Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • Today I want to confess something to you,

    今天我想跟你們坦白一些事

  • but first of all I'm going to ask you a couple of questions.

    但首先,我想先問幾個問題

  • How many people here have children?

    這裏有多少人有孩子?

  • And how many of you are confident

    你們當中有多少人

  • that you know how to bring up your children

    對於用正確的方式教育孩子

  • in exactly the right way?

    很有信心?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • OK, I don't see too many hands going up on that second one,

    好,我沒有看到很多人在第二題舉手

  • and that's my confession, too.

    那也是我想說的

  • I've got three boys;

    我有三個兒子

  • they're three, nine and twelve.

    他們分別是三歲、九歲、十二歲

  • And like you, and like most parents,

    而就如同你們,如同大部分的家長

  • the honest truth is I have pretty much no idea what I'm doing.

    老實說我不太確定自己的教育方式

  • I want them to be happy and healthy in their lives,

    我想讓他們的人生快樂又健康

  • but I don't really know what I'm supposed to do

    但我不知道我該做什麼

  • to make sure they are happy and healthy.

    去確保他們是快樂又健康的

  • There's so many books offering all kinds of conflicting advice,

    世界上有很多書提供各種意見

  • it can be really overwhelming.

    多到數不清

  • So I've spent most of their lives just making it up as I go along.

    因此一路上我花費很多時間陪伴他們

  • However, something changed me a few years ago,

    然而,幾年前,有件事讓我轉變了

  • when I came across a little secret that we have in Britain.

    當我得知一個我們在英國的小秘密

  • It's helped me become more confident about how I bring up my own children,

    它讓我在如何教育孩子上更有自信

  • and it's revealed a lot about how we as a society can help all children.

    而它也揭露了許多我們社會能夠幫助孩子的方式

  • I want to share that secret with you today.

    今天我想要跟你們分享這個秘密

  • For the last 70 years,

    在過去的七十年當中,

  • scientists in Britain have been following thousands of thousands of children through their lives

    英國科學家追蹤了幾千位孩子的一生

  • as part of an incredible scientific study.

    成為了卓越的科學研究

  • There's nothing quite like it anywhere else in the world.

    世界上沒有任何研究能比得上它

  • Collecting information on thousands of children

    蒐集幾千個孩子的資訊

  • is a really powerful thing to do,

    真的是一件強大的事

  • because it means we can compare the ones who say,

    因為我們可以比對不同人的說詞

  • do well at school or end up healthy or happy or wealthy as adults,

    在學校表現傑出或是長大後變得健康快樂的

  • and the ones who struggle much more,

    與受過較多挫折的

  • and then we can sift through all the information we've collected

    然後我們可以過濾所有的蒐集的資訊

  • and try to work out why their lives turned out different.

    然後試圖了解為什麼他們人生變得不同

  • This British study -- it's actually a kind of crazy story.

    這個英國研究,像是個瘋狂的故事

  • So it all starts back in 1946,

    從 1946 年開始

  • just a few months after the end of the war,

    在二戰後結束沒幾個月

  • when scientists wanted to know

    科學家想要知道

  • what it was like for a woman to have a baby at the time.

    女人在生產時的狀態

  • They carried out this huge survey of mothers

    他們做了媽媽們的調查

  • and ended up recording the birth of nearly every baby

    最後在一週內幾乎每個寶寶都被記錄了

  • born in England, Scotland and Wales in one week.

    在英國、蘇格蘭、威爾斯等地

  • That was nearly 14,000 babies.

    大約有 14,000 個寶寶

  • The questions they asked these women

    他們問這些媽媽們的問題

  • are very different than the ones we might ask today.

    跟我們現今會問的問題非常不一樣

  • They sound really old-fashioned now.

    它們聽起來非常過時

  • They asked them things like,

    他們問媽媽們像是:

  • "During pregnancy,

    「在懷孕期間,

  • did you get your full extra ration of a pint of milk a day?"

    你是否每天攝取定額的脫脂牛奶?」

  • "How much did you spend on smocks, corsets,

    「你花多少錢買罩衫、束腹、

  • nightdresses, knickers and brassieres?"

    晚禮服、短褲與胸罩?」

  • And this is my favorite one:

    接下來是我最喜歡的一個:

  • "Who looked after your husband while you were in bed with this baby?"

    「當妳跟寶寶睡在一起時,誰來照料妳的丈夫?」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Now, this wartime study actually ended up being so successful

    現在,這個戰後研究最後如此成功

  • that scientists did it again.

    科學家重做了一次

  • They recorded the births of thousands of babies born in 1958

    他們紀錄1958年出生的上千位寶寶

  • and thousands more in 1970.

    然後上千位在1970出生的

  • They did it again in the early 1990s,

    1990早期他們重複這個動作

  • and again at the turn of the millennium.

