查才可以

  • I personally think it's very unlikely

    我個人覺得這不大可能

  • that you're going to find a random teacher on the internet

    隨機在網路上找到一個老師

  • that will be willing to check your writing for free.

    願意免費幫你改你的文章

  • However, there are lots of services and pen pal sites

    然而 有很多服務和筆友

  • if it's like a mutual exchange.

    像是相互交換

  • If you find somebody who wants to learn your language

    如果你發現有人想要學習你的語言

  • and they can help you with your English,

    然後他們可以幫助你的英文

  • then you can do that.

    那麼你可以去做

  • Or, like I mentioned, on services such as Lingoda,

    或是想我說的 服務方面 例如 Lingoda

  • and you can just have a straight hour of analysing writing

    而且你可以直接分析文章

  • that you've already done and already sent them.

    是你做過的 然後寄給他們的

  • But I will say, especially to my younger viewers,

    我會說 特別是年輕一點的觀看者

  • really, really, really be careful when you're contacting

    要特別小心 當你在接觸

  • people online to practise your English.

    在網路上練習你英文的人

  • Make sure it's a trustworthy person, because there are

    確認他是值得信任的

  • so many predators that want to talk to you,

    因為很多掠食者想要跟你說話

  • especially young girls, to "practise their English,"

    特別是對年輕女性 他們說要看你的英文

  • and it doesn't actually turn out to be a English practise.

    但是實際上並不是在練習英文

  • It turns out to be something quite different,

    而是一些不同目的的

  • so please, please, please be careful.

    所以一定要特別小心