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  • Most of us go through life trying to do our best at whatever we do,

    大多數人在生活中 都會嘗試把每件事做到最好,

  • whether it's our job, family, school

    無論是在職場上、家庭、學校

  • or anything else.

    或其它領域。

  • I feel that way. I try my best.

    我也有同感,也會努力嘗試。

  • But some time ago, I came to a realization

    但前一段時間,我開始意識到,

  • that I wasn't getting much better at the things I cared most about,

    我總是無法在 自己最在意的事情上做得更好。

  • whether it was being a husband or a friend

    比如做一個好丈夫或好朋友,

  • or a professional or teammate,

    一名專業人士或好隊友,

  • and I wasn't improving much at those things

    我一直無法在 這些事情上有很大的提升,

  • even though I was spending a lot of time

    哪怕我花了很多時間

  • working hard at them.

    努力完成。

  • I've since realized from conversations I've had and from research

    我之後在與他人的談話 和研究中意識到,

  • that this stagnation, despite hard work,

    無論你多努力,

  • turns out to be pretty common.

    這種瓶頸總是一直出現。

  • So I'd like to share with you some insights into why that is

    所以我想跟各位分享一些見解,

  • and what we can all do about it.

    並提出一些解決的辦法。

  • What I've learned is that the most effective people

    我所了解的是,

  • and teams in any domain

    無論哪個領域,各行業的佼佼者

  • do something we can all emulate.

    都有可以讓我們仿效的地方。

  • They go through life deliberately alternating between two zones:

    我發現,他們在日常生活中 會有意識地在這兩種狀態中切換,

  • the learning zone and the performance zone.

    學習狀態和執行狀態,

  • The learning zone is when our goal is to improve.

    在學習狀態,我們的技能可以進步。

  • Then we do activities designed for improvement,

    我們會透過設計過的 活動來提升技能。

  • concentrating on what we haven't mastered yet,

    專注于尚未掌握的事情,

  • which means we have to expect to make mistakes,

    這意味著我們一定會有失誤,

  • knowing that we will learn from them.

    但我們也一定能從中學到東西。

  • That is very different from what we do when we're in our performance zone,

    這跟我們執行狀態時 所做的事情很不一樣,

  • which is when our goal is to do something as best as we can, to execute.

    執行狀態的目的是把 我們最好的一面表現出來。

  • Then we concentrate on what we have already mastered

    我們會專注在已經掌握好的技能,

  • and we try to minimize mistakes.

    並把失誤減到最小。

  • Both of these zones should be part of our lives,

    這兩種狀態都是我們生活的一部分,

  • but being clear about when we want to be in each of them,

    但當你想要自在的處在這兩種狀態,

  • with what goal, focus and expectations,

    你得清楚知道你的目標、關注點、 預期效果是什麼,

  • helps us better perform and better improve.

    這樣才能幫助你 在執行和改進方面都做得更好。

  • The performance zone maximizes our immediate performance,

    執行狀態注重當下的表現,

  • while the learning zone maximizes our growth

    學習狀態會加速人的成長,

  • and our future performance.

    並且提升未來的表現。

  • The reason many of us don't improve much

    很多人,無論如何努力 都沒辦法有所提高。

  • despite our hard work

    原因在於:

  • is that we tend to spend almost all of our time in the performance zone.

    我們總是花費太多時間在執行狀態。

  • This hinders our growth,

    這樣會阻礙成長。

  • and ironically, over the long term, also our performance.

    諷刺的是,長時間下來, 也會引響我們的表現。

  • So what does the learning zone look like?

    那麽,學習狀態是怎樣的情況?

  • Take Demosthenes, a political leader

    來看看狄摩西尼,這位政治領袖,

  • and the greatest orator and lawyer in ancient Greece.

    古希臘最偉大的演説家和律師。

  • To become great, he didn't spend all his time

    他會偉大的原因, 不是因爲他把時間都花在

  • just being an orator or a lawyer,

    演説和執行律師業務上面,

  • which would be his performance zone.

