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  • - [Instructor] So some historians have actually said

    - [教員]所以一些 史學家說

  • that The Market Revolution is more revolutionary

    市場革命 更具革命性

  • than The American Revolution.

    比美國革命。

  • Actually, this is a very classic AP-US-history question.

    其實,這是一個很 經典的AP-美國曆史問題。

  • Which was more revolutionary:

    哪個更具有革命性。

  • The American Revolution or The Market Revolution?

    美國革命 還是市場革命?

  • But how could something actually be more revolutionary

    但怎麼會有這樣的事情 其實更具有革命性

  • than The American Revolution?

    比 "美國革命 "更重要?

  • It's because The Market Revolution

    這是因為市場革命

  • was a confluence of inventions,

    是一個發明的匯合點。

  • changes in the way that the American people did business,

    變化的方式,即 美國人做生意。

  • and changes in the way that people got goods to market

    和方式的變化 銷路

  • that happened in this period from about 1790 to 1850.

    時事 大約從1790年到1850年。

  • So this is kind of a large period of history,

    所以這是一種 大的歷史時期。

  • and I don't think it's really important for you

    而且我不認為這是 對你來說很重要

  • to have a laundry list of dates of exactly when

    要有一個洗衣單 確切的日期

  • what thing was invented, but just kind of take in the idea

    什麼東西被髮明瞭,但 囫圇吞棗

  • that in the first half or so of the early 19th Century

    上半年 所以十九世紀初

  • there were many new inventions in both factory work

    新發明層出不窮 在工廠工作

  • and in transportation and communication,

    以及交通和通信領域。

  • and that how people did business changed a lot.

    而人們如何做 業務發生了很大的變化。

  • So I wanna take some time to look into

    所以我想花點時間看看

  • all three of these revolutions:

    這三場革命都是。

  • The Industrial Revolution,

    工業革命。

  • The Revolution in Transportation and Communication,

    運輸業的革命 和通信。

  • and just the broader Market Revolution.

    而只是更廣泛的市場革命。

  • So I know this is a subset of itself, but I'll get to that.

    所以我知道這是一個子集 本身,但我會得到的。

  • And in this video I wanna start out by talking

    而在這個視頻中,我想 開頭

  • about The Industrial Revolution.

    關於工業革命。

  • OK, so what was The Industrial Revolution?

    好吧,那什麼是工業革命?

  • This was, broadly speaking,

    廣義上講,這是。

  • a revolution in the kinds of machinery

    機器革命

  • that people used to make finished goods.

    人們用來製造成品的。

  • Now, if you think about the early republic

    現在,如果你想想早期的共和國

  • in the United States you often think

    在美國,你經常會想到

  • of kind of an agrarian society;

    的一種農業社會。

  • and that was how Thomas Jefferson,

    托馬斯-傑斐遜就是這樣。

  • the author of The Declaration of Independence,

    的作者。 《獨立宣言》。

  • really imagined the United States,

    真正想象中的美國。

  • as a nation of small farmers.

    作為一個小農國家。

  • But Thomas Jefferson didn't necessarily see

    但托馬斯-傑斐遜 不見得

  • all of these revolutions in industry coming.

    諸如此類 在行業來。

  • He couldn't anticipate that;

    他無法預料。

  • and so, in the 1790s, early 1800s,

    所以,在1790年代,19世紀初。

  • a bunch of new inventions came to the United States

    一堆新發明 來到美國

  • that completely revolutionized how things were made.

    徹底改變了 事情是如何產生的。

  • So in this time period the United States

    所以在這個時間段,美國

  • kinda slowly begins its transformation

    漸漸開始轉變

  • from being a nation of farmers

    從一個農民的國家

  • to a nation of people who worked for wages,

    對一個國家的人 為工資而工作的人。

  • by the hour,

    按小時計算。

  • and then used the money that they made

    然後用他們賺的錢

  • from that hourly labor to buy the things that they need.

    勞動所得 他們需要的東西。

  • So how did this happen?

    那麼,這是怎麼發生的呢?

