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  • Paris, 1900. More than fifty million people from around the world visited the Universal Exposition


  • —a world's fair intended to promote greater understanding and tolerance among nations,


  • and to celebrate the new century, new inventions, exciting progress.


  • The 20th century began much like our ownwith hope that education, science and technology could

    20 世紀更像是屬於我們自己的時代—充滿了對於教育、科學與技術的期待

  • create a better, more peaceful world. What followed soon after were two devastating wars.


  • The first "world war," from 1914 to 1918, was fought throughout Europe and beyond.

    「 第一次世界大戰 」 從西元 1914 年到 1918 年,從歐洲大陸延燒到鄰近地區

  • It became known as "the war to end all wars." It cast an immense shadow on tens of millions of people.

    形成了著名的 「 以戰止戰 」。 一次大戰成了數以萬計人民心中最深的陰影

  • "This is not war," one wounded soldier wrote home. "It is the ending of the world."

    「 這不是戰爭 」 一個受傷的士兵寫到 「 這是世界的終結。 」

  • Half of all French men aged 20 to 32 at war's outbreak were dead when it was over.

    從戰爭爆發到結束時,年齡在 20 至 32 歲的法國男人超過半數都成了屍體

  • More than one third of all German men aged 19 to 22 were killed.

    年齡 19 到 22 歲的德國男性則有超過三分之一被殺

  • Millions of veterans were crippled in body and in spirit. Advances in the technology of killing included the use of poison gas.


  • Under the pressure of unending carnage, governments toppled and great empires dissolved.


  • It was a cataclysm that darkened the world's view of humanity and its future.


  • Winston Churchill said the war left "a crippled, broken world."

    溫斯頓˙邱吉爾曾說這場戰爭留給我們的是 「 一個殘缺、破碎的世界 」

  • The humiliation of Germany's defeat and the peace settlement that followed in 1919 would

    隨後西元 1919 年德國戰敗的恥辱與和平協定

  • play an important role in the rise of Nazism and the coming of a second "world war" just 20 years later.

    在納粹崛起與 20 年後的二次大戰中扮演重要的角色,

  • What shocked so many in Germany about the treaty signed near Paris, at the Palace of Versailles,


  • was that the victors dictated a future in which Germany was deprived of any significant military power.


  • Germany's territory was reduced by 13%.

    德國的領土被縮減 13%

  • Germany was forced to accept full responsibility for starting the war and to pay heavy reparations. To many,


  • including 30-year old former army corporal Adolf Hitler, it seemed the country had been

    包括 30 歲的退役士兵阿道夫˙希特勒,這個國家就像是被

  • "stabbed in the back"—betrayed by subversives at home and by the government who accepted the armistice.

    「 從背後捅了一刀 」— 被那些沒上過戰場的滋事份子及接受休戰協議的政府給背叛了

  • In fact, the German military had quietly sought an end to the war it could no longer win in 1918.

    事實上,當德國軍隊在西元 1918 年了解到不可能戰勝時,便靜靜地尋找結束戰爭的契機

  • "It cannot be that two million Germans should have fallen in vain,"

    「 決不能讓兩百萬德國人的所作所為都變得徒勞無功 」

  • Adolf Hitler later wrote. "We demand vengeance!"

    阿道夫˙希特勒寫道 「 我們必須復仇! 」

  • Many veterans and other citizens struggled to understand Germany's defeat and the uncertain future.


  • Troops left the bloody battlefields and returned to a bewildering society. A new


  • and unfamiliar democratic form of governmentthe Weimar Republicreplaced the authoritarian

    不熟悉的共和憲政體制政府 — 威瑪共和國 — 取代獨裁帝國

  • empire and immediately faced daunting challenges. Thousands of Germans waited in lines for work and food in the early 1920s.

    並立即面臨許多驚人的挑戰。在西元 1920 年代初,成千上萬的德國人排隊為求得工作與食物

  • Middle class savings were wiped out as severe inflation left the currency worthless.