    也就是說他不會一直處在執行狀態。

  • But instead, he did activities designed for improvement.

    相反的,他做了很多改善的活動。

  • Of course, he studied a lot.

    毋庸置疑,他花很多時間在學習。

  • He studied law and philosophy with guidance from mentors,

    比如他在精神導師的指導下 學習法律及哲學,

  • but he also realized that being a lawyer involved persuading other people,

    但他也同時意識到, 作爲律師他需要説服別人,

  • so he also studied great speeches

    所以他也研究名人的演講

  • and acting.

    及學習演戲。

  • To get rid of an odd habit he had of involuntarily lifting his shoulder,

    爲了改變不由自主聳肩的壞習慣,

  • he practiced his speeches in front of a mirror,

    他會在鏡子前練習演說,

  • and he suspended a sword from the ceiling

    並且在天花板上吊一把劍。

  • so that if he raised his shoulder,

    一旦聳肩,

  • it would hurt.

    他就會被刺到。

  • (Laughter)

    (觀衆笑)

  • To speak more clearly despite a lisp,

    爲了克服口齒不清,

  • he went through his speeches with stones in his mouth.

    他會含著石頭練習演講。

  • He built an underground room

    他還建了一個地下室,

  • where he could practice without interruptions

    以避免練習時被打擾

  • and not disturb other people.

    或打擾到別人。

  • And since courts at the time were very noisy,

    因爲上法院時會很吵,

  • he also practiced by the ocean,

    所以他就對著大海練習,

  • projecting his voice above the roar of the waves.

    讓自己的聲音比咆哮的海浪還大聲。

  • His activities in the learning zone

    他在學習狀態所做的活動

  • were very different from his activities in court,

    與他在法院上執行的活動,

  • his performance zone.

    兩者是很不一樣的。

  • In the learning zone,

    他在學習狀態時,

  • he did what Dr. Anders Ericsson calls deliberate practice.

    會做安德森·愛立信博士所說的 「循序漸進的練習」。

  • This involves breaking down abilities into component skills,

    就是把要學習的技能 拆分成一小段一小段的技能,

  • being clear about what subskill we're working to improve,

    並且清楚地知道哪一項技巧 目前需要提高。

  • like keeping our shoulders down,

    像是放鬆肩膀,

  • giving full concentration to a high level of challenge

    全新專注在舒適圈以外

  • outside our comfort zone,

    更高層次的挑戰,

  • just beyond what we can currently do,

    專注超越那些早已掌握的事物。

  • using frequent feedback with repetition and adjustments,

    利用快速反饋做重複練習和調整,

  • and ideally engaging the guidance of a skilled coach,

    全力配合熟手教練的指導。

  • because activities designed for improvement

    因爲,為改善而設計的活動

  • are domain-specific,

    是有特定範圍的,

  • and great teachers and coaches know what those activities are

    好的老師或教練知道 什麽活動能帶來進步,

  • and can also give us expert feedback.

    並會給予專業的反饋。

  • It is this type of practice in the learning zone

    就是在這種學習狀態下的練習,

  • which leads to substantial improvement,

    才能大量的進步,

  • not just time on task performing.

    而不是只是花時間在執行業務上。

  • For example, research shows that after the first couple of years

    舉個例子,研究表明,

  • working in a profession,

    在某一領域工作數年後,

  • performance usually plateaus.

    表現會達到停滯期。

  • This has been shown to be true in teaching, general medicine,

    這在教學、一般內科、

  • nursing and other fields,

    護理及其他領域都得到了印證。

  • and it happens because once we think we have become good enough,

    這是因爲一旦 人們覺得自己足夠好了,

  • adequate,

    綽綽有餘了,

  • then we stop spending time in the learning zone.

    就不會再花時間學習。

  • We focus all our time on just doing our job,

    我們只會關注在如何完成工作

  • performing,

    和執行業務上,

  • which turns out not to be a great way to improve.

    這種方式變得不利於提高技能。

  • But the people who continue to spend time in the learning zone

    但是那些一直在學習的人們,

  • do continue to always improve.

