Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • Carb-Loaded: A Culture Dying to Eat

    碳水超載:吃到死的文化 【酮好字幕組】 翻譯:曾建璋、梁山東 時軸:曾建璋 校對:Claire

  • This is Lathe

    這是Lathe

  • I've know him and his wife for almost 20 years.

    我認識他和他太太 已經快20年了

  • In fact, about ten years ago

    事實上 大約十年前

  • we started our own company together.

    我們一起開了一家公司

  • In 2009, Lathe was 36 years old

    2009年時 Lathe36歲

  • and weighed 165lbs.

    體重約165磅

  • He pretty much ate the standard American diet,

    他吃的是標準美國飲食

  • exercised regularly,

    規律地運動

  • and was precisely the same weight he was

    而且他的體重和高三時一樣

  • throughout his senior year of high school.

    但接著 Lathe得到一個震驚的消息

  • But then Lathe received some shocking news.

    Okay 你是Poland先生

  • Okay, you're Mister Poland...Uhhh

    嗯 沒錯 你得了糖尿病

  • Ah yes, you have diabetes!

    總之

  • Anyway, with no family history of the disease,

    沒有糖尿病的家族病史

  • and a diet that most nutritionists would consider healthy,

    而吃的又是 大部份營養師認定的健康飲食

  • shouldn't Lathe be the last person with diabetes?

    Lathe應該是 最不可能得糖尿病的人吧

  • How did this happen?

    怎麼會這樣呢

  • Is Lathe an exception to the rule,

    難道Lathe是個例外

  • or part of an emerging trend?

    還是這是個新興的趨勢呢

  • Did this have something to do with his

    這跟所謂的「護心飲食」有關嗎

  • so called "heart-healthy" diet?

    而最重要的是 有多少

  • and most importantly..

    嘿 插一下話 我們

  • (interupts) Hey real quick, do we...

    我們要直走 還是在這左轉

  • do we go straight here, or do we take this left?

    嗯 我會在前面左轉

  • Hmmm, yeah I would take the left up ahead

    Okay 沒問題 抱歉 剛說到哪

  • Okay good, uh sorry! What were you saying?

    沒事 我只是在沈思

  • No worries, I was just thinking.

    有多少現今的健康問題

  • How many of the health problems we are witnessing today

    是現代飲食文化導致的呢

  • are a result of our modern food culture?

    那是個好問題

  • That's a good question.

    的確

  • Definitely!

    嘿 你有左轉嗎

  • Hey did you take that left?

    碳水超載:吃到死的文化

  • ♪♪ Up beat electronic music♪♪

    隨著醫學的進步

  • Carb-Loaded: A Culture Dying to Eat

    人們應該是前所未有的健康吧

  • With advances in medicine, it would seem

    但是 看起來似乎正好相反

  • that people should be healthier now then ever before.

    大部份的專家都同意 我們有嚴重的問題

  • However it's starting to appear the opposite is the case.

    我們看到各種慢性疾病的大流行

  • Most experts agree we have a serious problem.

    例如 肥胖、糖尿病 心血管疾病、癌症等等

  • We are seeing an epidemic explosion of chronic diseases

    這是個很長的名單

  • such as obesity, diabetes, heart disease, cancer

    我們總是在講肥胖的流行

  • The list goes on and on.

    但我們開始提到大規模 全球性的肥胖

  • We've talking about epidemic obesity forever.

    因為幾乎全世界的人口都被影響

  • We started talking about pandemic obesity

    在美國 人口肥胖的比例很高

  • because much of the world's population is now effected

    而也許慢慢穩定在很胖的水平

  • In the United States, where rates of obesity are high

    我們有高流行率的肥胖 很胖的水平

  • and maybe stabilizing at that very high level,

    當我們覺得趨勢變緩 肥胖率又開始在不同年齡層上升

  • we really have hyper endemic obesity- a fixed high level.

    我們深陷危機 並沒有誇大 的確深陷危機

  • Once we start feeling like we're plateauing,

    看看社會上 你會發現這些疾病發生率激增

  • it starts to head back up again in different age groups.

