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  • Paris, 1900. More than fifty million people from around the world visited the Universal Exposition

    巴黎,西元1900年。從世界各地前來參觀世界博覽會的人超過五千萬人

  • —a world's fair intended to promote greater understanding and tolerance among nations,

    —為了促進國家民族之間更多的理解與包容而舉辦的世界性展覽

  • and to celebrate the new century, new inventions, exciting progress.

    也為了慶祝新的發明、令人興奮的進步與新世紀的到來。

  • The 20th century began much like our ownwith hope that education, science and technology could

    20 世紀更像是屬於我們自己的時代—充滿了對於教育、科學與技術的期待

  • create a better, more peaceful world. What followed soon after were two devastating wars.

    以創造一個更美好、和平的世界。但隨之而來的卻是兩次毀天滅地的戰爭

  • The first "world war," from 1914 to 1918, was fought throughout Europe and beyond.

    「 第一次世界大戰 」 從西元 1914 年到 1918 年,從歐洲大陸延燒到鄰近地區

  • It became known as "the war to end all wars." It cast an immense shadow on tens of millions of people.

    形成了著名的 「 以戰止戰 」。 一次大戰成了數以萬計人民心中最深的陰影

  • "This is not war," one wounded soldier wrote home. "It is the ending of the world."

    「 這不是戰爭 」 一個受傷的士兵寫到 「 這是世界的終結。 」

  • Half of all French men aged 20 to 32 at war's outbreak were dead when it was over.

    從戰爭爆發到結束時,年齡在 20 至 32 歲的法國男人超過半數都成了屍體

  • More than one third of all German men aged 19 to 22 were killed.

    年齡 19 到 22 歲的德國男性則有超過三分之一被殺

  • Millions of veterans were crippled in body and in spirit. Advances in the technology of killing included the use of poison gas.

    成千上萬的退伍軍人在身體與精神上都有了殘疾。在殺戮的科技上則有了長足的進步,包括使用毒氣

  • Under the pressure of unending carnage, governments toppled and great empires dissolved.

    在無窮盡的大屠殺壓力下,政府的政權開始搖搖欲墜,大帝國也因此瓦解

  • It was a cataclysm that darkened the world's view of humanity and its future.

    這樣的大變動使整個世界對人性的觀點與人類的未來變得模糊、黯淡

  • Winston Churchill said the war left "a crippled, broken world."

    溫斯頓˙邱吉爾曾說這場戰爭留給我們的是 「 一個殘缺、破碎的世界 」

  • The humiliation of Germany's defeat and the peace settlement that followed in 1919 would

    隨後西元 1919 年德國戰敗的恥辱與和平協定

  • play an important role in the rise of Nazism and the coming of a second "world war" just 20 years later.

    在納粹崛起與 20 年後的二次大戰中扮演重要的角色,

  • What shocked so many in Germany about the treaty signed near Paris, at the Palace of Versailles,

    在凡爾賽皇宮簽訂的條約震驚了許多德國人

  • was that the victors dictated a future in which Germany was deprived of any significant military power.

    戰勝國命令德國未來必須撤除大部分的軍事武裝

  • Germany's territory was reduced by 13%.

    德國的領土被縮減 13%

  • Germany was forced to accept full responsibility for starting the war and to pay heavy reparations. To many,

    德國被強迫承擔所有引起戰爭的責任且要支付相當大量的賠償,對許多人來說

  • including 30-year old former army corporal Adolf Hitler, it seemed the country had been

    包括 30 歲的退役士兵阿道夫˙希特勒,這個國家就像是被

  • "stabbed in the back"—betrayed by subversives at home and by the government who accepted the armistice.

    「 從背後捅了一刀 」— 被那些沒上過戰場的滋事份子及接受休戰協議的政府給背叛了

  • In fact, the German military had quietly sought an end to the war it could no longer win in 1918.

    事實上,當德國軍隊在西元 1918 年了解到不可能戰勝時,便靜靜地尋找結束戰爭的契機

  • "It cannot be that two million Germans should have fallen in vain,"

    「 決不能讓兩百萬德國人的所作所為都變得徒勞無功 」

  • Adolf Hitler later wrote. "We demand vengeance!"

    阿道夫˙希特勒寫道 「 我們必須復仇! 」

  • Many veterans and other citizens struggled to understand Germany's defeat and the uncertain future.