    就會持續地成長。

  • The best salespeople at least once a week

    最好的銷售人員,至少每週一次,

  • do activities with the goal of improvement.

    進行改善訓練。

  • They read to extend their knowledge,

    他們閲讀以增長知識,

  • consult with colleagues or domain experts,

    諮詢同行和專家、

  • try out new strategies, solicit feedback and reflect.

    嘗試新的策略、徵詢意見及反思。

  • The best chess players

    最好的棋手,

  • spend a lot of time not playing games of chess,

    大部分的時間, 並不是在跟別人下棋,

  • which would be their performance zone,

    也就是他們不會 一直處在執行的狀態,

  • but trying to predict the moves grand masters made and analyzing them.

    而是試圖預測並分析大師們的棋路。

  • Each of us has probably spent many, many, many hours

    每個人可能都花了很多時間

  • typing on a computer

    在電腦前打字,

  • without getting faster,

    但卻沒有越打越快。

  • but if we spent 10 to 20 minutes each day

    但是,如果我們每天 抽出 10-20 分鐘,

  • fully concentrating on typing 10 to 20 percent faster

    全神貫注地提升打字速度,

  • than our current reliable speed,

    比平常快上 10%-20% 就好,

  • we would get faster,

    我們的速度就會越來越快。

  • especially if we also identified what mistakes we're making

    特別是當我們能找到失誤,

  • and practiced typing those words.

    並且專注加以練習。

  • That's deliberate practice.

    這就是一種循序漸進 (刻意)的練習。

  • In what other parts of our lives,

    在生活的其他方面,

  • perhaps that we care more about,

    還有哪些是我們比較在意,

  • are we working hard but not improving much

    我們很努力但進步緩慢的地方?

  • because we're always in the performance zone?

    是不是因爲我們老是停留在 執行狀態裡?

  • Now, this is not to say that the performance zone has no value.

    但以上都不是在說執行狀態沒有用,

  • It very much does.

    它是很有價值的。

  • When I needed a knee surgery, I didn't tell the surgeon,

    但我需要做膝蓋手術的時候, 我可不想告訴醫師:

  • "Poke around in there and focus on what you don't know."

    「隨便戳戳吧, 探索一下你不知道的事。」

  • (Laughter)

    (觀衆笑)

  • "We'll learn from your mistakes!"

    「我們可以從失誤中學到東西啊!」

  • I looked for a surgeon who I felt would do a good job,

    我會找一位我認爲夠好的醫師,

  • and I wanted her to do a good job.

    我想讓她好好地幫我醫治。

  • Being in the performance zone

    在執行狀態時,

  • allows us to get things done as best as we can.

    我們會力求表現到最好,

  • It can also be motivating,

    這樣可以激勵我們,

  • and it provides us with information to identify what to focus on next

    並告訴我們,

  • when we go back to the learning zone.

    在回到學習狀態的時候, 該關注些什麽。

  • So the way to high performance

    所以說,想要表現得好

  • is to alternate between the learning zone and the performance zone,

    需要在學習狀態 和執行狀態之間轉換。

  • purposefully building our skills in the learning zone,

    在學習狀態下有目的性地積累技巧,

  • then applying those skills in the performance zone.

    然後再將之應用在執行狀態裡。

  • When Beyoncé is on tour,

    就像碧昂斯的巡演,

  • during the concert, she's in her performance zone,

    演唱會上,她處在執行表演的狀態,

  • but every night when she gets back to the hotel room,

    但每晚回到酒店,

  • she goes right back into her learning zone.

    她就直接投入到學習狀態裡。

  • She watches a video of the show that just ended.

    她會觀看剛剛結束的表演,

  • She identifies opportunities for improvement,

    爲自己、舞群和攝像師,

  • for herself, her dancers and her camera staff.

    尋找改進的機會。

  • And the next morning,

    第二天早上,

  • everyone receives pages of notes with what to adjust,

    所有人都會收到一份通知, 上面寫著那些地方需要改進,

  • which they then work on during the day before the next performance.