  • One event that historians often point to is the introduction

    有一件事,歷史學家經常 指的是介紹

  • of the textile mill to the United States.

    的紡織廠到美國。

  • So this fellow here, his name is Samuel Slater,

    所以這個傢伙在這裡,他的 我的名字是塞繆爾・斯萊特

  • and Samuel Slater was an Englishman

    和塞繆爾-斯萊特是英國人

  • who worked in a textile mill.

    在紡織廠工作的人。

  • And remember that the United Kingdom was

    記住,聯合王國是

  • the world's capital of textile production in this time.

    紡織之都 在這段時間裡,生產。

  • And they were so jealous of their position

    他們是如此的嫉妒他們的地位。

  • as the world's leading textile producer

    作為全球領先的紡織品生產商

  • that they even made it illegal

    他們甚至把它定為非法

  • to export the plans for a textile mill.

    出口紡織廠的計劃。

  • Samuel Slater decided that even if it was illegal

    塞繆爾-斯萊特決定 即使是非法的

  • to export actual plans,

    以導出實際計劃。

  • it wasn't necessarily illegal to export his brain,

    未必 出口他的大腦是非法的。

  • so he decided to memorize

    所以他決定背誦

  • how these textile looms worked;

    這些紡織機是如何工作的。

  • and this is powered by a water wheel.

    而這是由水輪驅動的。

  • And then he actually got in disguise,

    然後他居然喬裝打扮了一番。

  • put himself on a ship, and came to Rhode Island

    把自己放在船上。 並來到羅德島

  • to set up a textile mill.

    創辦紡織廠。

  • In fact, people were so angry that he did this that

    事實上,人們是如此 氣得

  • in his home town he's actually known as Slater the Traitor.

    其實在他的家鄉,他是 被稱為 "叛徒斯萊特"。

  • So what was new about this?

    那麼,這有什麼新意呢?

  • Well, I think the water-wheel aspect

    我認為水輪方面

  • is really one of the key innovations here.

    是真正的關鍵創新之一。

  • So instead of being powered by humans

    所以不是由人類來驅動

  • or perhaps being powered by animals,

    或者說是被動物所驅動。

  • now American machinery can be powered by an outside source:

    現在美國機械可以 由外部電源供電。

  • so water or steam; and that means that these mills

    所以水或蒸汽;以及 這意味著,這些工廠

  • and factories later are going to kinda congregate

    和工廠以後是 將會有點兒聚眾

  • around sources of power, like rivers for example.

    圍繞動力源。 比如說像河流。

  • So if you've ever wondered why so many American cities

    所以,如果你曾經想知道 為什麼這麼多美國城市

  • are next to rivers, it's usually because

    毗鄰河流,通常是因為

  • they needed them to power mills.

    他們需要它們來驅動工廠。

  • So starting in the 1790s,

    所以從1790年代開始。

  • and really into the early 19th Century,

    並真正進入19世紀初。

  • there's this slow transformation toward factory labor.

    有這種緩慢的轉變 向工廠勞動。

  • And you can see in this image here that a lot

    而你可以看到在這個 形象

  • of the people actually laboring in these factories

    的人 廠子裡的工人

  • were women because young men kind of had a pretty good path

    是婦女,因為年輕男子 頗有章法

  • forward in life at this time period.

    在這個時間段,人生的前進。

  • They could be farmers, like their fathers;

    他們可以像他們的父輩一樣,成為農民。

  • maybe they could learn a trade.

    也許他們可以學習一門手藝。

  • But for young women there wasn't necessarily

    但對於年輕女性來說 未必

  • a form of income outside the house,

    一種家庭以外的收入形式;

  • and so a man named Charles Lowell

    於是一個叫查爾斯-洛厄爾的人

  • decided to set up a whole series

    決定建立一個完整的系列

  • of textile mills in what will be called

    紡織廠在將被稱為

  • Lowell, Massachusetts.

    馬薩諸塞州洛厄爾。

  • It's just outside of Boston.

    就在波士頓的外面。

  • And then he primarily employed young women

    然後他主要僱用年輕女性

  • to work in these textile mills.

