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  • Do you ever get into an argument where you know you're right,

    你是否曾經經歷過一場辯論,你知道你是對的

  • and yet even with your eloquent explanation and

    但即便你使出你絕佳口才以及

  • all of the facts on your side, you just can't get through?

    提供所有手上的事實證據,你就是無法說服對方?

  • Is there a strategic way to successfully

    有沒有一些策略性的方法能讓你成功地

  • convince somebody and change their opinion ?

    使某人相信你所言,並且改變他們的看法呢?

  • The first and most disappointing thing that you have to come to terms with is this:

    你必須知道的第一件,同時也是最讓人失望的一件事就是:

  • Facts don't convince people. Especially if they already have an opinion.

    事實不會說服人。特別是在對方已經有成見之時

  • We all like to think that

    我們都會覺得

  • information or indisputable studies would convince us in an argument,

    資訊以及無庸置疑的研究能在辯論中使人信服

  • but study after study shows that when certain facts don't conform to our beliefs,

    但一篇篇的研究指出,當特定的事實與我們的信念相違背時

  • our brains are happy to disregard or simply rationalize them away.

    我們的大腦會很樂於忽視或將之合理化

  • In one study, scientists asked people if they believed in man-made climate change,

    一研究顯示,科學家問人們他們是否相信人為的氣候變遷

  • and then categorized them as believers or deniers.

    而後將受試者分為相信者以及不相信者

  • They then told some that scientists have reevaluated the data and concluded that

    他們接著跟部分人說,科學家再三驗證數據並且結論表示

  • predictions for the future were much worse than before.

    對於未來的預測相較於先前更加惡劣

  • While some others were told the situation wasn't nearly as bad as once thought.

    然而另一部分的人被告知狀況其實不如所想的糟糕

  • But these facts had an interesting result on their beliefs.

    但這些事實根據他們的信念,出現了一些有趣的結果

  • People who didn't believe in climate change and were told that things would be much worse

    那些不相信氣候變遷並且被告知情況會惡化的人

  • completely ignored this fact, and their opinions were unchanged.

    完全忽略這項事實,他們的意見也都沒變

  • But if they were told that things weren't nearly as bad,

    但如果他們被告知說事情其實沒那麼糟時

  • their beliefs moved much farther in that direction.

    他們在這方向上的信念又更加強烈了

  • And the same thing happened to those who believed strongly in climate change.

    而同一件事也發生在那些深信氣候變遷的人身上

  • When told that things are now predicted to be worse,

    當被告知現在預估情況會更糟

  • they shifted their opinions more strongly in that direction,

    他們對那方向的意見便變得更強烈

  • whereas those told it wouldn't be so bad didn't change their opinions at all.

    反之,當告訴他們情況沒那麼糟時,也絲毫沒有改變他們的意見

  • The facts only caused people to polarize.

    事實證據只會讓人更極端

  • It turns out that once formed, people's impressions and opinions are extremely perseverant.

    結果顯示,人的印象和意見一旦形成,就很難變更、移除

  • And cognitive scientists say

    而認知科學家說

  • much of this is actually linked to our ability as humans to cooperate.

    這種狀況大部分是跟人類合作的能力有關

  • A skill that no other animals have.

    這是種其他動物沒有的能力

  • To the degree that humans do, from hunting and gathering to agriculture and modern computers,

    某種程度上來說,人類從狩獵和採集變為農業和現代電腦化

  • our cooperation allows us to rely on one another's expertise instead of knowing everything.

    我們的合作能力讓我們可以依賴彼此的專業,而不需要什麼都懂

  • As a result, we can hardly tell where our own understanding ends and another begins.

    因此,我們很難分辨出我們的理解是何時結束,另一項理解又是何時開始的

  • Ultimately, strong beliefs don't actually come from deep understanding.

    歸根究柢,強烈的信念實際上並不來自於對事物的深度理解

  • This is known as the "Illusion of Explanatory Depth."

    這就是所謂的「解釋性深度錯覺」

  • If I asked you to rate your understanding of something like a toilet, zippers, or computers,

    如果我請你為自己對一些東西像是馬桶、拉鍊、電腦的理解程度打個分數

  • chances are you believe you know way more than you actually do.

    很有可能的是,你覺得自己懂的事比你真的懂的還多

  • Go on and try to explain step by step how a toilet or a zipper functions in detail.

    去試著一步步地解釋馬桶跟拉鍊運作的細節吧!

  • Sometimes this simple act can expose how baseless ours or others opinion is.

    有時這簡單的動作就能暴露出我們或其他人的意見是多麼沒有根據的

  • In one study, when participants were asked to rate their opinions of public policies

    一則研究指出,當受試者被要求對他們對一些公共議題的看法評分

  • like healthcare, and then later asked to explain in as much detail as possible

    像是健保,接著被要求去盡可能地從細節去解釋

  • the impact of implementing those policies.