    如此團隊成員就可以在 下一次表演之前做出調整。

  • It's a spiral

    如此團隊的能力

  • to ever-increasing capabilities,

    就可以一直向上提升。

  • but we need to know when we seek to learn, and when we seek to perform,

    但我們需要清楚的是, 何時「學」、何時「做」,

  • and while we want to spend time doing both,

    何時兩樣一起。

  • the more time we spend in the learning zone,

    投入越多時間在學習狀態,

  • the more we'll improve.

    就能取得越多的進步。

  • So how can we spend more time in the learning zone?

    那麽我們要怎樣才能 多花點時間在學習狀態呢?

  • First, we must believe and understand

    首先,要相信並理解一件事,

  • that we can improve,

    那就是我們可以改進,

  • what we call a growth mindset.

    也就是所謂的「成長心態」。

  • Second, we must want to improve at that particular skill.

    其次,要在具體的技巧上做改進。

  • There has to be a purpose we care about,

    並且要有一個我們在乎的目標,

  • because it takes time and effort.

    因爲它需要時間和努力。

  • Third, we must have an idea about how to improve,

    第三,我們必須要知道該如何提升,

  • what we can do to improve,

    要做些什麽來提升,

  • not how I used to practice the guitar as a teenager,

    而不是像我年輕時彈吉它那樣,

  • performing songs over and over again,

    同首曲子一遍又一遍的重複,

  • but doing deliberate practice.

    而是要做「循序漸進的練習」。

  • And fourth, we must be in a low-stakes situation,

    第四,我們必須保持在低風險狀態,

  • because if mistakes are to be expected,

    因爲如果如預期的發生了失誤,

  • then the consequence of making them must not be catastrophic,

    那麽造成的後果就不會影響太大,

  • or even very significant.

    或是關係重大。

  • A tightrope walker doesn't practice new tricks without a net underneath,

    走鋼絲的演員, 不會在沒有護網的情況下

  • and an athlete wouldn't set out to first try a new move

    練習新的技巧;

  • during a championship match.

    運動員並不會在冠軍比賽中,

  • One reason that in our lives

    嘗試新的動作。

  • we spend so much time in the performance zone

    我們在生活中, 花很多時間在執行狀態裡,

  • is that our environments often are, unnecessarily, high stakes.

    這箇中原因是:

  • We create social risks for one another,

    我們常常處在不必要的 高風險環境中。

  • even in schools which are supposed to be all about learning,

    我們彼此製造了社會風險。

  • and I'm not talking about standardized tests.

    哪怕是在學校,一個被認定為 純粹學習的地方,

  • I mean that every minute of every day,

    我不是在說標準測驗,

  • many students in elementary schools through colleges

    我說的是學生每時每刻、

  • feel that if they make a mistake, others will think less of them.

    從小學到大學,

  • No wonder they're always stressed out

    都會覺得別人會因為 他們犯錯而輕視他們。

  • and not taking the risks necessary for learning.

    難怪他們總是緊張兮兮,

  • But they learn that mistakes are undesirable

    不願為學習冒必要的風險。

  • inadvertently

    老師、家長對正確答案 趨之若鶩的態度,

  • when teachers or parents are eager to hear just correct answers

    無意中,

  • and reject mistakes rather than welcome and examine them

    讓學生害怕犯錯。

  • to learn from them,

    而不是勇於試錯、檢視過錯、

  • or when we look for narrow responses

    並從中吸取教訓。

  • rather than encourage more exploratory thinking

    又或者,我們只想聽「標準答案」,

  • that we can all learn from.

    而不是鼓勵學生進行

  • When all homework or student work has a number or a letter on it,

    可以學到更多的開拓性思考。

  • and counts towards a final grade,

    一旦學生的作業、作品 都被評定等級、標上分數,

  • rather than being used for practice, mistakes, feedback and revision,

    最後記錄到期末成績後,

  • we send the message that school is a performance zone.

    它們就起不到練習、試錯、 反饋和修正的作用了,

  • The same is true in our workplaces.