    在這些紡織廠工作。

  • Think partly because young women

    認為部分原因是年輕女性

  • were associated with working with fabric;

    與織物工作有關。

  • women frequently did the spinning

    婦唱夫隨

  • and the sewing in the household;

    和家庭中的縫紉。

  • but also because women you could probably pay

    但也因為婦女 大不了

  • a little bit less than young men for the same kind of labor.

    略遜一籌 男人同樣的勞動。

  • So this is kind of a very slow revolution

    所以這是一場非常緩慢的革命

  • toward individual work.

    向個人工作。

  • Because as a nation of farmers,

    因為作為一個農民的國家。

  • most people would have worked in a family unit.

    大多數人都會 在一個家庭組織、部門工作。

  • And even some of the very earliest factories

    甚至一些 最早的工廠

  • in the United States would hire family units.

    在美國 會僱用家庭組織、部門。

  • It was known as the Rhode Island System.

    它被稱為羅德島系統。

  • By this time, by Lowell's mills,

    這時,由洛威爾的工廠。

  • he started hiring individual workers for individual wages.

    他開始僱用個人 勞動者個人工資。

  • And the working conditions were pretty brutal.

    工作條件 是相當殘酷的。

  • Most women at the Lowell mills worked

    洛威爾工廠的大多數婦女都在

  • 12-hour days with no air conditioning,

    每天12小時,沒有空調。

  • remember, this is long before there's air conditioning,

    記住,這是在很久以前 有空調。

  • for pretty low wages.

    為相當低的工資。

  • I'd say probably about three dollars a week.

    我想說的是,大概 每週三美元。

  • But despite the pretty harsh conditions,

    但儘管條件相當惡劣。

  • for many of them this was a really good opportunity

    對他們中的許多人來說,這是 良機

  • 'cause this was the first time in their lives

    因為這是 生平第一次

  • they'd ever had any chance to make money of their own,

    他們是否有機會 來賺取自己的錢。

  • to be away from their families.

    要遠離家人。

  • It's kind of expected that if you were a young woman

    這是一種預期 如果你是一個年輕的女人

  • in Massachusetts you wanted to go work in the Lowell mills.

    在馬薩諸塞州,你想 去洛威爾工廠工作

  • You could go there for a few years of your life,

    你可以去那裡 你生命中的幾年。

  • make a little bit of money,

    賺點小錢。

  • and then go back to your hometown, meet someone,

    然後回到你的 故鄉,遇到一個人。

  • get married, start a family of your own.

    結婚,建立自己的家庭。

  • So if kinda makes work for women

    所以如果有點讓女人工作

  • outside the home respectable.

    在家門口受人尊敬。

  • And textile production is going to continue

    紡織生產 將會繼續

  • to ramp up in the United States.

    以加緊在美國。

  • In the late 1840s

    19世紀40年代末

  • a man named Elias Howe

    一個叫以利亞-豪的人

  • invents a really excellent sewing machine.

    發明了一種非常優秀的縫紉機。

  • He's not the first man ever to invent a sewing machine.

    他不是第一個男人 以發明縫紉機。

  • There were versions of them stretching back

    還有一些版本的 綿延

  • to think even the 1750s,

    以為即使是1750年代。

  • but Howe's sewing machine brought together

    但豪氏的縫紉機卻能將其整合在一起。

  • a lot of different capacities that made it

    很多不同的能力,使它

  • kinda the best sewing machine.

    算是最好的縫紉機了。

  • And it will be even further refined by Isaac Singer,

    而且還會更進一步 由艾薩克-辛格完善。

  • who we associate today with the Singer Sewing Machine.

    今天我們所聯繫的人 Singer縫紉機。

  • And so these massive textile mills

    所以這些大型紡織廠

  • really become the backbone of New England commerce.

    當家作主 新英格蘭商業的。

  • But, they never would have gotten started

    但是,他們永遠不會開始

  • without another invention, which was the cotton gin.

    沒有另一個發明。 這就是軋棉機。

  • And the cotton gin was invented by Eli Whitney in 1793.