    2000年又一次

  • Altogether, more than 70,000 children have been involved in these studies

    綜合以上,超過70,000名孩子參與了這些研究

  • across those five generations.

    橫跨了五個世代

  • They're called the British birth cohorts,

    他們稱做英國世代研究

  • and scientists have gone back and recorded more information

    科學家每隔幾年就會回溯並記錄更多

  • on all of these people every few years ever since.

    關於這些人的資訊

  • The amount of information that's now been collected on these people

    這些蒐集來的資訊數量

  • is just completely mind-boggling.

    簡直難以置信

  • It includes thousands of paper questionnaires

    它包含幾千份問卷

  • and terabytes' worth of computer data.

    還有值上兆元的電腦資料

  • Scientists have also built up a huge bank of tissue samples,

    科學家也建立了龐大的樣本庫

  • which includes locks of hair, nail clippings, baby teeth and DNA.

    包含毛髮、指甲、寶寶的牙齒與 DNA

  • They've even collected 9,000 placentas from some of the births,

    他們甚至蒐集了9000個胎盤

  • which are now pickled in plastic buckets in a secure storage warehouse.

    現在被保存在安全貯存倉庫中的塑膠盒中

  • This whole project has become unique --

    這整個計畫變得如此獨特

  • so, no other country in the world is tracking generations of children

    沒有其他國家追蹤世代的孩童

  • in quite this detail.

    如此精確

  • These are some of the best-studied people on the planet,

    這些屬於人類做過最棒的研究之一

  • and the data has become incredibly valuable for scientists,

    而這些數據對科學家來說價值不菲

  • generating well over 6,000 academic papers and books.

    產出了超過6000份學術論文與書籍

  • But today I want to focus on just one finding --

    但我今天只想要著重在一個發現

  • perhaps the most important discovery to come from this remarkable study.

    或許是這個研究最重要的發現

  • And it's also the one that spoke to me personally,

    而且對於我個人來說

  • because it's about how to use science to do the best for our children.

    因為它以科學的方式解釋該怎麼做對我們的孩子來說是最好的

  • So, let's get the bad news out of the way first.

    所以,我們先從壞的部分開始

  • Perhaps the biggest message from this remarkable study is this:

    或許是這份研究最主要的訊息:

  • don't be born into poverty or into disadvantage,

    別出生在貧困或環境不佳的家庭

  • because if you are,

    因為如果你是,

  • you're far more likely to walk a difficult path in life.

    你的人生可能走向較困難的道路

  • Many children in this study were born into poor families

    在這個研究中,有許多孩子出生在貧困的家庭

  • or into working-class families that had cramped homes or other problems,

    或是勞工階級家庭,有狹促的家或其他問題

  • and it's clear now that those disadvantaged children

    很清楚的,這些生活條件差的孩子

  • have been more likely to struggle on almost every score.

    幾乎在各方面都遭遇挫折

  • They've been more likely to do worse at school,

    他們很有可能在學業方面表現差

  • to end up with worse jobs and to earn less money.

    最後得到差勁的工作、賺到較少的工資

  • Now, maybe that sounds really obvious,

    現在,或許這些聽起來理所當然

  • but some of the results have been really surprising,

    但有些結果令人驚訝,

  • so children who had a tough start in life

    那些起跑點較差的孩子

  • are also more likely to end up unhealthy as adults.

    最終非常有可能變成不健康的大人

  • They're more likely to be overweight,

    他們有可能體重過重

  • to have high blood pressure,

    有高血壓

  • and then decades down the line,

    數十年下來

  • more likely to have a failing memory, poor health and even to die earlier.

    有很糟的記憶力、較差的健康,甚至早死

  • Now, I talked about what happens later,

    現在,我想談談接下來發生什麼事

  • but some of these differences emerge at a really shockingly early age.

    這些差異發生在令人訝異的年齡

  • In one study,

    在一個研究中,

  • children who were growing up in poverty

    在窮困環境生長的孩子

  • were almost a year behind the richer children on educational tests,

    在教育程度測驗中幾乎晚了較富有的孩子一年

  • and that was by the age of just three.

    從三歲就開始了

  • These types of differences have been found again and again across the generations.

    這些差異重複地出現在每一個世代

  • It means that our early circumstances have a profound influence

    這代表我們早期的境遇會對我們接下來的一生

  • on the way that the rest of our lives play out.

    有深刻的影響

  • And working out why that is

    而所找出的原因是

  • is one of the most difficult questions that we face today.

    我們現今所面臨最困難的問題之一

  • So there we have it.

    現在我們有了

  • The first lesson for successful life, everyone, is this:

    第一堂成功人生課題,是這個:

  • choose your parents very carefully.

    小心地選擇自己的父母

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Don't be born into a poor family or into a struggling family.

