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  • Hi! I'm Mike, this is Crash Course Mythology and today,

    嗨!我是麥克。 歡迎收看《神話速成班》

  • we're going to talk about something that's almost impossible to avoid when discussing creation myths: Sex.

    今天我們要討論的是 創世神話中無可避免的一個重點:性

  • Or, more specifically, sexual reproduction. It's going to be a little awkward.

    更準確的說是「性愛繁殖」。 呵呵~這會有點尷尬

  • Stop covering your ears Thot, you're gonna be fine! You can handle it. We can all handle it.

    圖特,別蓋住耳朵了。 你接受的了!我們都接受的了。

  • We're all adults and after all, sexual reproduction is how all of us got to be here!

    我們都是大人了。 畢竟,沒有性愛繁殖,就沒有我們了

  • Well, maybe not Thot who was born of Seth's skull? Ew.

    或許圖特不是。他是直接從賽特的頭骨出生的...噁~

  • But for the rest of us, it probably makes sense that a lot of cosmic creation myths often invoke sexual reproduction.

    但對於我們來說許多創世神話與 性愛繁殖有關是很合理的事

  • Still, cosmic sexual reproduction is a little different, and sometimes a lot weirder than human sexual reproduction.

    但是宇宙的繁殖(天地交合)與我們不太一樣 甚至會比人類的還要更奇怪

  • Well, I meandepending on what you're into of course.

    當然,端看你如何看待繁殖

  • [Theme Music]

    《神話速成班》 〈速成班〉主題曲

  • So let's ease into this with a little latin. Sexy, sexy latin.

    我們先從可愛的拉丁文開始看起

  • So, you know how when you grow plants, they come from seeds? Well in latin, the word for "seed" is "semen."

    你知道要種植物需有種子。 而在拉丁文中,種子是 semen

  • Which is why a man's seminal fluid is also sometimes called his seed.

    所以男人的精液也被稱做「種子」 (譯按:精液的英文也是 semen)

  • The idea of something growing from a seed is a logical analogy to creation but,

    「由種子產生某種東西」的概念 用來類比創世過程是很合乎邏輯的

  • multiple godly fluids seem to be fertile, as we'll see in an Egyptian creation myth.

    然而許多「神液」似乎都很「活躍」 比如說在埃及創世神話中...

  • In one of the many versions of the Egyptian creation story, the creator god says:

    其中一個版本是這麼說的... 創世神說:

  • "I fulfilled all my desires when I was alone, before had appeared a second to be with me in this place;

    「我完滿了我的孤獨時的慾望, 在有第二者與我同在此處之前

  • I assumed form as that great soul wherein I started being creative while still in the primeval waters in a state of inertness...

    我以靈魂的形體,開始創造 我仍在上古神水之中,如如不動

  • so it was I who spat forth Shu and expectorated Tefnut..."

    我吐出了舒(大氣之神) 並咳出了忒芙努特(濕氣女神)...」

  • So, honestly, that sounds a lot more like saliva. At least in translation. But the image becomes clearer in a later part of the myth, when the god relates:

    說真的,從翻譯中,這聽起來很像口水 但是在後半部份就比較清晰了

  • "When I rubbed with my fist my heart came into my mouth in that I spat forth Shu and expectorated Tefnut."

    「我握拳揉時,我的心臟深入口中 然後我吐出了舒,咳出了忒芙努特」

  • Thankfully this myth isn't actually... explicit, in what the gods are doing, and the... anatomy is obviously a little strange,

    幸好這則神話不是很...直白的解釋 這些神在做什麼動作,而且器官的位置有點怪...

  • but here's a god, alone, fulfilling his desires, and rubbing with his fist.

    但是一位神,獨自一人,滿足自己的慾望 還有用拳頭揉...

  • With the result that two new figuresalso godsare created.

    最後的結果是:兩位新的神祇被創造出來了

  • It's not Shakespeare-level body, but neither is it Disney Channel material, right?

    不到金瓶梅的等級,但絕對不是普遍級,是吧?

  • Notice that the creator god here is alone, and also presumably male.