  • Some burned it for fuel. Economic conditions stabilized for a few years,


  • then the worldwide depression hit in 1929. The German banking system collapsed,

    在西元 1929 年又遭遇了世界性的經濟大蕭條。德國的銀行體系崩解

  • and by 1930 unemployment skyrocketed to 22%. In a country plagued by joblessness, embittered

    到了西元 1930 年失業率向上攀升至 22 %。當一個國家處在沒有工作、失去領土的窘況之中

  • by loss of territory, and demoralized by ineffective government, political demonstrations frequently turned violent.


  • Many political parties had their own paramilitary units to attack opponents


  • and intimidate voters. In 1932, ninety-nine people were killed in the streets in one month.

    及威脅選民。在西元 1932 年,一個月就有 99 人在街頭喪生

  • Right-wing propaganda and demonstrations played on fears of a Communist revolution spreading from the Soviet Union.


  • New social problems emerged from the impact of rapid industrialization and the growth


  • of cities. Standards of behavior were changing. Crime was on the rise. Sexual norms were in


  • flux. For the first time, women were working outside the home in large numbers, and the


  • new constitution gave women the right to vote. Germany's fledgling democracy was profoundly


  • tested by the crumbling of old values and fears of what might come next. Adolf Hitler


  • had been undisputed leader of the National Socialist German Workers Partyknown as

    從西元 1921 年開始阿道夫˙希特勒無庸置疑的是國家社會主義德國工人黨—也就是著名的納粹黨的領袖

  • Nazissince 1921. In 1923, he was imprisoned for trying to overthrow the government. His

    在西元 1923 年時,他因為嘗試顛覆政權而被監禁

  • trial brought him fame and followers. He used the jail time to dictate his political ideas


  • in a book, Mein KampfMy Struggle. Hitler's ideological goals included territorial expansion,


  • consolidation of a racially pure state, and elimination of the European Jews and other


  • perceived enemies of Germany. He served only a short jail sentence, and after the ban was


  • lifted on his National Socialist Party, Hitler and his followers rejoined the battle in the


  • streets and in the countryside.


  • The Nazi Party recruited, organized, and produced a newspaper to spread its message. While downplaying


  • more extreme Nazi goals, they offered simple solutions to Germany's problems, exploiting


  • people's fears, frustrations, and hopes. In the early 1930s, the frequency of elections

    利用人民的恐懼、挫折與希望。在西元 1930 年代早期,頻繁的選舉活動

  • was dizzying. So was the number of parties and splinter groups vying for votes. Hitler


  • proved to be a charismatic campaigner and used the latest technology to reach people.


  • The Nazi Party gained broad support, including many in the middle classintellectuals,


  • civil servants, students, professionals, shopkeepers and clerks ruined by the Depression. But the


  • Nazis never received more than 38% of the vote in a free national election. No party

    但納粹黨在國家選舉上從未獲得超過 38% 的投票率

  • was able to win a clear majority, and without political consensus, successive governments


  • could not effectively govern the nation.


  • Adolf Hitler was not elected to office and he did not have to seize power. He was offered


  • a deal just as the Nazis started to lose votes. In January 1933, when the old war hero, President

    當納粹黨的選情不樂觀時,他與某人做了個交易。在西元 1933 年 1 月,當昔日老將

  • Paul von Hindenburg, invited Hitler to serve as Chancellor in a coalition government, the


  • Nazis could hardly believe their luck. The Nazis were revolutionaries who wanted to radically


  • transform Germany. The conservative politicians in the new Cabinet didn't like or trust Hitler,


  • but they liked democracy even less, and they saw the leftist parties as a bigger threat.


  • They reached out to the Nazis to help build a majority in Parliament. They were confident


  • they could control Hitler. One month later, when arson gutted the German parliament building,

    他們可以掌控希特勒。經過 1 個月,在國會縱火案之後

  • Hitler and his nationalist coalition partners seized their chance. Exploiting widespread


  • fears of a communist uprising, they blamed Communists for the fire, and declared emergency


  • rule. President Hindenburg signed a decree that suspended all basic civil rights and


  • constitutional protections, providing the basis for arbitrary police actions.