    不要出生在貧窮或環境不好的家庭

  • Now, I'm sure you can see the small problem here.

    現在,我確定你們發現了一個小問題

  • We can't choose our parents or how much they earn,

    我們不能選擇自己的父母,或他們的收入

  • but this British study has also struck a real note of optimism

    但這個英國研究也留下了令人樂觀的註解

  • by showing that not everyone who has a disadvantaged start

    表示不是所有環境差的人

  • ends up in difficult circumstances.

    最後都過得很辛苦

  • As you know, many people have a tough start in life,

    如你們所知,許多人的一生一開始很辛苦

  • but they end up doing very well on some measure nevertheless,

    但他們最後在各方面都表現得很好

  • and this study starts to explain how.

    而這個研究開始解釋為什麼

  • So the second lesson is this:

    因次第二堂課是

  • parents really matter.

    父母真的很重要

  • In this study,

    在這份研究中

  • children who had engaged, interested parents,

    擁有參與度高、積極家長的孩子

  • ones who had ambition for their future,

    對於孩子的未來有野心

  • were more likely to escape from a difficult start.

    很有可能能夠擺脫辛苦的過去

  • It seems that parents and what they do are really, really important,

    看起來家長對孩子的影響是非常非常重要的

  • especially in the first few years of life.

    尤其在人生的前幾年

  • Let me give you an example of that.

    讓我舉個例子

  • In one study,

    在一項研究中

  • scientists looked at about 17,000 children who were born in 1970.

    科學家觀察了近17000位出生在1970的孩童

  • They sifted all the mountains of data that they had collected

    他們過濾了堆積如山的數據

  • to try to work out

    想辦法得出

  • what allowed the children who'd had a difficult start in life

    什麼才能讓起跑點較差的孩子

  • to go on and do well at school nevertheless.

    能夠在學校有好的表現

  • In other words, which ones beat the odds.

    換句話說,造就改變

  • The data showed that what mattered more than anything else was parents.

    這個數據呈現了父母比其他因素來得重要

  • Having engaged, interested parents in those first few years of life

    在人生的頭幾年有參與度、積極的父母

  • was strongly linked to children going on to do well at school later on.

    跟孩子之後在學校表現良好有強烈的關係

  • In fact, quite small things that parents do

    事實上,父母生活中的小細節

  • are associated with good outcomes for children.

    關係著孩子是否有好的未來

  • Talking and listening to a child,

    討論與傾聽孩子

  • responding to them warmly,

    溫暖的回應他們

  • teaching them their letters and numbers,

    教導他們字母與數字

  • taking them on trips and visits.

    帶他們去旅遊

  • Reading to children every day seems to be really important, too.

    每天念故事給他們聽也很重要

  • So in one study,

    因此在某個研究中,

  • children whose parents were reading to them daily when they were five

    那些父母從五歲起每天唸故事給他們聽的孩子

  • and then showing an interest in their education at the age of 10,

    在十歲時就表現出對學業的興趣

  • were significantly less likely to be in poverty at the age of 30

    到了三十歲時不太可能成為貧窮階層

  • than those whose parents weren't doing those things.

    相較於那些什麼都不做的父母

  • Now, there are huge challenges with interpreting this type of science.

    現在,解讀這類的科學是極大的挑戰

  • These studies show that certain things that parents do

    這些研究顯示父母做的事

  • are correlated with good outcomes for children,

    與孩子好的結果呈正相關

  • but we don't necessarily know those behaviors caused the good outcomes,

    但我們並不需要知道這些行為如何導致這個結果

  • or whether some other factor is getting in the way.

    或其他因素囊括在內

  • For example, we have to take genes into account,

    例如:我們要將基因列入考量

  • and that's a whole other talk in itself.

    這又是另一個議題

  • But scientists working with this British study

    但科學家非常努力實行這個英國研究

  • are working really hard to get at causes,

    只為了知道原因

  • and this is one study I particularly love.

    這是一個我特別喜愛的

  • In this one,

    在這份研究

  • they looked at the bedtime routines of about 10,000 children

    他們觀察約10,000 為孩童的睡眠習慣

  • born at the turn of the millennium.

    在21世紀出生的

  • Were the children going to bed at regular times,

    孩子是否在固定時間上床,

  • or did they go to bed at different times during the week?

    或是一週內有不同的上床時間?

  • The data showed that those children who were going to bed at different times

    數據呈現這些在不同時間上床睡覺的孩子

  • were more likely to have behavioral problems,

    比較有可能行為上的偏差

  • and then those that switched to having regular bedtimes

    而那些規律睡眠的孩子

  • often showed an improvement in behavior,

    行為上呈現進步的趨勢

  • and that was really crucial,

    這是非常具決定性的

  • because it suggested it was the bedtime routines

    因為這指出了睡眠習慣

  • that were really helping things get better for those kids.