    許多退役軍人與公民對德國的戰敗與不確定的未來相當掙扎

  • Troops left the bloody battlefields and returned to a bewildering society. A new

    軍隊離開血流成河的戰場並回到一個不知所措的社會。一個新的、

  • and unfamiliar democratic form of governmentthe Weimar Republicreplaced the authoritarian

    不熟悉的共和憲政體制政府 — 威瑪共和國 — 取代獨裁帝國

  • empire and immediately faced daunting challenges. Thousands of Germans waited in lines for work and food in the early 1920s.

    並立即面臨許多驚人的挑戰。在西元 1920 年代初,成千上萬的德國人排隊為求得工作與食物

  • Middle class savings were wiped out as severe inflation left the currency worthless.

    嚴重的通貨膨脹使的中產階級的存款在當時毫無用武之地

  • Some burned it for fuel. Economic conditions stabilized for a few years,

    有些人甚至拿來當燃料燒了。經濟條件好不容易穩定了幾年後

  • then the worldwide depression hit in 1929. The German banking system collapsed,

    在西元 1929 年又遭遇了世界性的經濟大蕭條。德國的銀行體系崩解

  • and by 1930 unemployment skyrocketed to 22%. In a country plagued by joblessness, embittered

    到了西元 1930 年失業率向上攀升至 22 %。當一個國家處在沒有工作、失去領土的窘況之中

  • by loss of territory, and demoralized by ineffective government, political demonstrations frequently turned violent.

    又因為一個無效率的政府使全國上下垂頭喪氣,政治上的示威遊行屢屢轉變為暴力行動

  • Many political parties had their own paramilitary units to attack opponents

    許多政黨都擁有它們自己的預備軍來攻擊反對者

  • and intimidate voters. In 1932, ninety-nine people were killed in the streets in one month.

    及威脅選民。在西元 1932 年,一個月就有 99 人在街頭喪生

  • Right-wing propaganda and demonstrations played on fears of a Communist revolution spreading from the Soviet Union.

    因為懼怕蘇聯所興起的共產主義革命,右派政權的宣傳活動與示威不斷的上演

  • New social problems emerged from the impact of rapid industrialization and the growth

    都市的成長與快速工業化帶來的影響使新的社會問題開始浮現

  • of cities. Standards of behavior were changing. Crime was on the rise. Sexual norms were in

    日常行為正在改變。犯罪率節節攀升。男主外女主內的模式也已經過去

  • flux. For the first time, women were working outside the home in large numbers, and the

    這是第一次,大量的女性出外工作

  • new constitution gave women the right to vote. Germany's fledgling democracy was profoundly

    且改革後的憲法附與女性投票權。德國新萌芽的民主體制

  • tested by the crumbling of old values and fears of what might come next. Adolf Hitler

    被崩壞的老舊思維與隨後襲來的駭人事物所考驗

  • had been undisputed leader of the National Socialist German Workers Partyknown as

    從西元 1921 年開始阿道夫˙希特勒無庸置疑的是國家社會主義德國工人黨—也就是著名的納粹黨的領袖

  • Nazissince 1921. In 1923, he was imprisoned for trying to overthrow the government. His

    在西元 1923 年時,他因為嘗試顛覆政權而被監禁

  • trial brought him fame and followers. He used the jail time to dictate his political ideas

    但這次的判決也為他帶來名聲與追隨者。他利用在監獄的時間口述記錄個人的政治理念

  • in a book, Mein KampfMy Struggle. Hitler's ideological goals included territorial expansion,

    書名為《我的奮鬥》。希特勒的思想目標包括:領土擴張、

  • consolidation of a racially pure state, and elimination of the European Jews and other

    建立一個種族淨化的國家以及消滅歐洲的猶太人

  • perceived enemies of Germany. He served only a short jail sentence, and after the ban was

    和其他已知的敵人。他僅服了短暫的刑期,並在針對

  • lifted on his National Socialist Party, Hitler and his followers rejoined the battle in the

    國家社會黨的禁令解除後,希特勒與他的追隨者便再次加入

  • streets and in the countryside.

    街頭與鄉間的抗爭中

  • The Nazi Party recruited, organized, and produced a newspaper to spread its message. While downplaying

    納粹黨招募、組織並發行報紙以便傳播他們的訊息

  • more extreme Nazi goals, they offered simple solutions to Germany's problems, exploiting

    但他們對納粹的極端目標僅是輕描淡寫,反而著重於提供解決之道來處理德國的問題、

  • people's fears, frustrations, and hopes. In the early 1930s, the frequency of elections

    利用人民的恐懼、挫折與希望。在西元 1930 年代早期,頻繁的選舉活動

  • was dizzying. So was the number of parties and splinter groups vying for votes. Hitler

    使人眼花撩亂。許多的政黨與團體為了選票互相競爭

  • proved to be a charismatic campaigner and used the latest technology to reach people.