  • The new government's first targets were political opponents. Under the emergency decree, they


  • could be terrorized, beaten and held indefinitely. Leaders of trade unions and opposition parties


  • were arrested. German authorities sent thousands, including leftist members of Parliament, to


  • newly established concentration camps. Despite Nazi terror and brutal suppression of their


  • opponents, many German citizens willingly accepted or actively supported these extreme


  • measures in favor of order and security. Many Germans felt a new hope and confidence in


  • the future of their country with the prospect of a bold, young charismatic leader. Nazi


  • propaganda chief Joseph Goebbels planned to win over those who were still unconvinced.


  • One must govern well, and for good government one must also practice good propaganda. They


  • work together. A good government without propaganda is not more possible than good propaganda


  • without a good government.


  • Hitler spoke to the SA, his army of storm troopers.

    希特勒在衝鋒隊 ( 德語 Sturmabteilung 的縮寫 ) 前發表演講,他的納粹黨突擊隊員

  • Germany has awakened! We have won power in Germany. Now we must win the German people.


  • The ceremonial reopening of Parliament, orchestrated by Joseph Goebbels, aimed to link the Hitler


  • government to Germany's imperial past and portray the Nazis as saviors of the nation's


  • future. The event was carefully staged to reassure the German establishment, including


  • the military, that Hitler would respect their traditions. Nazi--controlled newsreels then


  • gave the impression that the Army supported the new government. Though Hitler walked behind


  • longtime President Hindenburg for now, the new chancellor would soon be Germany's absolute dictator.


  • Today was dedicated to the New Germany. And more than one hundred thousand schoolchildren


  • stood, shoulder to shoulder, as the car bearing the aged President and the Chancellor proceeded


  • through the crowd to the speaker's stand. Whether you agree with his doctrines or not,


  • it must be admitted that the leadership of Hitler has united the German people for the


  • first time since the war. Their almost fanatical enthusiasm is a marvel to the entire world...


  • Hindenburg remained President until his death in August 1934. With Hindenburg gone, Hitler,

    興登堡保有他總統的職位直到西元 1934 年 8 月逝世。當興登堡一死,希特勒

  • by agreement with the army, abolished the office of President, declaring himselfhrer


  • and Reich Chancellor, leader of the nation and head of the government. Now there was


  • no authority above or beside him. Immediately, the armed forces swore an oath of allegiance to Adolf Hitler.


  • I swear by God this sacred oath to thehrer Adolf Hitler to render unconditional obedience...


  • All civil servants, including teachers and police, members of parliament and the judiciary,


  • swore an oath of loyaltynot to any constitutionbut to Hitler ashrer of the German nation.


  • The economy had reached rock bottom when the Nazis came to power. They boosted its recovery


  • with huge public works projects for the unemployed.


  • A half million folk comrades have gone back to work this year. Since the takeover of power,

    今年有數十萬的同志重返工作崗位。自從 ( 納粹黨 ) 接管德國後

  • unemployment has fallen by more than half.


  • Hitler christened new autobahns triumphantly in a display of national will that would unite


  • the country and facilitate the secret expansion of Germany's armed forces. In 1935, Germany

    不僅讓全國上下一心,也幫助德國秘密拓展他們的軍隊。在西元 1935 年

  • openly defied the 1919 Treaty of Versailles by reinstituting the draft and increasing

    德國公開地藐視西元 1919 年簽訂的凡爾賽條約,他們又開始徵兵

  • its military strength. The Nazis were delivering on their promises to restore and strengthen


  • the nation. Their achievements encouraged many people to overlook radical Nazi policies,


  • or even to support them. In September 1935, the Nazi Party gathered in Nuremberg for its

    甚至支持他們。在西元 1935 年 9 月,納粹黨在紐倫堡召開黨代會

  • annual rally. It opened with a traditional hymn that added solemnity and a sense of continuity


  • with the past. It ended with a special session of Parliament far from Berlin. New race laws


  • were introduced by Hitler and read by Parliament President Hermannring.