    包括 心血管疾病、高血壓

  • We are in a crisis.There's no other way to put it, we are in a crisis.

    癌症、阿茲海默症

  • A look at our society reveals an alarming rise in heart disease,

    肥胖、脂肪肝

  • hypertension, cancer, alzheimer's

    當然還有 糖尿病

  • obesity, fatty liver disease

    這是真的嗎 這裡寫

  • and, of course, diabetes.

    糖尿病不止一種

  • Are you serious? It says here

    那是真的

  • there is more than one kind of diabetes?

    糖尿病折磨人類 已經有很長的歷史了

  • That's true, and diabetes has been plaguing mankind

    事實上

  • for a very long time. In fact,

    糖尿病第一次在醫療文獻中被提及

  • diabetes was first mentioned in medical literature

    是差不多2000年前的事了

  • almost 2,000 years ago.

    糖尿病這一詞

  • The term diabetes was first coined

    是二世紀時 由卡帕多細亞的阿萊泰烏斯命名的 (譯註:阿萊泰烏斯是一個醫學作家)

  • of Aretaeus of Cappadocia

    1675年 mellitus 這個詞

  • in the early second century.

    指的是甜如蜜

  • In 1675, the word "Meletus"

    由Thomas Willis加上的

  • (which means "sweet like honey")

    那是當他發現病患的尿液是甜的

  • was added by Thomas Willis

    他到底是怎麼發現的呢

  • after discovering the urine of his patients

    100年後

  • was sweet.

    糖尿病患的尿液及血液中 證實有過量的糖 的確是甜的

  • How would he even figure that out?

    人們的血液或尿液怎麼會變甜呢

  • (Slurping sound)

    要知道為什麼 我們必須認識一個重要角色

  • 100 years later, and the presence of excess sugar in a diabetic's

    胰臟

  • urine and blood was confirmed. Hence the sweetness.

    胰臟是內分泌系統的一部份

  • What could possibly cause a person's blood or urine to be sweet?

    負責生產重要的酵素及荷爾蒙 幫助我們消化食物

  • To find out, we will need to meet an important character,

    其生產的胰島素 能夠調節體內的葡萄糖

  • the pancreas

    或說是血糖濃度

  • The pancreas is part of the endocrine system

    一個健康的胰臟

  • and produces important enzymes and hormones

    可以生產這些酵素和荷爾蒙

  • that help us break down foods.

    在合適的時候

  • This includes insulin which regulates the body's glucose

    生產合適的量

  • or "sugar level"

    來幫助我們消化吃進肚子的食物

  • A healthy pancreas

    當一個人得了第一型糖尿病

  • is able to produce these enzymes and hormones,

    胰臟受到自體細胞的攻擊

  • at the right time

    則無法生產胰島素

  • in the right quantities,

    來將血液中的糖份降低

  • in order to properly digest the food we eat.

    而第二型糖尿病

  • When a person has Type 1 diabetes,

    由於頻繁及大量的胰島素釋放

  • the pancreas is being attacked by the body's own cells,

    受體細胞對胰島素的敏感度下降

  • and can no longer produce insulin

    這個「胰島素阻抗」現象 造成較少的糖份自血液中移除

  • to remove sugar from the blood stream.

    悲慘的是

  • In the case of Type 2 diabetes,

    世界上 有超過3.6億的人們

  • due to the volume and frequency of insulin being released,

    發現自己有這個狀況

  • receptor cells become less sensitive to the insulin

    不分哪型糖尿病的話

  • this "insulin resistance" results in less sugar

    糖尿病在美國 十大死因排名第七

  • being removed from the blood. Sadly, over

    而在全世界 排名第八

  • 360 Million people worldwide find themselves

    你也許會覺得驚訝

  • in this situation.

    在社會最年輕族群中 肥胖比例越來越高

  • Regardless of the specific type,

    自2000年起

  • overall diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the U.S.

    糖尿病前期及糖尿病的兒童

  • and the 8th leading cause of death worldwide.