    注意:這位創世神獨自一人,而且似乎是位男神

  • This may suggest a patrilineal culture since creation occurs without a female presence.

    這可能是在暗示父系社會 因為創造時沒有女性的存在

  • The story of Mbombo's creation, from the Boshongo Bantu people in Africa, is remarkably similar.

    非洲的柏商勾-班圖人的 「邦伯」創世神話也極為相似

  • Including water, a solitary creator, and best of all, vomiting. It's a banner day for bodily fluids here at Crash Course.

    包含了水、單一造物者,最好玩的是:嘔吐 哈!今天肯定是速成班的體液紀念日

  • In the beginning, in the dark, there was nothing but water, and Mbombo was alone.

    起初,在黑暗中,除了水以外,什麼都沒有 只有邦伯獨自一人

  • One day Mbombo was in terrible pain. He retched and strained and vomited up the sun.

    一日,邦伯感到一陣劇痛 一陣乾嘔之後,吐出了太陽

  • After that, light spread over everything. The heat of the sun dried up the water until the black edges of the world began to show.

    此後,光佈滿了宇宙。 太陽的熱將水蒸發掉,露出了黑色的土地。

  • Black sandbanks and reefs could be seen. But there were no living things.

    黑色的沙洲和礁石出現了 但是卻沒有任何生命

  • Mbombo vomited up the moon, and then the stars, and after that the night had its light also.

    邦伯又吐出了月亮及星星 這樣夜晚也有了光芒

  • Still, Mbombo was in pain. He strained again and nine living creatures came forth. Last of all, came man.

    但是邦伯還是很不舒服,又吐出了九種生物出來 最後吐出來的,就是人類

  • Again, we have a solitary man creating the world using his body and bringing it forth after being in terrible pain.

    同樣的,又是一個單一男性在劇烈的疼痛之後 用身體創造了世界

  • Which is possibly an analog to female childbirth.

    當中的疼痛可能是代表女性分娩的陣痛

  • And speaking of pain, few myths involve more of it than the Greek creation story involving Aphrodite. I mean this myth just has it all.

    講到疼痛,沒幾則神話能比得上希臘神話中 有關亞芙蘿蒂的創世神話

  • Water, genitals, violence, creation, armored giantsreally just the whole completely horrifying megillah.

    這則神話什麼鬼都有。水、性愛、暴力、 創世、盔甲巨人...一整套恐怖饗宴

  • Here's the version found in Hesoid's Theogyny.

    這是赫西俄德的《神譜》中記載的版本

  • "Great Heaven came, bring on the night and desirous of love, he spread himself over the Earth, stretched out in every direction.

    天父來了,同時也帶來了夜晚和性慾 全方位的擁抱著地母

  • His son Chronos reached out from the ambush with his left hand, with his right he took a huge sickle with its long row of sharp teeth, and quickly,

    他的兒子克洛諾斯躲著,用左手抓住天父 右手拿著銳利的鐮刀,迅速的...

  • cut off his father's genitals, and flung them behind him to fly where they might.

    截斷了天父的陰莖,使勁向身後拋去

  • They were not released from his hand to no effect: for all the drops of blood that flew off were received by the Earth, and as the years went round, she bore the powerful Erinyes,

    每一滴落到地母身上的血都產生了各種珍禽異獸 例如:厄里倪厄斯(復仇三女神)

  • and the great Giants in gleaming armor with long spears in their hands, and the nymphs whom they called Meliai on the boundless earth.

    手持長矛、身著鎧甲的癸干忒斯(巨靈族) 以及精靈女仙墨利亞(梣木寧芙)

  • As for the genitals, just as he first cut them off with his instrument of adamant, and threw them from the land into the surging sea,

    至於那陽具,就如同剛被切下時一般 飛過了大地,落入了海中

  • even so they were carried on the wave for a long time. About them a white foam grew from the immortal flesh and in it, a girl formed.

    在海浪放浮沉很長一段時間後 一個女孩從這不死的血肉中所產生的泡沫裡誕生了

  • First she approached holy Cythera, and then from there she came to sea-girt Cyprus.