    希特勒證明了他是個具有領袖氣質的候選人,並利用最新的科技來親近人民

  • The Nazi Party gained broad support, including many in the middle classintellectuals,

    納粹黨獲得了廣大的支持,包括許多中產階級—知識份子、

  • civil servants, students, professionals, shopkeepers and clerks ruined by the Depression. But the

    公務人員、學生、專業人員、還有因為經濟大蕭條受衝擊的老闆與店員。

  • Nazis never received more than 38% of the vote in a free national election. No party

    但納粹黨在國家選舉上從未獲得超過 38% 的投票率

  • was able to win a clear majority, and without political consensus, successive governments

    沒有一個政黨能夠獲得絕對多數,如果沒有組成聯合政府,每一任政府

  • could not effectively govern the nation.

    都無法有效率的管理國家

  • Adolf Hitler was not elected to office and he did not have to seize power. He was offered

    阿道夫˙希特勒並沒有當選,但他也不需要奪取權力。

  • a deal just as the Nazis started to lose votes. In January 1933, when the old war hero, President

    當納粹黨的選情不樂觀時,他與某人做了個交易。在西元 1933 年 1 月,當昔日老將

  • Paul von Hindenburg, invited Hitler to serve as Chancellor in a coalition government, the

    保羅˙馮˙興登堡總統,邀請希特勒擔任聯合政府的總理

  • Nazis could hardly believe their luck. The Nazis were revolutionaries who wanted to radically

    納粹黨對這天賜良機感到不可置信。納粹黨是一群期望徹底改變德國的改革者

  • transform Germany. The conservative politicians in the new Cabinet didn't like or trust Hitler,

    儘管新內閣中保守派人士並不喜歡、不相信希特勒

  • but they liked democracy even less, and they saw the leftist parties as a bigger threat.

    但他們更不喜歡民主政體,且他們視左派為更大的威脅

  • They reached out to the Nazis to help build a majority in Parliament. They were confident

    他們協助納粹黨在國會中形成多數。他們非常有自信的認為

  • they could control Hitler. One month later, when arson gutted the German parliament building,

    他們可以掌控希特勒。經過 1 個月,在國會縱火案之後

  • Hitler and his nationalist coalition partners seized their chance. Exploiting widespread

    希特勒與他的民族主義夥伴們逮到了機會。

  • fears of a communist uprising, they blamed Communists for the fire, and declared emergency

    利用大家對共產主義崛起的恐懼,他們譴責共產主義人士計畫了這次縱火案,並立即公告緊急命令

  • rule. President Hindenburg signed a decree that suspended all basic civil rights and

    興登堡總統簽署了這項命令,凍結所有公民基本權利與

  • constitutional protections, providing the basis for arbitrary police actions.

    護憲行動,並為之後的秘密警察組織打下基礎

  • The new government's first targets were political opponents. Under the emergency decree, they

    新政府的第一個目標就是反對黨。在緊急命令授權下

  • could be terrorized, beaten and held indefinitely. Leaders of trade unions and opposition parties

    他們隨時可能會被恐嚇、毆打或扣押。商會理事與反對黨黨主席都被逮捕了

  • were arrested. German authorities sent thousands, including leftist members of Parliament, to

    德國當局將數千人,包括國會中的左派份子

  • newly established concentration camps. Despite Nazi terror and brutal suppression of their

    送入新建成的集中營。儘管納粹黨以恐怖、殘忍的手段壓制他們的反對者

  • opponents, many German citizens willingly accepted or actively supported these extreme

    仍然有許多德國公民欣然地接受或積極地支持如此極端的方法

  • measures in favor of order and security. Many Germans felt a new hope and confidence in

    以建立一個有秩序及安全的國家。許多德國人因此對國家的未來充滿希望與信心

  • the future of their country with the prospect of a bold, young charismatic leader. Nazi

    因為有個作風大膽放肆且年輕有為、具有領袖氣質的人帶領著他們

  • propaganda chief Joseph Goebbels planned to win over those who were still unconvinced.