    人數幾乎增為三倍

  • You may be surprised to learn that obesity rates are growing faster

    兩歲到五歲的兒童最為嚴重

  • in the youngest members of our society. Since the year 2000,

    更詳細分析 發現甚至嬰兒也加入肥胖這流行

  • pre-diabetes and diabetes cases in children have nearly tripled.

    我們的孩子在過去三十年 肥胖比例增加至三倍

  • Two to five year olds lead this frightening trend.

    現在每3個兒童就有1個 有體重問題 過重或是肥胖

  • A closer look reveals there's even an epidemic of obese infants.

    疾病管制署提到

  • We have tripled obesity rates in the last 30 years in our children

    2000年出生的兒童

  • There are one in three children now with a weight issue,

    白人 每3個裡的1個

  • either overweight or obese.

    非裔及拉丁裔美國人 每2個裡的1個

  • The Centers for Disease Control have said that of the children born

    在他們有生之年會得到糖尿病

  • in the year 2000, one out of every three Caucasians, and one out of every

    疾管署更進一步指出

  • two African Americans and Hispanics are going to get diabetes

    2000年出生的這一代 將會是美國歷史上第一代

  • in their lifetime. They've gone further to say that this is the same

    平均壽命低於他們父母那一輩 都怪我們餵他們的食物

  • generation that will be the first in our countries history to die at a

    曾經這個病是年過65才容易得到的 以前是老年人才會得糖尿病

  • younger age than their parents because of what we feed them.

    而如今 這個年輕化的趨勢令人害怕

  • This used to be a disease that was past 65, it was old people that

    當8歲的兒童得到第二型糖尿病

  • had diabetes, and so this shift in the age group is

    主要是肥胖引起的

  • what's very frightening.

    合理推測在10年後 他們18歲時 他們會有心血管疾病

  • When 8 year olds are getting adult onset diabetes,

    他們會開始在急診室出現

  • due largely to epidemic obesity,

    再這樣下去 不久的將來這就會成真

  • stands to reason that 10 years later

    長完青春痘 就得心絞痛的那天就快來了

  • by the time they turn 18, they will have coronary disease.

    這聽起來是無法想像的

  • They'll start turning up in our emergency rooms.

    但沒多久前

  • Should current trends persist into the not too distant future,

    八歲就得到第二型糖尿病 同樣是令人驚訝的

  • the day may well dawn when angina

    根據疾病管制署 這情況若持續 到了2050年

  • is an adolescent right of passage along side acne.

    每3個美國人 就有1個是糖尿病

  • That may sound imponderable,

    而幾乎每2個美國人 就有1個是肥胖

  • but not all that long ago

    不是過重

  • the notion of adult onset diabetes in 8 year olds

    是肥胖!

  • would have been equally outrageous.

    美國和歐洲等西方國家

  • According to the CDC, if this keeps up, by the year 2050

    很快地 全世界

  • 1 in 3 Americans will be diabetic

    都流行肥胖及糖尿病

  • and nearly 1 in every 2 Americans will be obese.

    而肥胖的流行為糖尿病 增加了更多案例

  • Not overweight-

    而糖尿病本身

  • OBESE!

    對下列疾病是個危險因子 包括 心血管疾病

  • The U.S. and western civilization

    腎衰竭

  • and soon the entire world,

    眼睛病變、失明

  • have an obesity and diabetes epidemic.

    神經受損

  • The obesity epidemic is fueling the numberof cases

    足截肢

  • that we see who have diabetes.

    糖尿病的併發症影響實在很大

  • Diabetes in itself

    糖尿病不止傷害我們的健康

  • is a risk factor for developing heart disease,

    它同時也傷害我們的荷包

  • kidney failure, eye disease,

    因為 每個人 最後都會為糖尿病買單

  • blindness, nerve damage, foot amputations

    2012年

  • and so the implications of diabetes are tremendous.

    美國在糖尿病上的相關支出

  • Diabetes isn't just hurting our health

    估計約達到2450億美元

  • it's also emptying our pockets because

    那比起五年前增加了41%

  • everyone ends up paying for diabetes.