    她先接近了神聖的基西拉島 然後來到塞浦路斯島

  • And out stepped a modest and beautiful goddess, and the grass began to grow all round beneath her slender feet.

    愛與美的化身女神走到哪裡 她的玉足之下就會長出青草

  • Gods and men call her Aphrodite, because she was formed in foam, and Cytherea, because she approached Cythera,

    因為她從泡沫中誕生,眾神與人類稱呼她阿佛洛狄忒 又因為她曾在基西拉島待過,所以又名基西拉

  • and Cyprus-born because she was born in wave-washed Cyrpus, and 'genial', because she appeared out of genitals."

    又因為她曾來到塞浦路斯島,所以又名塞浦莉絲 又因為她是自陽具而來,所以又稱珍妮雅爾

  • Side-note: I need to stop using the word genial as an adjective.

    註:別再用 Genial(珍妮雅爾) 作為美好、友愛的形容詞了

  • And there you have it ladies and gentlemen, violent castration begets a word meaning "friendly" or "cheerful", and the goddess of love.

    就這樣陽具被閹割後,成了陽光、美好的字眼... 還有愛的女神

  • Well, one goddess of love. There are lots of others, and we'll see more of them in later episodes on pantheons.

    至少是其中一個愛的女神 之後講到「眾神」的時候再深入研究

  • But enough about saliva and vomit and bleeding testicles and other horrifying things that can potentially be read as semen,

    不要在討論口水、嘔吐、蛋蛋的哀傷 還有其他疑似精液神秘液體...

  • let's turn to that other important part of sexual reproduction: the egg.

    我們來看看生殖繁衍的 另一個重要因素:卵(蛋)

  • A number of cultures have creation myths that feature something called a cosmic egg.

    許多文化中的創世神話都有一顆「宇宙蛋」

  • In one Indian creation myth, found in the Satapatha Brahmana, the creator god, in this story called Prajapati, forms a cosmic egg after creating water.

    印度的創世神話之一,記載在《百道梵書》中 : 生主(Prajapati)在創造水之後,創造了一顆宇宙蛋

  • Out of which this egg come various creatures, but most importantly, the Earth and the rest of the universe, which, confusingly, is also water.

    從蛋裡面誕生了各種生物,最重要的是大地 以及宇宙中另一部分...更多的水

  • One translation from the 19th century puts it this way:

    十九世紀的一個翻譯版是這麼記載的:

  • "He desired, 'May I be reproduced from these waters!' He entered the waters with that triple science. Thence an egg arose. He touched it.

    他想:讓我在這些水中繁衍,他持三部吠陀進入了水中 一顆蛋出現了,他碰了碰這顆蛋

  • 'Let it exist! let it exist and multiply!' so he said. From it the Brahman was first created."

    他說:「出現吧!出現並繁衍吧!」 於是梵天是最先從蛋裡創造出來的

  • "And that which was the shell became the earth. [...] The juice which flowed from it became a tortoise [...]

    ...蛋殼成了大地... ...蛋汁流出形成了神龜...

  • This whole (earth) dissolved itself all over the water: all this (universe) appeared as one form only, namely, water."

    整個大地溶解,覆蓋在水之上 整個宇宙源自一體:水

  • So that is... confusing. And also... wet. Also, what is this triple science that he enters the waters with?

    很混亂...而且很濕... 而且他進入水中的三部吠陀是什麼??

  • What we do understand is that, water brings forth an egg. And from that egg comes the Earth, sky, a tortoise, and more water.

    我們所能瞭解到的是:水中誕生了一顆蛋 蛋裡孵出了天、地、神龜、以及更多的水

  • There's an early Persian creation story that's similar to the one from India, in that it also has an egg. And hey, our old friend water is here too!

    一則早期波斯創世神話與這個印度神話相似 當中也有一顆蛋,老朋友水又來了!