    納粹黨宣傳部長約瑟夫˙戈培爾打算說服那些仍為心悅誠服於納粹黨底下的人

  • One must govern well, and for good government one must also practice good propaganda. They

    若要妥善治理一個國家,執政當局必須做好宣傳工作

  • work together. A good government without propaganda is not more possible than good propaganda

    這兩者密不可分。即使是個不懂治理國家的政府也可能做好宣傳工作,

  • without a good government.

    但沒做好宣傳工作,就不能稱為一個懂得治理國家的好政府

  • Hitler spoke to the SA, his army of storm troopers.

    希特勒在衝鋒隊 ( 德語 Sturmabteilung 的縮寫 ) 前發表演講,他的納粹黨突擊隊員

  • Germany has awakened! We have won power in Germany. Now we must win the German people.

    德國如今已經甦醒!我們在德國獲得了權力。現在我們必須征服德國人民

  • The ceremonial reopening of Parliament, orchestrated by Joseph Goebbels, aimed to link the Hitler

    國會重啟的儀式,由約瑟夫˙戈培爾所策畫的,是為了將希特勒政權

  • government to Germany's imperial past and portray the Nazis as saviors of the nation's

    與德國過去的帝國歷史連結,並將納粹黨描繪成國家未來的救世主

  • future. The event was carefully staged to reassure the German establishment, including

    整個過程都小心翼翼地呈現,向德國各個機關再三保證

  • the military, that Hitler would respect their traditions. Nazi--controlled newsreels then

    包括軍隊,希特勒會尊重他們的傳統。納粹黨控制了新聞影片

  • gave the impression that the Army supported the new government. Though Hitler walked behind

    打造出軍隊相當支持新政府的形象。雖然希特勒在興登堡總統背後

  • longtime President Hindenburg for now, the new chancellor would soon be Germany's absolute dictator.

    為了今日默默耕耘許久,但這個新的總理很快地會成為徹底統治德國的完全獨裁者

  • Today was dedicated to the New Germany. And more than one hundred thousand schoolchildren

    今日便是我們為新生德國作出奉獻的時刻。超過十萬學童佇立於此

  • stood, shoulder to shoulder, as the car bearing the aged President and the Chancellor proceeded

    肩併肩,當車輛搭載著我們的老總統與總理行進

  • through the crowd to the speaker's stand. Whether you agree with his doctrines or not,

    穿越人群來到演講台。無論你是否同意他的教條

  • it must be admitted that the leadership of Hitler has united the German people for the

    我們都得承認希特勒的領袖魅力讓德國人民在戰後首次團結一心

  • first time since the war. Their almost fanatical enthusiasm is a marvel to the entire world...

    他們這近乎瘋狂的熱情讓全世界都大吃一驚

  • Hindenburg remained President until his death in August 1934. With Hindenburg gone, Hitler,

    興登堡保有他總統的職位直到西元 1934 年 8 月逝世。當興登堡一死,希特勒

  • by agreement with the army, abolished the office of President, declaring himselfhrer

    在軍隊的同意下,廢除了總統的職位,宣布他自己成為元首

  • and Reich Chancellor, leader of the nation and head of the government. Now there was

    兼帝國總理,成為國家最高領導人。如今,他已成為

  • no authority above or beside him. Immediately, the armed forces swore an oath of allegiance to Adolf Hitler.

    一人之下萬人之上。旋即,那些武裝部隊便向希特勒宣誓永遠效忠於他

  • I swear by God this sacred oath to thehrer Adolf Hitler to render unconditional obedience...

    我以神聖的誓言向上帝宣誓將會絕對地服從國家元首阿道夫˙希特勒

  • All civil servants, including teachers and police, members of parliament and the judiciary,

    所有的公僕,包括老師、警察、國會成員及法官

  • swore an oath of loyaltynot to any constitutionbut to Hitler ashrer of the German nation.

    都發誓會永遠效忠—並非向國家憲政或組織—而是向德國國家元首希特勒效忠

  • The economy had reached rock bottom when the Nazis came to power. They boosted its recovery

    納粹黨獲得權力時經濟正一落千丈。他們推行大量公共工程計畫

  • with huge public works projects for the unemployed.

    提供許多工作機會給失業者,以促進經濟復甦

  • A half million folk comrades have gone back to work this year. Since the takeover of power,

    今年有數十萬的同志重返工作崗位。自從 ( 納粹黨 ) 接管德國後

  • unemployment has fallen by more than half.