    真的能幫助孩子

  • Here's another one to think about.

    這裏的另一個值得思考的地方

  • In this one,

    在這裡

  • scientists looked at children who were reading for pleasure.

    科學家觀察喜愛閱讀的孩子

  • That means that they picked up a magazine, a picture book, a story book.

    這表示他們拿起雜誌、繪本、故事書

  • The data showed that children who were reading for pleasure

    數據顯示這些孩子從閱讀中獲得快樂

  • at the ages of five and 10

    在他們五到十歲之間

  • were more likely to go on in school better, on average,

    平均來說在往後的人生中

  • on school tests later in their lives.

    學校表現、考試表現較佳

  • And not just tests of reading,

    而且不只是閱讀考試

  • but tests of spelling and maths as well.

    拼字、數學測驗也是

  • This study tried to control for all the confounding factors,

    這個研究嘗試控制變因

  • so it looked at children who were equally intelligent

    因此它觀察相同智商的孩子

  • and from the same social-class background,

    且同一個社會階層

  • so it seemed as if it was the reading which really helped those children

    因此閱讀似乎幫助孩子

  • go on and score better on those school tests later in their lives.

    在未來的考試中有較佳的表現

  • Now at the start,

    現在回到一開始,

  • I said the first lesson from this study

    我說這個研究教我們的第一堂課

  • was not to be born into poverty or into disadvantage,

    別出生在貧困或環境差的家庭

  • because those children tend to follow more difficult paths in their lives.

    因為這些孩子將走向相對辛苦的路

  • But then I said that parenting matters,

    但我後來又說父母的因素

  • and that good parenting, if you can call it that,

    你也可以說,好的育兒方式

  • helps children beat the odds

    幫助孩子成為特例

  • and overcome some of those early disadvantages.

    並且克服那些早期的困境

  • So wait,

    等等

  • does that actually mean, then, that poverty doesn't matter after all?

    難道這代表貧窮一點都不影響嗎?

  • You could argue it doesn't matter if a child is born poor --

    你可以說如果一個孩子出生在貧困的家庭也沒關係

  • as long as their parents are good parents, they're going to do just fine.

    只要他們的父母是好的父母,他們也可以做得很好

  • I don't believe that's true.

    我並不這樣認為

  • This study shows that poverty and parenting matter.

    這個研究指出貧困與教育方式相關

  • And one study actually put figures on that,

    而一個研究事實上得出此數據

  • so it looked at children growing up in persistent poverty

    它觀察孩子生長在長期貧困的家庭

  • and how well they were doing at school.

    與他在學校的表現

  • The data showed

    數據顯示

  • that even when their parents were doing everything right --

    就算他們的父母把所有是做對了:

  • putting them to bed on time

    讓他們準時睡覺

  • and reading to them every day and everything else --

    還有,每天唸故事書等等其他

  • that only got those children so far.

    他們只改變了這些孩子

  • Good parenting only reduced the educational gap

    好的育兒方式只是減少了富有與貧窮孩子

  • between the rich and poor children by about 50 percent.

    教育程度的差距近50%

  • Now that means that poverty leaves a really lasting scar,

    代表現在貧窮對於小孩的成長真的帶來長久創傷

  • and it means that if we really want to ensure the success and well-being

    也代表若我們想要確保下一代的

  • of the next generation,

    成功與良好的表現

  • then tackling child poverty is an incredibly important thing to do.

    解決孩童貧窮的問題是一件非常重要的事

  • Now, what does all this mean for you and me?

    現在,這些對於你我有什麼意義?

  • Are there lessons here we can all take home and use?

    有什麼事我們可以帶走的嗎?

  • As a scientist and a journalist,

    身為一位科學家與記者

  • I like to have some science to inform my parenting ...

    我想用科學解釋我的教育方式

  • and I can tell you that when you're shouting at your kids

    而我可以告訴你,當你對你的孩子大喊

  • to go to bed on time,

    準時上床睡覺

  • it really helps to have the scientific literature on your side.

    真的有相關的科學證據佐證你

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And wouldn't it be great to think

    而我們是否能想像

  • that all we had to do to have happy, successful children

    若我們想擁有快樂健康的孩子,我們只需要

  • was to talk to them, be interested in their future,

    跟他們談談、關心他們的未來

  • put them to bed on time, and give them a book to read?

    讓他們準時上床睡覺、給他們一本書?

  • Our job would be done.

    我們的工作就結束了

  • Now, as you can imagine,

    你可以想到的是

  • the answers aren't quite as simple as that.

    這些答案不會如此簡單

  • For one thing, this study looks at what happens

    原因是,這些研究觀察了

  • to thousands and thousands of children on average,

    上千個孩子發生的事

  • but that doesn't necessarily say what will help my child or your child

    但那不是絕對能夠幫助你或我或

  • or<