    軋棉機也被髮明出來了 由Eli Whitney於1793年。

  • And what's important about the cotton gin,

    而棉紡紗重要的是什麼。

  • so here's the gin, and basically it's kind of a box

    所以這裡的杜松子酒,和 基本上是個盒子

  • with some spikes on it that allows you to take

    帶刺 允許你採取

  • these balls of cotton and separate them from the seeds.

    這些棉球和 將它們與種子分開。

  • And separating cotton from the seeds

    並將棉花與種子分離

  • was an extremely labor-intensive process.

    是一個極其耗費人力的過程。

  • If you've never held a ball of cotton,

    如果你從來沒有拿過棉花球。

  • it's extremely sticky, so you kinda have to wade through

    它的粘性很強,所以你 頗有涉獵

  • the little bits of cotton, pull out these seeds.

    棉花的小塊。 拔出這些種子。

  • It takes forever.

    它需要永遠。

  • And so an average day's work would not produce

    所以平均每天的 工作不會產生

  • all that much cotton that was ready for market.

    漫山遍野 是準備上市的。

  • Well, Whitney completely revolutionizes this

    嗯,惠特尼完全 革新了這

  • with the cotton gin.

    與棉布琴。

  • These little spikes help separate

    這些小釘子有助於分離

  • the cotton seeds from the cotton ball,

    棉球上的棉籽。

  • and revolutionizes how much cotton can be produced

    並革新瞭如何 產棉量

  • by a single person in a single day.

    由一個人在一天內。

  • Whitney's cotton gin made it possible for a single person

    惠特尼的軋棉機使它 孤掌難鳴

  • to process 50 pounds of cotton in a single day,

    處理50磅的 棉花在一天內。

  • which is just an order of magnitude more

    也就是多了一個數量級

  • than they were able to do beforehand.

    比他們之前能夠做到的。

  • This is really interesting 'cause it had

    這真的很有趣,因為它有

  • kind of a massive human cost in the form

    一種巨大的人力成本的形式

  • of really bolstering the institution of slavery

    真正的支持 奴隸制

  • in the American South because when farming cotton

    在美洲南方 因為在種植棉花時

  • was so labor-intensive it really wasn't very profitable;

    費力不討好 真的不是很賺錢。

  • and so the institution of slavery was actually

    於是,該機構 奴隸制實際上是

  • starting to die out a little bit.

    開始一點點消亡。

  • Before the 1790s people were saying:

    在1790年代之前,人們都在說。

  • "Eh, I don't know if it's actually worth it to keep slaves."

    "誒,我不知道是不是? 其實值得保留奴隸。"

  • So if it weren't for the cotton gin,

    所以,如果不是因為軋棉機。

  • the United States might actually have outlawed slavery

    美國可能 其實已經取締了奴隸制

  • considerably earlier than it ended up doing in the 1860s.

    早於 最終在19世紀60年代做。

  • So it's interesting to note that even though these

    所以很有意思的是 注意到儘管這些

  • inventions really changed the fabric of American society,

    發明真正改變了世界 美國社會的結構。

  • allowed some people to earn money

    允許一些人賺錢

  • who had never been able to earn money before,

    一直以來 來掙錢前。

  • it also meant that the institution of slavery

    這也意味著 奴隸制

  • was really entrenched in the United States

    在美國真正紮根

  • and would only continue to expand until the 1860s.

    並且只會繼續 以擴大到19世紀60年代。

  • So that's a little bit of a peak into

    所以,這是一個小高峰到

  • the human cost of The Industrial Revolution.

    的人力成本 工業革命。

  • And we'll get more into what some of those costs were

    而我們將得到更多關於 其中一些費用是

  • and what some of the benefits were in the next video.

    的好處是什麼? 是在下一個視頻。

- [Instructor] So some historians have actually said

- [教員]所以一些 史學家說

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 工廠 美國 縫紉機 奴隸制 棉花 工作

美國市場革命 (The Market Revolution )

  • 20 3
    Amy.Lin 發佈於 2017 年 10 月 21 日
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