    失業率已下降超過一半

  • Hitler christened new autobahns triumphantly in a display of national will that would unite

    在全國引頸期盼下,希特勒風光地啟用新的高速公路,這項建設

  • the country and facilitate the secret expansion of Germany's armed forces. In 1935, Germany

    不僅讓全國上下一心,也幫助德國秘密拓展他們的軍隊。在西元 1935 年

  • openly defied the 1919 Treaty of Versailles by reinstituting the draft and increasing

    德國公開地藐視西元 1919 年簽訂的凡爾賽條約,他們又開始徵兵

  • its military strength. The Nazis were delivering on their promises to restore and strengthen

    並提升軍事力量。納粹黨開始兌現他們的承諾,準備重建並增強這個國家

  • the nation. Their achievements encouraged many people to overlook radical Nazi policies,

    他們的所作所為讓許多人民忽視納粹黨的激進政策

  • or even to support them. In September 1935, the Nazi Party gathered in Nuremberg for its

    甚至支持他們。在西元 1935 年 9 月,納粹黨在紐倫堡召開黨代會

  • annual rally. It opened with a traditional hymn that added solemnity and a sense of continuity

    黨代會在傳統的贊歌中開始,同時添入莊嚴的氣氛,並保有過去的氛圍

  • with the past. It ended with a special session of Parliament far from Berlin. New race laws

    黨代會在一個遠從柏臨而來的特殊國會議員致詞下結束。新的種族法案

  • were introduced by Hitler and read by Parliament President Hermannring.

    由希特勒進行發表並由國會議員首長赫爾曼˙戈林宣讀

  • German citizenship is restricted to persons of German or kindred blood. Marriages between

    德國的公民權僅限於德意志人或有血親關係的人。德意志人與有血親關係的人

  • Jews and citizens of German or kindred blood are forbidden. [Cheering]

    禁止與猶太人通婚。( 鼓掌 )

  • The Nazi regime aimed to create a racially pure Germany whose so-called "superior traits"

    納粹當局目標在建立一個種族淨化的德國,也就是他們認為 「 最優秀的種族 」

  • would make it ideally suited to rule the entire European continent. Nazism taught that racial

    純種的德意志人是統治歐洲大陸最理想的人種。納粹主義告訴大家

  • struggle was the driving force in history—"superior" races must battle "inferior" races or be corrupted

    種族鬥爭是千古不變的道理,「 優秀的 」種族必須不斷與 「 下等的 」 種族搏鬥,否則就會被他們汙染

  • by them. The Nazi concept of a national community was exclusive and based on race, as defined

    納粹黨所認可的國家人民,是根據他們所頒布的法律與命令中定義的種族,非我族類不予認同

  • in the new laws and decrees. Heinrich Himmler and the SS led the ideological battle. Racist

    海因里希˙希姆萊與武裝親衛隊 ( 德語:Die Waffen Schutzstaffel,簡稱 SS ) 主要負責意識形態的鬥爭

  • ideas were taught in schools. Some groups, such as Jews, Slavs, Blacks and Roma (also

    種族理念成為學校教材之一。一些族群,像是猶太人、斯拉夫人、黑人與羅馬人 ( 也稱吉普賽人 )

  • called Gypsies) were labeled racially inferior. People with mental or physical disabilities

    被定為下等種族。心理或身體上有殘疾的人

  • were designated "unworthy of life." Scientists and medical professionals applied pseudo-scientific

    則被列為 「 沒有價值的生命 」。科學家與醫學專業者使用偽科學理論

  • theories for measuring and valuing racial characteristics.

    來測試與評價種族特性

  • Before the Nazis assumed power, Jews enjoyed all rights of citizenship in Germany. After

    在納粹黨奪得權力前,猶太人享有所有的德國公民權利

  • 1933, the German government gradually excluded Jews from public life and public education.

    在西元 1933 年之後,德國政府逐漸將猶太人摒除於大眾生活與教育之外

  • Newly established Jewish private schools provided a safe learning environment for some. By 1938,

    新設的猶太人私立學校提供部分人一個安全的學習環境

  • German authorities had isolated and segregated Germany's Jews, expelling them from the professions

    而西元 1938 年德國當局有意地孤立、隔離德國的猶太人,剝奪他們的工作

  • and eliminating most opportunities to earn a living.

    甚至連任何養家餬口的機會都不給

  • We felt so... why can't we be part of it? Why can't we? Everybody said, "Heil Hitler,"

    我們覺得非常的…為什麼我們不能是德國的一份子?為何不?大家都一樣地說著 「 希特勒萬歲 」

  • like this. I did, too. What did I know? I was eight years old. So my mother said to

    就像這樣,我也做了。我什麼也不懂,我只是個八歲小孩。所以我媽媽跟我說

  • me, "You're not supposed to do that." I said, "Why not?" She said, "Haven't you been told

    「 妳不應該這麼做 」 我說:「 為什麼不行? 」 她說:「 難道妳不知道妳是個猶太人嗎? 」

  • that you are Jewish?" I said, "Oh, I forgot."