    執行這些政策後所會帶來的影響

  • They would quickly turn down the intensity of their beliefs

    如此被暴露在他們自己的無知之下時

  • having been exposed to their own ignorance.

    他們對於這些信念的強度就會快速地降低

  • How else can we overcome these tendencies and convince people in an argument?

    那我們要如何克服這種傾向,並在辯論中使他人信服呢?

  • It turns out that we need to focus on the common motive

    結果是,我們需要聚焦在共同的動機上

  • as per by Tali Sharot, a cognitive neural scientist,

    就如同認知神經科學家 Tali Sharot 所說的

  • that is, focus on the motives and things that you can agree on.

    也就是,專注於動機以及你能同意的事情上

  • One study looking at parents afraid to vaccinate their children

    一項研究針對父母因為怕會造成自閉症

  • because of the fear of autism

    而害怕為孩子接種疫苗的現象指出

  • found that if they simply told them the facts,

    如果單純告訴他們真相

  • that the science shows there is no link between the two, they wouldn't listen.

    也就是科學證明這兩者之間毫無關係,父母們也聽不進去

  • But when they focused on the common goal of protecting their children,

    但一旦把焦點轉到他們的共同目標,也就是保護他們的孩子

  • and explained what vaccines are meant to prevent,

    並且解釋疫苗所要預防的東西

  • things like measles, mumps, polio, tetanus, and

    像是麻疹、流行性腮腺炎、小兒麻痺症、破傷風等病症

  • how those diseases impact children who get them without even mentioning autism,

    以及這些疾病如何影響影響孩童後,在自閉症甚至不被提及的情況下

  • they were more likely to have their kids vaccinated after.

    他們更有可能會讓他們的孩子接種疫苗

  • Finally, humans are known to have something called an in-group and out-group bias.

    最後,我們知道人類有種叫內團體及外團體偏私的傾向

  • We tend to be skeptical of outsiders or people who we see as different from us.

    我們通常會對局外人或與我們自己認知不同的人抱持懷疑態度

  • This can come in the form of race, religion, physical traits, gender,

    這可以是來自於種族、信仰、生理特徵、性別等形式

  • but also in the form of ideas. So people who don't share your ideas

    但也可能來自於思想。所以與你意見相左的人

  • are part of your out-group. Studies have been done to show that

    就是你的外團體。已經有研究指出

  • if you can find a way to relate to people and have them see you in a different light

    如果你可以找到一個方法與對方連結,並讓他們以不同的角度看你

  • to see you as a part of their in-group, they're much more likely to listen to you

    來讓他們視你為內團體的一份子,這比起完全不視你為同一夥的情況

  • than if they think you're nothing like them.

    他們更可能會聽你的

  • Find the group that you're both part of, and use that as a point of personal connection.

    找到你們都部分參與的群體,並以此為立基點去建立個人連結

  • Now, if you ever wanna to challenge your own opinions, or become more aware of those opinions contrary to your own,

    現在,如果你想挑戰自己的看法,或是變得更能意識到那些與自己相左的意見

  • then you should definitely check out vubble.

    那你絕對需要去試試 vubble

  • A really awesome new company that I love which uses machine learning to

    一間我愛的、真的很厲害的新公司,他們利用機器學習

  • send you stuff you'll like, but with a twist of also sending stuff

    推播一些你喜歡的東西,但不一樣地,也會推一些

  • that will nudge you outside of your filter bubble.

    會將你輕輕推出同溫層的東西

  • It's a cool tool that first analyzes you and your interests through questions, pictures, and videos,

    這是個很有趣的工具,他會透過問題、照片以及影片分析你和你的興趣

  • and then helps you flex your mental muscles

    然後透過一些你平常不會去涉獵的東西

  • with some stuff that wouldn't normally be in your feed.

    幫助你伸展你的大腦肌肉

  • It's a really nice way to expose yourself to a broader view of the world online

    這真的是個線上拓展你對這個世界視野的好方法

  • And it's completely free!

    而且它完全免費!

  • You can check out the chatbot on Facebook by clicking the link below,

    你可以點擊底下網址來試試 Facebook 的聊天機器人

  • and then click in the get started button to launch the chatbot.

    然後點擊開始鍵來發動聊天機器人

  • Help mind your feed, and feed your mind.

    幫助你意識你的喜好、餵養你的心靈

  • And subscribe for more weekly science videos every Thursday.

    並訂閱追蹤更多每週四推出的科學影片

Do you ever get into an argument where you know you're right,

你是否曾經經歷過一場辯論,你知道你是對的

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怎麼改變那些意見不同的人? (How Can You Change Somebody's Opinion?)

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    kiki 發佈於 2018 年 05 月 04 日
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