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  • This episode is supported by Skillshare.

    這集節目由 Skillshare 贊助

  • Campfires need wood to release heat, cars need petroleum to move, and you need food to fuel every aspect of your life.

    營火需要木材來釋放熱能,車子需要石油來移動

  • So what would happen to your body, right now, if you suddenly stopped eating food?

    而你需要食物來為你的生活提供能量

  • To understand what happens without food,

    所以,如果你現在馬上停止吃東西的話,你的身體會發生什麼事呢?

  • we first need to understand what happens when you eat.

    為了要了解不吃東西會怎麼樣

  • It starts with the sun, who's energy is harvested by photosynthesis and plants

    我們首先要了解吃了東西會發生什麼事

  • We then consume that stored chemical energy,

    一切都由太陽開始,光合作用及植物收集了它的能量

  • either directly from eating plants like a tomato

    然後我們攝取儲存下來的化學能量

  • or by eating an animal like chicken that has eaten a plant like grains.

    不是直接吃植物,例如番茄

  • If we take a hamburger as an example, you absorb fats from the lipid-filled sauces, proteins from the beef patty, and carbohydrates from the starchy bun.

    就是吃像雞一樣吃穀類等等植物的動物

  • And it's your digestive system using processes like chewing, gastric acid, and enzymes to break the food into small enough molecules that you can then absorb into your bloodstream.

    如果我們拿漢堡當例子

  • Any excess glucose is stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen while some are converted into fats.

    你從富含油脂的調味料吸收脂肪

  • you can visually see some of the fat stores in the pudgier parts of your body.

    從牛肉排吸收蛋白質

  • There are around 37 trillion cells in your body and you start to really

    從澱粉製成的麵包吸取碳水化合物

  • harvest the energy from your food in the mitochondria of your cells.

    接著,你的消化系統會經過像是咀嚼的過程,利用胃酸、酶

  • This is where glucose and fats have been broken down into Acetyl CoA

    去將食物分解成夠小的分子,讓你可以吸收他們到血管中

  • and now go through the citric acid cycle

    任何多餘的葡萄糖都會以肝醣的儲存在肝臟和肌肉中

  • where they're modified continuously to release tons of energy carrying molecules.

    有些則會轉換成脂肪

  • The energy from these molecules are then used to pump protons

    你可以看到脂肪囤積在你身體比較肥胖的地方

  • into a layer of the mitochondria that becomes so dense with protons

    你的體內有 37 兆的細胞,在細胞的粒線體中

  • they need to diffuse back into the less busy space

    才開始真正的收集來自食物的能量

  • and do so by going through a protein called ATP synthase.

    葡萄糖及脂肪在這裡分解成乙醯輔酶 A

  • As a result ATP is created, the most important energy source in your body.

    接著進入檸檬酸循環

  • You use around 10 to the [power of] 25 molecules of ATP everyday.

    在這個階段,他們不斷地被改造,並釋放更多攜帶大量能量的分子

  • When this ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP in your body,

    這些從分子出來的能量被用來抽送質子

  • the bond breaks releasing energy for things like electrons forming bonds

    進入粒線體的一層,使得粒線體的這層有高濃度的質子

  • and essentially creating all aspects of your ability to live.

    所以他們必須滲透回比較低濃度的區域

  • If you stopped consuming food, within 6 hours your body will be breaking down glycogen into glucose

    經過一個名為三磷酸腺苷合酶的蛋白質

  • and fat into acetyl CoA to keep your biological processes at work.

    最終,體內最重要的能量來源:ATP (三磷酸腺苷) 被創造出來了

  • And this is quite normal, but after 72 hours,

    你每天大約用了 10 到 10 的 25 次方的 ATP

  • your body will need to start breaking down protein in order to synthesize glucose from amino acids

    當 ATP 在你體中水解成 ADP (二磷酸腺苷)

  • otherwise your brain will starve.

    鍵結斷裂釋放出例如連接鍵結的電子能量

  • This is because fats used for energy can't cross the blood-brain barrier.

    並產生讓你活下去的能量

  • With no vitamins and minerals being consumed, people might start to get sick within a week.

    如果你停止進食,在 6 小時內,你的身體會將肝醣分解成葡萄糖

  • After several weeks of starvation, fat stores become depleted, and all that is left for energy is proteins.

    將脂肪分解成乙醯輔酶 A 來維持你的生理運作

  • At this point essential proteins for survival, like antibodies used to fight infection

    而這個過程很正常,不過禁食 72 小時之後

  • or muscle proteins used for strength, are now being used to make glucose.

    你的身體為了要將葡萄糖合成成胺基酸會開始分解蛋白質

  • And this loss of protein leads to severe illnesses.

    否則你的腦袋會挨餓

  • Death can come as short as 3 weeks to 70 days,

    這是因為作為能量的脂肪無法穿越腦血管的屏蔽

  • commonly from a heart attack due to the tissue degradation of the heart, diaphragm, and body.

    沒有攝取維他命以及礦物質,人們會在一週內開始生病

  • A factor in how long you live is how hydrated you stay

    經過幾週的飢餓,脂肪的庫存開始被消耗

  • and also how many fat stores you had to begin with.

    而最後剩下的能量只剩蛋白質

  • Although it's pretty amazing to think that if you did stop eating today

    到了這時候,生存必須的蛋白質,像是打擊感染用的抗體

  • you could potentially live for another 70 days,

    或者有力量的肌肉蛋白質,都被用來製作葡萄糖

  • but please, don't try this at home.

    而失去這些重要的蛋白質就會造成嚴重的疾病

  • If you love learning about food then you should definitely check out Skillshare

    死亡可能在短短 3 週到 70 天就會到來

  • who supported this video and is giving away a two month free trial

    通常是因為心臟、橫膈膜以及身體的組織受損所造成的心臟病

  • to the first one thousand of our followers that sign up.

    你可以活的多久的一個因素是你體內有多少水分

  • Skillshare is an online community for creators

    以及有多少儲存的油脂可以使用

  • with more than 17,000 classes in design, photography, and even cooking and culinary courses.

    雖然這可能會讓你很驚訝,但如果你今天開始禁食

  • Everyone can take a class, try a project, and even teach a class themselves

    你基本上還可以再活 70 天

  • with premium membership as low as $10 a month for unlimited access.

    不過拜託,別在家嘗試

  • just head to the link in the description, even on their mobile app

    如果你喜歡學習食物相關的知識,那你一定要看看 Skillshare

  • And subscribe for more weekly science videos every Thursday.

    Skillshare 贊助了這集的節目,並贈送兩個月免費的教學

This episode is supported by Skillshare.

這集節目由 Skillshare 贊助

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 能量 脂肪 蛋白質 葡萄糖 分解成 粒線體

如果你停止進食? (What If You Stopped Eating Food?)

  • 10148 816
    Sih Jing 發佈於 2018 年 03 月 12 日
影片單字