    我說:「 喔,我都忘了。 」

  • Germany's Jews would get plenty of reminders.

    德國境內所見的事物都在提醒他們自己是「 猶太人 」這個事實

  • Ladies and gentlemen, this is a boycott of Jewish shops. Please keep moving.

    先生女士們,這是一個受抵制的猶太人商店。麻煩繼續往前。

  • This sense of isolation that came upon us after 1933, gradual and increasing, it also

    從西元 1933 年後,這孤立猶太人的現象越來越嚴重

  • affected us psychologically. We knew we were in a hostile world.

    同時也影響了我們的心理。我們知道我們正四面楚歌

  • Between 1933 and 1939, the German government enacted hundreds of laws to define, segregate

    西元 1933 年至 1939 年間,德國政府頒布了上百條法令來限制、隔離德國的猶太人

  • and impoverish German Jews.

    使德國的猶太人陷入一貧如洗的絕境

  • My sister and I used to slink by those huge banners that were all over the city. And we

    過去我跟我的姐妹必須躡手躡腳地走過那些四處飄揚的巨大旗幟。

  • used to just try not to see them, thinking if we didn't see them, they weren't there.

    而我們也只能試著不要看那些旗幟,騙自己如果我們不去看,它們就不存在

  • But they were there. That just, little by little, that really took over.

    但它們就是在那。一點一點地,逐漸蔓延

  • ...without a solution to the Jewish question, there will be no solution for humanity.

    …沒有解決猶太人的問題,就沒有辦法解決人類的劣根性

  • The goal of Nazi propaganda was to demonize Jews and encourage Germans to see Jews as

    納粹黨宣傳部的目標就是將猶太人妖魔化,並鼓勵德國人

  • dangerous outsiders in their midst. After 1935, everyday antisemitism was a regular

    將猶太人視為危險的異族。西元 1935 年之後,反猶太主義就像日常活動一般

  • part of carnival parades and floats. Public displays of antisemitism reinforced a climate

    從遊行活動到旗幟口號都能看見。公開展示反猶太主義的行為,更加強了

  • of hostility toward Jews in Germany, or at the least, indifference to their treatment.

    德國對猶太人的敵意,或是至少讓大眾漠視他們的遭遇

  • In March 1938, German troops moved into neighboring Austria. Germany shredded another provision

    西元 1938 年 3 月,德軍進駐鄰近的奧地利。德國又再打破其他凡爾賽條約的協議

  • of the Versailles Treaty, as Hitler's homeland was incorporated into Germany. It was a disaster

    當希特勒的故鄉被併入德國。這對奧地利猶太人來說是個災難的開始。

  • for Austrian Jews. Within a year, the Nazis achieved in Austria what had taken five years to carry out in Germany.

    在一年內,納粹黨便完成了在德國境內需要五年才能達成的工作

  • On November 9th, the Nazi Party orchestrated an outbreak of anti-Jewish violence throughout

    11 月 9 日,納粹黨在德國各地策劃了一個反猶太暴力行動

  • Greater Germany. It was a lawless onslaught that outraged the world and provoked criticism

    這次違法的突擊行動激怒了世界各國也讓德國當局受到非議

  • of the regime by many Germans. Jewish businesses that had already suffered antisemitic attacks

    那些早已受到反猶太攻擊的商家

  • were targeted for deliberate vandalism disguised as spontaneous public action. Party officials

    又被偽裝成自發公民行動的蓄意破壞行為當成目標。

  • directed the SA, SS and Hitler Youth to destroy Jewish shops and torch synagogues. Over 7,000

    黨部指揮衝鋒隊、武裝親衛隊與希特勒青年團去破壞猶太人的商店、到猶太會堂縱火

  • Jewish-owned businesses were vandalized. Germans named the violent attacks KristallnachtNight

    超過 7000 家猶太人經營的商店遭到破壞。德國人將此次暴力行動稱為水晶之夜—碎玻璃之夜—

  • of Broken Glassfor the shattered windows of Jewish-owned stores that littered the streets.

    因為猶太人經營的商店櫥窗玻璃碎落一地,遍佈街道

  • The nationwide violence damaged or destroyed more than 250 synagogues.