  • According to this story, the god of good, Ahura Mazda, and let's remember, this is a god, not a making model of car, [sarcastic laugh]

    在這個故事當中,善神阿胡拉·馬自達 記得:這是神,不是汽車廠牌,ㄎㄎ

  • Ahura Mazda created a perfect spiritual world, before creating the tangible one.

    阿胡拉·馬自達先創造了完美的精神界 接下來才創造物質界

  • And this perfect world made the god of evil, Angra Mainyu a.k.a. Ahriman, so angry, that he burst through the cosmic egg,

    這個完美世界讓惡神安格拉·曼紐(又名阿里曼) 很不高興,所以他從宇宙蛋中破殼而出

  • causing such a disturbance that the sun began to rotate through the sky instead of standing still. And this in turn led to day, night, mountains, valleys,

    造成的震盪使太陽不再停滯不動,而是在天上運行 同時造成了日、夜、山、谷

  • and most importantly, the destruction of the perfect world. Which led to work, pain, and death for humanity. So, nice going evil.

    最重要的是,世界不再完美,所以人類 有了工作、苦難、死亡。看你做了什麼好事!

  • You know what they say: you can't create the universe without breaking a few cosmic eggs.

    你知道嗎?不打破宇宙蛋就沒有宇宙

  • What, too soon? And why are there no creation myths about cosmic bacon? I could really go for a cosmic breakfast.

    太冷了嗎?為什麼沒有宇宙培根的創世神話呢? 我可以吃一餐宇宙早餐

  • There's one more cosmic egg creation myth that I want to talk about, and it follows really nicely from the Zoroastrian one

    還有一則我想講的宇宙蛋創世神話 他跟剛才的瑣羅亞斯德教(祆教)神話...

  • about Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainyu because, like that one, it features a duality as a fundamental principle of creation.

    關於善神與惡神的對立很相似 因為在這則神話中,也有相似的二元創世法則

  • One of the many Chinese creation myths combines a cosmic egg trope with a world-parent myth. Let's go to the Thought Bubble.

    在中國神話中,有一則融合了「宇宙蛋」 和「天父地母」的神話。進入〈思緒泡泡〉

  • In the beginning was a huge egg containing Chaos, a mixture of yin-yangfemale-male, passive-active, cold-heat, dark-light, and wet-dry.

    太古之時,有一個包含渾沌的蛋 是陰陽、男女、動靜、冷熱、光暗、乾溼不分的混合物

  • Within this yin-yang was Phan Ku, that which was not yet anything

    在混沌中,盤古出現了。

  • but which broke forth from the egg as the giant who separated chaos into the many opposites, including earth and sky.

    盤古從渾沌蛋中破殼而出,將渾沌分成 陰陽二氣、形成了天地

  • Phan Ku was covered with hair; horns sprang from his head and tusks from his mouth.

    盤古身長長毛、頭頂雙角、口含巨牙

  • With a great chisel and a huge mallet, he carved out the mountains, valleys, rivers, and oceans.

    用他巨大的鎚子和鑿 刻劃出了山川河海

  • He also made the sun, moon, and stars. He taught the people what they know.

    他創造了日月星辰 教導人民知識

  • When Phan Ku finally died, his skull became the top of the sky, his breath the wind, his voice the thunder,

    盤古死後,頭骨成了穹頂 呼吸變成風、聲音變成雷

  • his legs and arms the four directions, his flesh the soil, his blood the rivers, and so forth.

    四肢成為四方、肌肉成為土壤 血液成為河...等等

  • The people say that the fleas in his hair became human beings. Everything that is, is Phan Ku. And everything that Phan Ku is is yin-yang.

    有人說他身上的蚤子成了人類 一切就是盤古,盤古就是陰陽

  • With Phan Ku's death a vacuum was created, and within this vacuum pain and sin were able to flourish.

    盤古死後,出現了真空 從真空中產生了痛苦與罪惡

  • In the beginning was Chaos, from which light became the sky and darkness formed the Earth.

    太古有渾沌,清氣上升為天,濁氣下凝為地

  • Yang and yin are contained in light and darkness, and everything is made of these principles.

    光暗中有陰陽 一切都是從陰陽而生的

  • Thanks Thought Bubble!

