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  • Every year, the world uses 35 billion barrels of oil.

    每年,全世界使用350億桶石油。

  • This massive scale of fossil fuel dependence pollutes the Earth

    大規模的依賴化石燃料汙染了地球。

  • and it won't last forever.

    而它不會永遠持續下去。

  • Scientists estimate that we've consumed about 40% of the world's oil.

    科學家估計,我們已經消耗了世界石油的40%左右。

  • According to present estimates,

    根據目前的估計:

  • at this rate, we'll run out of oil and gas in 50 years or so,

    以這種速度,我們將用完 石油和天然氣在50年左右。

  • and in about a century for coal.

    並在大約一個世紀內用盡煤炭。

  • On the flip side, we have abundant sun, water, and wind.

    反過來說,我們有充足的陽光、水和風。

  • These are renewable energy sources,

    這些都是可再生能源來源。

  • meaning that we won't use them up over time.

    意味著我們不會隨著時間的推移把它們用完。

  • What if we could exchange our fossil fuel dependence

    如果我們可以交換我們對化石燃料的依賴性

  • for an existence based solely on renewables?

    為僅靠可再生能源生存?

  • We've pondered that question for decades,

    我們幾十年來一直在思考這個問題。

  • and yet, renewable energy still only provides about 13% of our needs.

    然而,可再生能源仍然只能滿足我們13%的需求。

  • That's because reaching 100% requires renewable energy that's inexpensive

    如果要達到100%的使用率需要價格更便宜的再生能源

  • and accessible.

    和無障礙。

  • This represents a huge challenge,

    這是一個巨大的挑戰。

  • even if we ignore the politics involved and focus on the science and engineering.

    即使我們忽略了其中的政治因素,專注於科學和工程。

  • We can better understand the problem by understanding how we use energy.

    我們可以通過了解我們如何使用能源來更好地理解這個問題。

  • Global energy use is a diverse and complex system,

    全球能源使用是一個多樣化的複雜系統。

  • and the different elements require their own solutions.

    而不同的要素需要各自解決。

  • But for now, we'll focus on two of the most familiar in everyday life:

    但現在,我們'將專注於日常生活中最熟悉的兩個。

  • electricity and liquid fuels.

    電力和液體燃料;

  • Electricity powers blast furnaces, elevators, computers,

    電力為高爐、電梯、電腦提供動力。

  • and all manner of things in homes, businesses, and manufacturing.

    以及家庭、企業、製造業的各種。

  • Meanwhile, liquid fuels play a crucial role

    同時,液體燃料發揮著至關重要的作用

  • in almost all forms of transportation.

    在幾乎所有形式的交通工具中。

  • Let's consider the electrical portion first.

    讓我們'先考慮一下電氣部分。

  • The great news is that our technology is already advanced enough

    好消息是,我們的技術已經足夠先進。

  • to capture all that energy from renewables,

    從可再生能源中獲取所有這些能源。

  • and there's an ample supply.

    並有充足的供應。

  • The sun continuously radiates

    太陽不斷輻射

  • about 173 quadrillion watts of solar energy at the Earth,

    約173四億瓦的太陽能在地球上。

  • which is almost 10,000 times our present needs.

    這幾乎是我們目前需求的10,000倍。

  • It's been estimated that a surface that spans several hundred thousand kilometers

    據估計,一個橫跨幾十萬公里的地表。

  • would be needed to power humanity at our present usage levels.

    以我們目前的使用水準,為人類提供動力所需。

  • So why don't we build that?

    那我們為什麼不建呢?

  • Because there are other hurdles in the way,

    因為還有其他的障礙。

  • like efficiency

    效率一樣

  • and energy transportation.

    和能源運輸。

  • To maximize efficiency,

    為了使效率最大化。

  • solar plants must be located in areas with lots of sunshine year round,

    太陽能電站必須位於全年日照充足的地區。

  • like deserts.

    如沙漠。

  • But those are far away from densely populated regions

    但這些地方離人口密集的地區很遠。

  • where energy demand is high.

    能源需求量大的地方。

  • There are other forms of renewable energy we could draw from,

    我們還可以借鏡其他形式的可再生能源。

  • such as hydroelectric,

    如水電。

  • geothermal,

    地熱。

  • and biomasses,

    和生物質。

  • but they also have limits based on availability and location.

    但他們也有基於可用性和位置的限制。

  • In principle, a connected electrical energy network

    原則上,一個連接的電力網絡

  • with power lines crisscrossing the globe

    電線縱橫

  • would enable us to transport power from where it's generated

    將使我們能夠從發電的地方輸送電力。

  • to where it's needed.