    這次全國性的暴動也損壞或摧毀超過 250 座會堂

  • After Kristallnacht, I remember driving through Berlin and seeing the synagogues in flames

    水晶之夜後,我記得我經過柏林時,看見猶太會堂被火舌吞沒

  • and all the glass on the streets, and the people huddled and depressed. They walked

    而所有的玻璃都碎在街上,人們全都沮喪著、蜷縮著

  • around like the victims, like the hunted.

    他們的樣子就像是受害者、就像個獵物般

  • German police filled the concentration camps with thousands of Jewish inmates. The SS released

    德國警察將上千名猶太居民送入集中營。

  • them only if they agreed to emigrate. But Jews faced increasingly restrictive immigration

    只有他們同意移民,武裝親衛隊才會放他們出來。但猶太人面對的是其他國家越來越少的移民配額

  • quotas in most countries and bureaucratic hurdles in Germany. A new law issued in October

    以及德國繁文縟節的移民手續。西元 1938 年 10 月一個新的法律生效了

  • 1938 required Jews to surrender their old passports, which would be valid only after

    要求猶太人上繳他們的護照,並且要在蓋上「 J 」 文字之後才可使用

  • the letter "J" was stamped on them. Two months later, another law prevented the flight of

    2 個月後,又有一個新的法律生效,用來防止猶太人擁有航空公司

  • capital owned by Jews, when the Economics Ministry froze all Jewish property and assets.

    經濟部長透過凍結猶太人的資產來達成此一目的

  • Many who had the means and somewhere to go tried to leave Germany. Some families sent

    許多人有意願且有地方可去的話,都試著離開德國。有些家庭

  • their children alone to other, safer countries. They could not know how soon the world would be at war.

    將他們的小孩送到其他安全的國家。他們不可能知道這世界即將陷入戰火之中

  • As the Nazi regime implemented its long-standing goal of territorial expansion, aggression

    當納粹當局開始實踐他們的長期目標—領土擴張時,他們開始侵略鄰國

  • against Germany's neighbors initially succeeded without encountering armed resistance. Hitler

    最初的侵略行為不耗費一兵一卒便成功達成。

  • counted on the reluctance of Britain and Europe to intervene, for fear of another war. The

    希特勒認為英國與歐洲其他各國不願介入的原因是害怕再次引起戰爭

  • German occupation of Prague, capital of Czechoslovakia, left no doubt as to Germany's intent on military

    當德國占領布拉格,捷克首都,德國想要武力征服整個東歐地區的意圖更是不在話下

  • conquest in Eastern Europe. On September 1, 1939, a massive German force invaded and conquered

    西元 1939 年 9 月 1 日,大量德軍入侵並征服波蘭

  • Poland within a month. It was the start of the Second World War. In April 1940, Germany

    僅僅花了一個月時間。那是第二次世界大戰的開端。西元 1940 年 4 月

  • occupied Denmark and Norway. In May, the German armed forces attacked France, the Netherlands,

    德國占領了丹麥與挪威。5 月時,德軍進攻法國、荷蘭

  • Luxembourg and Belgium. In June, Paris fell and France surrendered. The swift and unexpected

    盧森堡與比利時。6 月時,巴黎淪陷、法國投降。迅速且意外的勝利

  • victory over France avenged Germany's defeat and humiliation in the First World War. It

    使德國一雪先前第一次世界大戰敗給法國的恥辱。

  • propelled Hitler to a new level of popularity and trust among the German people. In June

    這也使希特勒的人氣與信任在德國人民間上升至新的境界。

  • 1941, the German Army, with more than three million soldiers, invaded the Soviet Union

    西元 1941 年 6 月,超過 300 萬德意志雄師入侵蘇聯

  • to wage a war of annihilation that targeted tens of millions of civilians. Under conditions

    目標在徹底殲滅蘇聯成千上萬軍民百姓。

  • of war and military occupation, the Nazi regime could pursue its political and racial goals

    透過戰爭與軍隊鎮壓,納粹當局可以藉由更極端的措施來達成他們的政治與種族目標

  • with more radical measures. As German troops advanced into eastern Europe, Germany's power

    當德軍行進東歐,德國的勢力籠罩

  • extended over millions more Jewish inhabitants in the occupied lands, where German authorities

    在占領區中成千上萬的猶太居民之上,

  • could exploit existing anti-Jewish attitudes among local populations.