    我們讓孩子誤以為: 學校只是個讓你表現的地方。

  • In the companies I consult with, I often see flawless execution cultures

    職場中也同樣如此。

  • which leaders foster to encourage great work.

    那些諮詢我的公司, 我常見到領導者鼓勵推動

  • But that leads employees to stay within what they know

    「完美執行 」的文化。

  • and not try new things,

    但這樣就會導致員工 僅僅停留在他們已知的範疇,

  • so companies struggle to innovate and improve,

    而不去嘗試新的事物,

  • and they fall behind.

    公司因此很難創新、進步,

  • We can create more spaces for growth

    從而落居下風。

  • by starting conversations with one another

    我們可以透過交流,

  • about when we want to be in each zone.

    為彼此開創進步的空間,

  • What do we want to get better at and how?

    聊聊我們何時應該投身于何種狀態。

  • And when do we want to execute and minimize mistakes?

    在哪些方面可以做得更好?

  • That way, we gain clarity about what success is,

    何時決策、怎樣控損?

  • when, and how to best support one another.

    如此,我們可以明確什麽是成功、

  • But what if we find ourselves in a chronic high-stakes setting

    何時以及如何去支持對方。

  • and we feel we can't start those conversations yet?

    但如果我們處在長期高風險狀態下,

  • Then here are three things that we can still do as individuals.

    並且無法展開這樣的交流怎麽辦?

  • First, we can create low-stakes islands in an otherwise high-stakes sea.

    依然有三件事 是可以自己著手去做的。

  • These are spaces where mistakes have little consequence.

    首先,是在高風險的海洋中, 開闢一塊低風險的島嶼。

  • For example, we might find a mentor or a trusted colleague

    讓錯誤發生時不會造成嚴重的後果。

  • with whom we can exchange ideas or have vulnerable conversations

    比如説,我們可以找一位導師 或可以信任的同事,

  • or even role-play.

    和他們分享想法,或是接受批評。

  • Or we can ask for feedback-oriented meetings as projects progress.

    甚至角色扮演。

  • Or we can set aside time to read or watch videos or take online courses.

    或者是隨著項目的進展, 舉辦反饋會議。

  • Those are just some examples.

    又或者我們可以抽出時間去閱讀 或看視頻或是參加線上課程。

  • Second, we can execute and perform as we're expected,

    這只是幾個例子。

  • but then reflect on what we could do better next time,

    第二,我們可以實踐 並達成期望的表現,

  • like Beyoncé does,

    但事後反思如何改進,

  • and we can observe and emulate experts.

    就像碧昂斯那樣。

  • The observation, reflection and adjustment is a learning zone.

    我們還可以觀察和模仿專家,

  • And finally, we can lead

    這些觀察、反思、調整 都能讓我們學習到很多。

  • and lower the stakes for others by sharing what we want to get better at,

    最後,我們可以引導

  • by asking questions about what we don't know,

    並降低彼此的風險,問他們, 我們在哪方面可以再取得進步,

  • by soliciting feedback and by sharing our mistakes

    透過詢問未知的問題、

  • and what we've learned from them,

    徵求意見、 分享失誤,

  • so that others can feel safe to do the same.

    並從中汲取教訓,

  • Real confidence is about modeling ongoing learning.

    如此其他人 也就能安心地做同樣的事。

  • What if, instead of spending our lives doing, doing, doing,

    真正的自信是對不斷學習的展示。

  • performing, performing, performing,

    如果,我們沒有把人生 耗費在做、做、做、

  • we spent more time exploring,

    表現、表現、表現上,

  • asking,

    而是更多地去探索、

  • listening,

    詢問、

  • experimenting, reflecting,

    傾聽、

  • striving and becoming?

    實踐、反思、

  • What if we each always had something

    拼命去成為想成為的人,會怎麽樣?

  • we were working to improve?

    如果我們每個人,都有某些事情

  • What if we created more low-stakes islands

    讓我們可為之努力,從而提升呢?

  • and waters?

    如果我們創造更多的低風險區域