    到需要它的地方。

  • But building a system on this scale faces an astronomical price tag.

    但建設這樣規模的系統,面臨著一個天文數字的價格。

  • We could lower the cost by developing advanced technologies

    我們可以通過開發先進技術來降低成本

  • to capture energy more efficiently.

    以更有效地獲取能源。

  • The infrastructure for transporting energy would also have to change drastically.

    運輸能源的基礎設施也要發生巨大變化。

  • Present-day power lines lose about 6-8% of the energy they carry

    現今的電力線損失了大約6-8%的能量。

  • because wire material dissipates energy through resistance.

    因為電線材料通過電阻耗散能量。

  • Longer power lines would mean more energy loss.

    較長的電力線將意味著更多的能量損失。

  • Superconductors could be one solution.

    超導體可能是一種解決方案。

  • Such materials can transport electricity without dissipation.

    這樣的材料可以運輸電能而不散失。

  • Unfortunately, they only work if cooled to low temperatures,

    不幸的是,它們只有在冷卻到低溫的情況下才能發揮作用。

  • which requires energy and defeats the purpose.

    這需要精力,也就達不到目的。

  • To benefit from that technology,

    要從該技術中獲益。

  • we'd need to discover new superconducting materials

    我們需要發現新的超導材料。

  • that operate at room temperature.

    在室溫下工作的。

  • And what about the all-important, oil-derived liquid fuels?

    而最重要的石油衍生液體燃料呢?

  • The scientific challenge there is to store renewable energy

    科學上的挑戰是如何儲存可再生能源

  • in an easily transportable form.

    以易於運輸的形式。

  • Recently, we've gotten better at producing lithium ion batteries,

    最近,我們'生產鋰離子電池的技術越來越好。

  • which are lightweight and have high-energy density.

    重量輕、能量密度高;

  • But even the best of these store about 2.5 megajoules per kilogram.

    但即使是這些最好的,每公斤也能儲存2.5兆焦耳左右。

  • That's about 20 times less than the energy in one kilogram of gasoline.

    這'比一公斤汽油的能量少了20倍左右。

  • To be truly competitive, car batteries would have to store much more energy

    要真正具有競爭力,汽車電池必須儲存更多的能量。

  • without adding cost.

    而不增加成本。

  • The challenges only increase for bigger vessels, like ships and planes.

    對於更大的船隻,如輪船和飛機,挑戰只會增加。

  • To power a cross-Atlantic flight for a jet,

    為一架噴氣式飛機的跨大西洋飛行提供動力。

  • we'd need a battery weighing about 1,000 tons.

    我們需要一個重約1000噸的電池。

  • This, too, demands a technological leap towards new materials,

    這也要求在技術上實現新材料的飛躍。

  • higher energy density,

    更高的能量密度。

  • and better storage.

    和更好的存儲。

  • One promising solution would be to find efficient ways

    一個很有希望的解決方案是找到有效的方法。

  • to convert solar into chemical energy.

    以將太陽能轉化為化學能。

  • This is already happening in labs,

    這種情況已經在實驗室裡發生了。

  • but the efficiency is still too low to allow it to reach the market.

    但效率還是太低,無法進入市場。

  • To find novel solutions, we'll need lots of creativity,

    為了找到新穎的解決方案,我們需要大量的創造力。

  • innovation,

    創新。

  • and powerful incentives.

    和強大的激勵機制。

  • The transition towards all-renewable energies is a complex problem

    向全可再生能源過渡是一個複雜的問題。

  • involving technology, economics, and politics.

    涉及技術、經濟和政治。

  • Priorities on how to tackle this challenge depend on the specific assumptions

    如何應對這一挑戰的優先事項取決於具體的假設。

  • we have to make when trying to solve such a multifaceted problem.

    我們在試圖解決這樣一個多方面的問題時,必須做出。

  • But there's ample reason to be optimistic that we'll get there.

    但有充分的理由樂觀地認為,我們'會到達那裡。

  • Top scientific minds around the world are working on these problems

    世界各地的頂尖科學工作者都在研究這些問題

  • and making breakthroughs all the time.

    並不斷取得突破性進展。

  • And many governments and businesses are investing in technologies

    而且很多政府和企業都在投資技術

  • that harness the energy all around us.

    駕馭我們周圍的能量。

Every year, the world uses 35 billion barrels of oil.

每年,全世界使用350億桶石油。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 能源 再生 能量 燃料 技術

【TED-Ed】百分百可再生能源能供給全球能源需求嗎? (Can 100% renewable energy power the world? - Federico Rosei and Renzo Rosei)

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    詹士緯 發佈於 2017 年 12 月 08 日
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