    謝謝〈思緒泡泡〉

  • Here we see that many of the themes in creation myths overlap.

    在這裡我們看見許多神話融合在一起

  • For example, last week we talked about Chaos, as being a state of undifferentiation,

    例如上週所說的渾沌:蒙眛不明的狀態

  • and here it appears again, although, this time, it's a series of dualities. Mixture of yin-yang.

    在這裡又出現了 雖然這次是陰陽二氣的混合

  • Unlike in the Bible, where God has to come in and created the dualities as a way of imposing order.

    不同的是,在聖經中神要來創造二元來建立秩序

  • Although this myth features a cosmic egg, it's also an example of what are sometimes called world-parent myths.

    雖然這則神話中有宇宙蛋 但同時也是「天父地母」神話

  • "where a creator god brings the universe into being, through actual or metaphorical sexual reproduction,

    也就是創世神透過明示暗喻的「交合」來創造宇宙

  • or as in this case, by being differentiated into aspects of the known world."

    有些情況,則是分別成已知世界的若干面向

  • Those of you who remember Crash Course World History Episode #6 on Vedic religions, Buddhism and Ashoka,

    看過《歷史速成班》第六集 「吠陀諸教、佛教與阿育王」的人

  • might recall the story of Purusha, who was also divided up into aspects of human reality.

    可能會記得「神我」的概念 也是分成了人類眼中的世間萬物

  • Although Phan Ku and Purusha are usually thought of as male, if they are thought of as having a gender at all, often the world-parent is portrayed as maternal.

    雖然「盤古」和「神我」(如果有性別的話) 通常被視為男性,但是大地通常是母系的

  • An Earth-mother, as opposed to a sky-father. But that is a story for another day.

    會有「地母」以及相對應的「天父」 但那是下次再來討論的題目

  • So that is out first take on creation stories that involve either explicitly or more symbolically, sexual reproduction.

    以上就是我們首次討論包含 或明示、或暗喻「交合」的創世神話

  • As you can tell, these myths are not always straightforward, or biologically possible, strictly speaking.

    你應該看的出來,這些神話並不是很直白 或者說...不是很符合生物學

  • I also hope you haven't come away thinking we're reading too much into these myths. And that we have dirty minds.

    但我希望你不要以為我們想得太多、 思想太不純潔

  • Which is what Thot over here thinks. I'm not the dirty bird, you're the dirty bird.

    就像圖特一樣 你才不純潔,你全家都不純潔

  • But that the exciting thing about myths, they're open to various interpretations.

    這就是神話有趣的地方 要怎麼詮釋都可以

  • Try your own reading while still noticing the broad commonalities in these stories, taken from many different parts of the world.

    你也可以自己去找找世界各地 流傳的故事當中的相同之處

  • And thanks for watching. We'll see you next week.

    謝謝收看 我們下週見

  • Crash Course Mythology is filmed in the Chad and Stacey Emigholz Studio in Indianapolis, Indiana,

    00:11:47,107 --> 00:11:52,016

  • and is produced with the help of all of these very nice people. Our animation team is Thought Café.

    00:11:52,016 --> 00:11:56,388

  • Crash Course exists thanks to the generous support of our patrons at Patreon.

    00:11:56,388 --> 00:12:02,377

  • Patreon is a voluntary subscription service where you can support the content you love, though a monthly donation,

    00:12:02,377 --> 00:12:05,868

  • and help keep Crash Course free for everyone, forever.

    00:12:05,868 --> 00:12:10,508

  • Thanks for watching, and next time you sneeze, check the tissue, there might be an universe in there.

Hi! I'm Mike, this is Crash Course Mythology and today,

嗨!我是麥克。 歡迎收看《神話速成班》

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 CrashCourse 神話 宇宙 天父 速成班 大地

天地交合的時刻, 蛋, 種子, 水:神話速成班 (Cosmic Sexy Time, Eggs, Seeds, and Water: Crash Course World Mythology #3)

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    Winnie 發佈於 2017 年 11 月 24 日
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