  • German citizenship is restricted to persons of German or kindred blood. Marriages between


  • Jews and citizens of German or kindred blood are forbidden. [Cheering]

    禁止與猶太人通婚。( 鼓掌 )

  • The Nazi regime aimed to create a racially pure Germany whose so-called "superior traits"

    納粹當局目標在建立一個種族淨化的德國,也就是他們認為 「 最優秀的種族 」

  • would make it ideally suited to rule the entire European continent. Nazism taught that racial


  • struggle was the driving force in history—"superior" races must battle "inferior" races or be corrupted

    種族鬥爭是千古不變的道理,「 優秀的 」種族必須不斷與 「 下等的 」 種族搏鬥,否則就會被他們汙染

  • by them. The Nazi concept of a national community was exclusive and based on race, as defined


  • in the new laws and decrees. Heinrich Himmler and the SS led the ideological battle. Racist

    海因里希˙希姆萊與武裝親衛隊 ( 德語:Die Waffen Schutzstaffel,簡稱 SS ) 主要負責意識形態的鬥爭

  • ideas were taught in schools. Some groups, such as Jews, Slavs, Blacks and Roma (also

    種族理念成為學校教材之一。一些族群,像是猶太人、斯拉夫人、黑人與羅馬人 ( 也稱吉普賽人 )

  • called Gypsies) were labeled racially inferior. People with mental or physical disabilities


  • were designated "unworthy of life." Scientists and medical professionals applied pseudo-scientific

    則被列為 「 沒有價值的生命 」。科學家與醫學專業者使用偽科學理論

  • theories for measuring and valuing racial characteristics.


  • Before the Nazis assumed power, Jews enjoyed all rights of citizenship in Germany. After


  • 1933, the German government gradually excluded Jews from public life and public education.

    在西元 1933 年之後,德國政府逐漸將猶太人摒除於大眾生活與教育之外

  • Newly established Jewish private schools provided a safe learning environment for some. By 1938,


  • German authorities had isolated and segregated Germany's Jews, expelling them from the professions

    而西元 1938 年德國當局有意地孤立、隔離德國的猶太人,剝奪他們的工作

  • and eliminating most opportunities to earn a living.


  • We felt so... why can't we be part of it? Why can't we? Everybody said, "Heil Hitler,"

    我們覺得非常的…為什麼我們不能是德國的一份子?為何不?大家都一樣地說著 「 希特勒萬歲 」

  • like this. I did, too. What did I know? I was eight years old. So my mother said to


  • me, "You're not supposed to do that." I said, "Why not?" She said, "Haven't you been told

    「 妳不應該這麼做 」 我說:「 為什麼不行? 」 她說:「 難道妳不知道妳是個猶太人嗎? 」

  • that you are Jewish?" I said, "Oh, I forgot."

    我說:「 喔,我都忘了。 」

  • Germany's Jews would get plenty of reminders.

    德國境內所見的事物都在提醒他們自己是「 猶太人 」這個事實

  • Ladies and gentlemen, this is a boycott of Jewish shops. Please keep moving.


  • This sense of isolation that came upon us after 1933, gradual and increasing, it also

    從西元 1933 年後,這孤立猶太人的現象越來越嚴重

  • affected us psychologically. We knew we were in a hostile world.


  • Between 1933 and 1939, the German government enacted hundreds of laws to define, segregate

    西元 1933 年至 1939 年間,德國政府頒布了上百條法令來限制、隔離德國的猶太人

  • and impoverish German Jews.


  • My sister and I used to slink by those huge banners that were all over the city. And we


  • used to just try not to see them, thinking if we didn't see them, they weren't there.


  • But they were there. That just, little by little, that really took over.


  • ...without a solution to the Jewish question, there will be no solution for humanity.


  • The goal of Nazi propaganda was to demonize Jews and encourage Germans to see Jews as


  • dangerous outsiders in their midst. After 1935, everyday antisemitism was a regular

    將猶太人視為危險的異族。西元 1935 年之後,反猶太主義就像日常活動一般

  • part of carnival parades and floats. Public displays of antisemitism reinforced a climate


  • of hostility toward Jews in Germany, or at the least, indifference to their treatment.