    這數字包含了直接的醫療支出

  • By 2012, diabetes related costs in the United States,

    曠職

  • reached an estimated 245 billion dollars.

    糖尿病相關的失業

  • That was a 41 percent increase

    因病早死造成的國家生產力下降

  • from just 5 years earlier.

    美國醫療保健的花費 每5塊錢就有1塊錢

  • That number includes direct medical costs,

    花在照顧糖尿病患上

  • absenteeism, diabetes related job loss,

    而全世界的花費超過4700億美元

  • and productivity loss due to premature deaths.

    若目前這趨勢持續到這世紀中期

  • 1 out of every 5 dollars spent on health-care in the United States

    每3個美國人會有1個是糖尿病

  • goes to the care of people with diabetes.

    而現在 美國的3億人口中

  • The worldwide cost is over 470 billion dollars.

    有約2千7百萬人被診斷出為糖尿病

  • Should current trends persist to about the middle of this century,

    非常嚴重 我們現在就付不起這些醫療費用

  • 1 in 3 Americans will be diabetic. Now right now

    3分之1的我們 是超過1億人

  • out of a population of over 300 million there are about 27 million

    我不認為有任何方法 能夠負擔那個費用

  • diagnosed diabetics in the U.S. That's pretty bad! We're having trouble

    我認為我們身處前線

  • paying the healthcare bills right now. 1 in 3 of us

    處境和國安局面對的差不了多少

  • would be over 100 million people.

    我認為我們國家的命運命懸一線

  • I don't think there is any way to pay that bill.

    光只是糖尿病的費用 就是天文數字了

  • I think we find ourselves on the front lines

    而這將會影響

  • of nothing less than homeland security.

    社會醫療健保體系的花費及支出

  • So I think the fate of the nation hangs in the balance.

    除非我們做出改變

  • The cost of diabetes alone

    當糖尿病及肥胖問題 在新聞上搶盡鎂光燈

  • is astronomically large, and it will impact

    許多專家相信它們 屬於一種規模更大、更險惡的流行病

  • on society's ability to handle healthcare costs

    而這流行病的名稱叫做

  • and expenditures if we don't make change.

    代謝症候群

  • Of course, while diabetes and obesity

    患者有的症狀如 高血壓

  • get most of the attention in the news,

    高血糖

  • many experts believe they are actually parts of a

    體脂過高

  • much larger and more sinister pandemic, and

    不正常的膽固醇水平

  • the name of this pandemic is Metabolic Syndrome.

    超過1億2千4百萬美國人

  • Sufferers have symptoms like high blood pressure, high blood sugar,

    患有這種少人報導的病

  • excess body fat and abnormal cholesterol levels.

    估計75%的醫療保健費用

  • Over 124 million Americans

    事實上 花費在 治療這些代謝症候群患者

  • are sick from this under-reported condition. It is estimated that

    整個社會的人口都已經生病了

  • 75 percent of our healthcare dollars are, in fact, spent on the

    但他們完全沒有察覺

  • treatment of people suffering from Metabolic Syndrome. So there is an

    常見的偏見是

  • entire population that is already sick and may not even be aware of it.

    社會上過重及肥胖的人 是病得最嚴重的人

  • A common bias is that the overweight

    瘦子常錯誤地認為

  • and obese members of society are the sickest ones.

    肥胖是辨識人們健康與否的指標

  • Incorrectly, thin people might, in fact, think of obesity as a way to

    我們看過很多人外表看來很好

  • identify the sick people around them.

    BMI在正常範圍

  • We see plenty of individuals who look great,

    體脂沒有過高

  • whose body mass index is in the normal range,

    而他們其實已身陷麻煩 但卻不自知

  • who don't have excessive body fat; and yet they're already

    因為他們的飲食造成血糖過高 已經改變了體內的蛋白質(酵素)

  • in trouble, and they don't know it

    比如 他們已經開始有脂肪肝 因為吃了太多果糖

  • because their diets are such

    這已經變成道德與品格 那一類的問題了

  • that they are already changing their proteins

    和體重拔河的病人被指稱 「慢性自殺」「懶惰的貪吃鬼」

  • by having to much sugar in their bloodstream.