    德國政府也能藉由當地居民的反猶太態度達成目標

  • Across eastern Europe, German authorities forced those identified as Jews into tightly

    當德國征服整個東歐地區,德國當局強迫那些認定的猶太人遷入

  • packed areas called ghettos. Separated from the non-Jewish population, Jews in the larger

    一個狹小壅擠的區域,並稱之為猶太人區。為了將猶太人與非猶太人區隔開,猶太人

  • ghettos were imprisoned behind brick walls and barbed wire. The German drive eastward

    被關在一個四周建起高聳圍牆並圍上鐵絲網的猶太人區。德國向東繼續前進

  • was cast as a crusade against Judaism and Communismin the Nazi view, two aspects

    並將之包裝為反猶太主義與反共產主義的聖戰—在納粹黨的觀點中

  • of the same evil. German soldiers and police officials treated Soviet prisoners of war

    這兩者與邪惡同源。德軍與警察組織將蘇聯戰俘

  • as sub-humans, either shooting them or deliberately causing their deaths by exposure to the elements

    視為次等人種,他們要不是被射殺,就是被故意地餓死或製造事端害死他們

  • and by starvation. Millions died in German captivity. On the eastern front, racial political

    數以萬計的戰俘在德國的監禁下死去。在東部戰線

  • instruction was part of regular training for all types of German occupation forces. SS

    種族的戰略教育是所有德軍日常訓練的一部分。

  • chief Heinrich Himmler referred to the war against the Soviet Union in an address to

    武裝親衛隊的領導海因里希˙希萊姆在一場演講中,將戰爭的一切歸因於蘇聯

  • his men: "This invasion is an ideological battle and a struggle of races. Here in this

    並對他的軍隊說:「 這次的侵略行動是一場理念與種族間的戰爭,

  • struggle stands National Socialisman ideology based on the value of our Germanic, Nordic

    在這一側陣營中佇立的是國家社會主義 — 一個由尊貴的日耳曼血統的德意志人組成的意識組織…

  • blood... On the other side stands a population of 180 million, a mixture of races whose very

    另一側站立的則是 1 億 8 千萬的低下混血種族

  • names are unpronounceable, and whose physique is such that one can shoot them down without

    他們的名字又臭又長,並且任何人都可以毫不留情地射殺他們…」

  • pity and compassion..." In July 1941, HermannringHitler's second--in--commandauthorized

    西元 1941 年 7 月,赫爾曼˙戈林—權力僅次於希特勒—

  • all necessary preparations for the "final solution of the Jewish question" in the European territory under German control.

    已做好所有萬全準備,打算在所有德國管控的歐洲領土內進行 「 猶太人問題的最後解決之道 」

  • As German military forces advanced, mobile killing squads advanced with them. The German

    當德軍持續行進,一個屠殺部隊也如影隨形。

  • Army, military SS and German police units took an active part in authorized mass murders.

    德軍、武裝親衛隊與德國警察組織共同負責大屠殺的行動

  • The Germans and their accomplices rounded up the victims, drove them on foot or in trucks

    德國人與他們的共謀將受害者團團包圍,逼他們用走的或用卡車

  • to a killing site, often made them remove their clothes, and shot them. Participants

    將他們載到刑場,通常會脫光他們衣服,然後射殺

  • in the murders included local collaboratorsespecially policein Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Ukraine

    在屠殺行動中也不乏當地的合作者—特別是警察—地點包括拉脫維亞、立陶宛、愛沙尼亞、烏克蘭及白俄羅斯

  • and Belarus. The German killing squads and their auxiliaries murdered at least two million

    德國屠殺部隊與他們的協助者在射殺行動中至少殺害了 200 萬

  • Jewish men, women and children in mass shooting operations.

    猶太男人、女人與小孩

  • Back in Germany, SS and police deported the remaining Jews to the occupied eastern territories.

    回到德國,武裝親衛隊與警察將殘留的猶太人驅逐到東部的占領區

  • In German-occupied Warsaw, the walled ghetto that German Jews entered as newcomers in 1942

    西元 1942 年,在德國占領的華沙,被圍起來的猶太人區中遷入了新來的德國猶太人

  • was already a place of mass suffering due to terrible overcrowding, lack of sanitation,

    但此地早已人滿為患又缺乏公共衛生設備

  • disease and starvation imposed by the Germans. Despite all efforts of the imprisoned Jews

    且在德國人的欺壓之下疾病與饑餓充滿猶太區。儘管被囚禁的猶太人

  • to find ways of surviving and sustaining their communities