    因為我們知道有數百萬 所謂的「胖瘦子」

  • They are already developing fatty liver because they are eating

    代謝上 體內已經病了

  • a lot of fructose for example.

    但外表卻看不出來有生病的跡象

  • This has been turned into a moralistic and character

    現在他們說瘦子其實是胖的 即使他們已經夠瘦

  • type issue, where individuals who struggle with their weight

    這真是嚴重

  • are "killing themselves" and are "lazy gluttons"

    事實上 這嚴重地讓我心情低落

  • because we know there

    難道沒有人知道這怎麼發生的嗎

  • are millions of "skinny fat" people who are

    (到)

  • metabolically sick inside, but do not look

    (到底)

  • characteristically sick on the outside.

    (到底怎麼)

  • Now they are saying skinny people are fat

    (到底怎麼發生的?)

  • even though they are already skinny.

    專家們一致認同有許多因素 造成我們現在的健康危機

  • This IS serious!

    對疾病是由飲食造成的人來說

  • In fact, it's seriously bringing me down.

    原因通常是許多因素一起造成的

  • I mean, does anyone even know how this happened?

    而這些通常是很長時間造成的

  • How did this happen?

    一輩子

  • Experts agree there are many factors

    甚至好幾代

  • that account for our current health crisis.

    例如

  • For people effected by diet related illness,

    (份量)

  • the answer is more than likely a combination of many factors.

    我們吃的量是前所未有的多

  • And these can take place over

    不只是餐廳的餐點份量大幅增加

  • a long period of time.

    我們家中自己料理的份量也增加

  • A lifetime,

    我們把大份量的視覺滿足 也帶到家中

  • and even generations.

    我們在外面看到那些 擺滿整盤的食物

  • For example,

    所以回到家 我們也渴望那樣的份量

  • We're eating more food than ever before.

    我們像是重新定義了正常份量

  • It's not just that fact that our

    一大盤的食物

  • restaurant portions have grown dramatically,

    看起來像是一般份量

  • but our home cooking portions have grown in turn.

    在以往

  • We bring those portions sizes home with our eyeballs.

    我們看到那份量會說 「我的老天」

  • We see what we get on plates elsewhere,

    「那足以餵飽一支軍隊!」 「或整個家庭吧!」

  • and we bring them home to our own personal plates.

    現在我們看到只會說

  • We've sort of defined a new norm with portions

    「那是我的晚餐」

  • where a very large plate of food

    如果你研究「最後的晚餐」

  • looks like a normal amount of food.

    我們後來發現

  • Whereas in the old days,

    如果你仔細看 「最後的晚餐」那幅畫

  • we would have looked at that and said, "Oh my God

    這1000年以來

  • that's enough to feed an army or a whole family!"

    食物份量增加了69%

  • Now we look at that and say,

    盤子加大了66%

  • "That's my dinner"

    連麵包也增加了26%

  • If you take a study of

    人們並沒察覺 每過個十年

  • 'The Last Supper'

    我們往盤子上越堆越多

  • we end up finding that if you look

    我拜訪住在德國的父母

  • at just depictions of 'The Last Super'

    那是我長大的地方

  • over the last 1,000 years,

    我剛好拿了個盤子在手上

  • portion sizes have increased

    我問我媽

  • 69 percent. Plate size increased 66 percent,

    「主餐的餐盤在哪?」

  • even bread size increased about 26 percent.

    「喔,你不是正拿著它嗎?」

  • People have no idea

    「不,那只是開胃菜的小盤」 「我是說主餐用的盤子」

  • that with just the passing of every decade,

    而她回答 「我們25年來都沒換過盤子呀」

  • we put more and more on our plate.

    「那就是主餐用的盤子呀」

  • I visited my parents in Germany

    住在美國超過十年後

  • where I grew up,

    我已習慣這裡的超大份量

  • and I have a plate in my hand

    但要真正了解現在的健康危機

  • and I asked my mom,

    我們必須從頭來了解

  • "Where are the dinner plates?"

    從創造金字塔的時期開始